What is Synthesis: Definition and 166 Discussions

In chemistry, chemical synthesis (or combination) is the artificial execution of useful chemical reactions to obtain one or several products. This occurs by physical and chemical manipulations usually involving one or more reactions. In modern laboratory uses, the process is reproducible and reliable.
A chemical synthesis involves one or more compounds (known as reagents or reactants) that will undergo a transformation when subjected to certain conditions. Various reaction types can be applied to formulate a desired product. This requires mixing the compounds in a reaction vessel, such as a chemical reactor or a simple round-bottom flask. Many reactions require some form of work-up or purification procedure to isolate the final product.The amount produced in chemical synthesis is known as the reaction yield. Typically, yields are expressed as a mass in grams (in a laboratory setting) or as a percentage of the total theoretical quantity that could be produced based on the limiting reagent. A side reaction is an unwanted chemical reaction taking place which reduces the desired yield. The word synthesis was first used by the chemist Hermann Kolbe.

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  1. Lachlan

    Chemistry Synthesis of Caffeine from Theobromine

    Most of what I'm going off is from this article here - https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0187893X15720926#bib0115. This presents methyl iodide as safer than dimethyl sulphate, which is true and helpful, but not safe enough for me to be able to use it at school. I understand its...
  2. Astronuc

    Tetrataenite - L1[sub]0[/sub]-type FeNi

    Tetrataenite is one of the mineral phases found in meteoric iron. Various groups are attempting to synthesize on a commercial scale to replace REE-based magnets. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tetrataenite...
  3. dcolt319

    Can Gold Oxalate Be Synthesized Using Oxalic Acid and Gold (III) Chloride?

    Hello, I'm trying to find a way to form gold oxalate. I'm wondering if anyone has any information on reacting oxalic acid with gold (III) chloride. The literature on this reaction is quite sparse, and I'm curious if simply combining aqueous solutions of the salt and acid would precipitate the...
  4. F

    A What is a Bern model in planetary population synthesis?

    Hello. I'm writing my Master Thesis about planetary population synthesis and one of the chapters is about the different models. I found that most of them are Bern models with some modifications. What is a Bern model in planetary population synthesis and what references can I read about it...
  5. samy4408

    Medical Question about the synthesis of fatty acids

    Hello , in the course of fatty acids synthesis the professor said that after the repetition of the cycle 7 times we end up with a 16 carbon chain and he added that all the carbons came from acetyl-COA except for one . i didn't understand the last one , what is the carbon that don't come from...
  6. mohamed_a

    I Polarizing filter synthesis and dynamics

    I have found a fair amount of sources for studying polarized light but I haven't found sources discussing synthesis of polarizers in detail along with mechanistic discussion.
  7. C

    Why do ants need to sleep (is it because of ATP synthesis?)

    I read that "Ants Get Their Sleep Through Power Naps. A recent study of ants' sleep cycle found that the average worker ant takes approximately 250 naps each day, with each one lasting just over a minute. That adds up to 4 hours and 48 minutes of sleep per day." But why do ants need to sleep...
  8. F

    A Cross correlations with 2 probes: Approximation of a 2D + 3D synthesis

    I am interested, in the context of my work, in the cross correlations between a spectroscopic probe (which gives a 3D distribution of galaxies with redshifts, which is also called spectroscopic Galaxy clustering, GCsp) and a photometric probe (which gives an angular distribution, that is to say...
  9. VictorMedvil

    Synthesis of Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles Coated in Graphene Oxide

    I wanted to know the finer details of synthesis of Titanium Oxide Nano-particles coated in Graphene Oxide, what exactly does creation of these nano-particles entail?
  10. Physics lover

    Chemistry Corey house synthesis for alkenes

    I know mechanism and working of gilmann reagent with carbonyl compounds containing halogen but here there is no halogen.I really don't know how shall i proceed.Please help.
  11. Ygggdrasil

    Synthesis of a re-designed E. coli genome

    All organism on Earth use a genetic code consisting of 64 three-letter codons to encode the 20 amino acids found in proteins. Scientists in the field of synthetic biology have long sought to expand the genetic code to allow encoding of more than 20 natural amino acids found in most organisms...
  12. N

    Carbon nanotubes from human-crafted nanopores?

    Would it be feasible to synthesize carbon nanotubes from a carbon gas source that had passed through a man crafted nanopores (nanoholes, nanochannels), the outflowing end of which is covered with a catalyst? This artificial membrane would separate gas source chamber from a product chamber...
  13. J

    Synthesis of Coordination Compounds and the Role of Charcoal

    Homework Statement I performed a lab that has the main objective of reacting a cobalt(II) chloride solution through a series of steps to achieve the following two compounds: Compound A - Purple - [Co(NH3)5Cl]Cl2 Compound B - Orange - [Co(NH3)6]Cl3 The only difference when performing the...
  14. rude man

    Insights A Simplified Synthesis of Financial Options Pricing - Comments

    Greg Bernhardt submitted a new PF Insights post A Simplified Synthesis of Financial Options Pricing Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  15. K

    Process Control/Direct Synthesis

    Homework Statement Hi everyone, I am so stuck in this one homework problem. Any help is greatly appreciated The question asks to use direct synthesis to design a controller for the transfer function below. The desire closed loop time constant is 1 Homework Equations (-s+1)*e^(-s)/(5*s+1)^2...
  16. alphaj

    Chemistry ORGO: What does it mean when a molecule is 'quenched?'

    Homework Statement n/a Homework Equations n/a The Attempt at a Solution n/a Just a question. I keep seeing that in SN2 reactions, sometimes a molecule is quenched by H2O or H3O. I've seen it turn an O- into an OH and also a heteroatom into an H. What exactly is going on here?
  17. J

    Could UV lasers be used to split CO2 and H2O?

    I was wondering whether intense UV light, tuned to the correct wavelength, could be used to split carbon dioxide and water molecules as a first step towards synthesizing liquid fuels.
  18. BillTre

    Prebiotic Synthesis of Ribonucleotides

    Most current theories of the origin of life assume that RNA arose first, before DNA. One of the major challenges to this theory is where the ribonucleotides can from. A recent article (Nature Communications 8: 15270; Divergent prebiotic synthesis of pyrimidine and 8-oxo-purine nucleotides)...
  19. V

    Ferrites and Size, synthesis methods

    hello, what is the underlying factor for the samples of Cobalt Ferrites prepared from different synthesis methods to have a different crystallite size...( Chemical Coprecipitation, Sol gel, ceramic method) ..What does the fuel, have to do with the crsytallite size... What is the difference...
  20. N

    Synthesis with a boiling toluene

    Hello everyone in a synthesis, they mixed oleylamine with a boiling solution of toluene for 2hours they didn't mention if it's with reflux or not ! i don't know if it doesn't represent any harmful consequence even in fume hood
  21. M

    How Should One Learn Synthetic Chemistry and Predict Reaction Pathways?

    Hello. I am trying to learn about synthetic chemistry, which I have so far found rather difficult to learn without guidance. So, in reality this is two questions, which I think are most appropriate to include together. First, can you provide an order that I should learn topics of synthetic...
  22. G

    MHB Number Theory for Electronic Signal Frequency Synthesis

    I am new to this forum. I am an electrical engineer designing frequency synthesizers for electronic test and measurement equipment. I have a design problem and I think that number theory could help me solve it. I'm not a mathematician, so I will state the problem the best I can. Definitions...
  23. J

    Actually new subject: Mesitylene/Trimesic Acid -> Benzene

    I have been trying to come up with a way to get from some small carbon molecules (C2,C3) to benzene, or its singly substituted friends like phenol, aniline, or benzoic acid. I stumbled upon a trimerization of acetone to mesitylene (3 C3H7O --> C6H3(CH3)3 + 3H2O) which can be oxidized (via...
  24. T

    B Gold Synthesis in Supernovae: What Form Does It Take and Under What Conditions?

    Do we know a what stage of a supernova gold is synthesized? And when the gold is ejected, are we talking about pebble size chunks of gold or mostly dust that later coalesce?
  25. A

    Organic Chemistry: Sn2 Reactions - proposing a synthesis

    Homework Statement Propose a given synthesis of each of the following compounds starting with 1-butene a) 2-chlorobutane b) 2-methoxybutane c) 2-butanamine d) 2-butene (mixture of cis and trans) e) butane The attempt at a solution I have the structures for 1-butene, as well as each of the...
  26. J

    Synthesis of DF (Deuterium FLuoride)

    Hello All, I am wondering if anyone knows a good synthesis for DF. I am trying to create a deuterated crystal for neutron diffraction studies (it is a hydrated crystal). The synthesis involves water and HF. I can buy D2O for the synthesis, but DF in D2O is a problem. If anyone can enlighten me...
  27. P

    Synthesizing Ethylene: C2H6O2 + 2Na → 2(CH2)

    I'm trying to get a hold of Ethylene, but because of it's properties it's not sold commercially, so I'm trying to find a way to synthesize it. The closest thing I can find to synthesize it is Ethylene glycol I'm pretty sure I could add Na as so C2H6O2 + 2Na → 2(CH2) + 2(NaOH) The problem is then...
  28. P

    Organic chem2 - Synthesis of 1-chloro-3-ethyl-5-nitrobenzene

    Homework Statement Synthesize 1-chloro-3-ethyl-5-nitrobenzene. Assume you have benzene, chloroethane, acetyl chloride, NaCl, Cl2, AlCl3, FeCl3, NH2NH2, Zn, KOH, HNO3, H2SO4, and HCl. Homework Equations none. The Attempt at a Solution I started with benzene. I did a Friedel-crafts on...
  29. Suraj M

    Williamsons ether synthesis (rate)

    Homework Statement Which will undergo faster Williamson ether syntehsis It was either faster or better, I'm not sure A)3-Chlorobutan-1-ene B)1-Bromobutane Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I thought option A because of its alylic position it will form a stable carbocation (and...
  30. S

    Creating YBCO: Melting Down and Doping for Superconductivity

    Once synthesized, can YBCO be melted down to add more material or change the doping and still result in a functional superconductor?
  31. gfd43tg

    Direct synthesis of a controller (plus simulink modeling)

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Part (a) Starting with the formula $$ g_{c} = \frac {g_{CL}}{g_{p}(1-g_{CL})} $$ The controller transfer function is determined, $$ g_{c} = \frac { \frac {1}{\lambda s + 1}}{\frac {k_{p}}{(\tau_{p1}s+1)(\tau_{p2}s+1)} - \frac...
  32. Lotic7

    Thiophene synthesis using H2S, HCl, and 1,4 diketone

    I had this synthesis question on my last midterm and got it wrong. I was wondering if someone here could point me in the right direction. It is a thiophene synthesis that starts off with a 1,4 diketone, but instead of P2S5 or Lawesson's reagent, H2S and HCl are used. I tried to hydrate one of...
  33. chad kimsey

    Strong reduction of organic acid group

    I've been thumbing back through my organic synthesis book to try and remember how to reduce a carboxylic functional group. I know how to do partial reduction to primary alcohols, or create aldehydes and or acyl halides. But isn't there a way to completely reduce it all the way to a hydrocarbon...
  34. gracy

    Protein synthesis in an animal cell takes place

    protein synthesis in an animal cell takes place (a)in the cytoplasm as well as mitochondria (b)only on ribosome attached to nucleus (c)only in the cytoplasm (d)in the nucleolus as well as in the cytoplasm some sites suggest option (a)is correct and some site says option d is correct. Which is...
  35. H

    Would synthesis of Acetylcholine make photons?

    the Neurotransmitter Acetylcholine (ACh) has 1 less electron for its Nitrogen (N), I think it gives it to Chlorine (Cl) so when an electron in one energy orbit goes into a new atom at a different energy orbit, would the difference of energy level (the Photon) radiate outward? After all the...
  36. R

    Wavelets vs disadvantages of Fourier Analysis and Synthesis?

    I am a beginner. The Fourier series, Fourier Transform and it's inverse play very important role in Fourier Analysis and Fourier Synthesis. I have read that Fourier transform is localised in only frequency domain.Also,it contains information about the signal in phase and frequency spectrum...
  37. M

    Synthesis of a four bar linkage with a ternary couplar

    Hi there! Currently i am trying to design a four bar linkage for a bicycle rear shock. You can find this linkage at here http://ffden-2.phys.uaf.edu/211_fall2010.web.dir/Michael_Stanfill/VirtualPivot.html This linkage is called virtual pivot point. Critical part of this design is to achieve a...
  38. T

    Minimum Speed for Balsa Cube Tipping Problem

    A solid balsa cube of side length L = 16.0” and mass M = 8.60 kg is at rest on a horizontal table top. It is constrained to rotate about a fixed and frictionless axis, AB, along one edge of the cube. A bullet of mass m = 50.0 g is fired with speed v at the other side of the cube, at height a =...
  39. MexChemE

    Equilibrium of ammonia synthesis

    Homework Statement In order to obtain commercial conversion levels in the production of ammonia, reactors operate between a pressure range from 150 to 300 atm, and a temperature range from 700 to 750 K. Calculate the mole fraction of N2 when the reaction reaches equilibrium at 300 atm and 723...
  40. S

    Polymerization of acrylamide with K Persulfate without Bis

    Hi! I recently did a lab where my group was to create a polymer via free-radical polymerization. We used acrylamide and potassium persulfate. We DID NOT use bis acrylamide crosslinker ( wasnt in our lab manual for some reason.) I cannot find any web resources that show how acrylamide...
  41. S

    Organic Chemistry - Synthesis of Lidocaine

    In lab we had to synthesize lidocaine, and one of the steps involved reacting a-chloro-2,6-dimethylacetanilide with diethylamine to form lidocaine. My professor told us that diethylamine-HCl crystals would form and these would help us determine the lidocaine yield (since they form at a 1:1 mole...
  42. R

    Organic Chemistry: Alkyne Synthesis and Addition Homework Solution

    Homework Statement http://i.imgur.com/1tKcV5w.jpg?1 First we start with ____ and immediately add ____ followed by ____ work up to give the new functional group____ . Then treatment with ____ and ____ will give____ (syn / anti) addition to give the ____ (stereochemistry)____ (functional group)...
  43. C

    Reaction kinetics for reppe synthesis of propionic acid

    I need help finding the kinetics(rate laws) of this process. I've been searching for close to a week and can't seem to find them. It the carbonylation of ethylene to produce propionic acid(pretty much any variant of the process will do). I have access to my schools publication library so the...
  44. M

    Organometallic Chemistry -- Multistep synthesis question

    1. Question Start with a organometallic (Benzene)M(Co)3see picture below) and React it with R- to get A, Then react A with I2 to get B and react A with H+ to get C. What is A,B and C? 3. Attempt at answering the question. I am not sure about the hapticity of Benzene. ? But i am prety sure...
  45. S

    What is the Acid Used in Strecker Amino Acid Synthesis?

    In Stecker aminoacid synthesis, a cyanide is supplied in salt form that protonates at the beggining: NH4Cl + NaCN = NH3 + HCN + NaCl (Info source - http://www.organic-chemistry.org/namedreactions/strecker-synthesis.shtm) That seems okay, because HCN is weak acid. According to the source, the...
  46. T

    Synthesizing Diphenyl Oxalate: Esterification of Phenol and Oxalic Acid

    How do I esterify phenol and oxalic acid to make diphenyl oxalate. P.S. My initial researches using google have yielded no results.
  47. B

    Accurately and Quickly Interpreting NMR/IR Spectra

    In examining the IR spectrum, I noted that there were peaks for CH2-x where x is bromine, methylene (2 peaks) and a peak corresponding to a methyl group; I concluded that I've synthesized n-bromobutane. Is the method I used to interpret my spectra sound? *CDCl3 was the IR solvent In addition...
  48. avito009

    Protein Synthesis: Is it a Vicious Circle?

    Is Protein Synthesis a vicious circle? When we take proteins they are converted to amino acids. But during protein synthesis amino acids are converted to proteins. Is this correct and in a sense its a vicious circle.
  49. A

    Why Are Specific Solvents Chosen for Sn2/Sn1, E2, and E1 Reactions?

    Hi all, I was looking at the answers in my textbook. They seem to make incongruent choices of solvents. In e) and j), why choose EtOH and H2O/CH3OH? I would rather choose an aprotic solvent like DMF to better allow Sn2 to occur. Especially with j), there is a lot of competition with E2...