What is Toxicity: Definition and 19 Discussions

Toxicity is the degree to which a chemical substance or a particular mixture of substances can damage an organism. Toxicity can refer to the effect on a whole organism, such as an animal, bacterium, or plant, as well as the effect on a substructure of the organism, such as a cell (cytotoxicity) or an organ such as the liver (hepatotoxicity). By extension, the word may be metaphorically used to describe toxic effects on larger and more complex groups, such as the family unit or society at large. Sometimes the word is more or less synonymous with poisoning in everyday usage.
A central concept of toxicology is that the effects of a toxicant are dose-dependent; even water can lead to water intoxication when taken in too high a dose, whereas for even a very toxic substance such as snake venom there is a dose below which there is no detectable toxic effect. Considering the limitations of this dose-response concept, a novel Drug Toxicity Index (DTI) has been proposed recently. DTI redefines drug toxicity, identifies hepatotoxic drugs, gives mechanistic insights, predicts clinical outcomes and has potential as a screening tool. Toxicity is species-specific, making cross-species analysis problematic. Newer paradigms and metrics are evolving to bypass animal testing, while maintaining the concept of toxicity endpoints.

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  1. Y

    Does G10 Material in Pocket Knives Pose a Cancer Risk?

    I have been looking at pocket knives, seems like all the ones with G10 handle scales have a warning about cancer. This is a very typical pocket knife. https://www.chicagoknifeworks.com/steel-will-cutjack-c22m-linerlock-od/ You see the cancer warning message? The rest of the knife is all...
  2. nomadreid

    Medical Toxicity for fetuses during 2-vaccine 2009/2010 season?

    The article https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3888271/ claims (if I read it correctly) that there was an unusual increase in fetal deaths reported via the VAERS reporting system (which, it must be said, anybody can report, so the data there has to be taken with a grain of salt-- but...
  3. N

    How dangerous is exposure to chromium-6?

    Hello! I have recently become interested in purchasing some pastels, but I realized they contain a chemical called "Hexavalent chromium" or "chromium-6". I was wondering if this actually poses a threat to my well-being, considering there is a page about it here. P.S. This may not exactly belong...
  4. D

    What data do toxicologists collect and how?

    I am woundering if there are any toxicologists on this forum so I could ask some questions (If they don't mind). For example, what data do you record on a day-to-day basis, how is it recorded and how it is made traceable. I have a rough idea, however I am not certain as I can't find anything on...
  5. DaveC426913

    B How Dangerous is Plutonium in Real Life?

    All the best science comes from TV shows, right? I just watched an ep of "Timeless", a new series about time traveling hijinks. In this ep, they want back to the Nevada bomb tests of 1962 and stole a plutonium core of what looked like the Fat Man atomic bomb. They brazenly took the ~4 inch...
  6. Janson Raymond Kenny

    Acetic Acid + Ammonium Hydroxide Vapours

    Hi! I work in the movie business doing Special Effects. To create smoke for some effects we use "A+B Smoke." It is simply a mix of Acetic Acid (Part A) and Ammonium Hydroxide (Part B). However, the smoke effects is created when the VAPOURS of these 2 chemicals mix in the air. The MSDS Safety...
  7. B

    Is bismuth safe to handle (touching, carrying it around....)?

    I recently received a 200g sample of pure (99.99%) bismuth for my little element collection. This thing is so cool! It was all broken in pieces and almost powdered, so i melted it into a beautiful ingot using my kitchen stove. Is this metal safe to touch and/or handle with bare, unprotected...
  8. Calpalned

    Metal Toxicity: Handling Cobalt and Tungsten Safely without Gloves

    Is it safe to not use a glove to handle a small block of pure cobalt metal? Is a pure tungsten rod safe too? Are there any long term effects? Thank you so much.
  9. S

    Oxygen toxicity and Hyperbaric Chambers

    First post here guys. Very quick background which brings me to the question i have. My trade background is in the automotive industry as a mechanic, mines as a drill fitter, hobbies include flying, cars and scuba diving. Just recently i have changed career paths again, and will be...
  10. A

    Urethane-acrylate lacquer toxicity

    I am not a chemist but do have a concern regarding a coating that is applied to a linoleum flooring product likely soon to be used in my bedroom. Linoleum is the least toxic flooring type I could identify, suitable for the room in question. However, despite being made of 'natural' materials...
  11. B

    Toxicity in reactions between liquid paraffin and polyurethane/polyethylene

    Hello, Would putting liquid paraffin (C_{n}H_{2n + 2}) in either a polyurethane or polyethylene bladder (such as a camelbak hydration bladder) create any compounds that have a higher toxicity than that of paraffin itself? I know that all petroleum distillates act as weak solvents and I'm...
  12. K

    Manganese Toxicity: Investigating Molecular & Systems Level Changes

    I've done a bit of reading about manganese toxicity recently, and I was just wondering if anyone had anything to contribute about this topic. It seems evident from the research I've read that excess manganese (ingested or inhaled) is linked to problems in the nervous system similar to...
  13. G

    EFSA-approved GMO cause hepatoreneal toxicity

    Here I found a scientific article in the International Journal of Biological Sciences concerning a study on rodents fed with genetically modified organisms. Two of the GMOs, MON 863 and NK603, are approved by the European Food Safety Authority. Here are the links...
  14. O

    How dangerous is plutonium ingestion?

    First Post, Great Site. Appreciate your ideas! We always hear that plutonium is the most toxic material on earth. The reasoning as I understand it, is that plutonium oxide has many particles which are in the 0.1 micron or so range. Particles of this size are not removed from the lungs very...
  15. C

    Synthesis and toxicity of hydrazine

    I have a few questions about the synthesis and toxicity of hydrazine (N2H4). First of all, is it possible to synthesize hydrazine under a fume hood by mixing concentrated ammonia, sodium hypochlorite (bleach), and a gellatinous material (gelatin?)? I have read that high temperatures and high...
  16. rohanprabhu

    Is Indigo Carmine Toxic in Strepsils?

    When I checked the wikipedia page for Indigo Carmine, the article there says : "Indigo carmine is harmful to the respiratory tract if swallowed. It is also an irritant to the skin and eyes.". But on a Streplis pack, menthol flavour it says: "Contains permitted colours: Indigo Carmine". If...
  17. C

    How does water toxicity occur in extreme situations?

    My teacher used a couple examples of real life water intoxication and his description of these evensts left me a little confused. One event he mentioned was a marathon on a cloudy, cold day where the runners were drinking despite the fact that they weren't sweating. My understanding was...
  18. O

    Toxicity - Superglue (cyanoacrylate) used to cover cut skin.

    Steve Harris, M.D. The above doctor's quote suggests that Cyanoacrylate adhesives (Super Glue, Krazy Glue) may be used to cover cuts. He suggests that it is non-toxic, but I am skeptical. I heard of this before and wanted to recommend this to someone who cut their finger and plays a...
  19. S

    Exploring the Impact of Jealousy on Our Lives

    Hi, When considering all the various emotions that we as people demonstrate, Jealousy seems to me to be the most counter productive. As an energy it is self destructive and very corrupting. Jealousy is not just restricted to it's usual context but can be seen in so many ways...