# Circuit design, 2 equations, 3 unknowns

• Engineering
• quaker
In summary, the conversation involves working with a circuit to design an ambient light meter. The steps given include solving for the gain and V1, as well as solving for V2 using NVA. The equations given for V1 and V2 seem to be correct based on simulation in PSpice. The given known values include Vee, R1, and the conditions for V2 when different values of Rphoto are used. With two equations and three unknowns, the conversation discusses deriving a third equation and using voltage-divider for V1. The conversation then moves on to discussing how to solve for R2, R3, and R7, with suggestions to use the feedback loop for the second opamp or attribute an arbitrary value to
quaker
I'm working with this circuit to design an ambient light meter.
http://img201.imageshack.us/img201/6479/cktyu0.jpg

We were given steps to go about solving for different values of the components in the circuit.

First we're to solve for the gain and thus V1 which I found to be
$$V_1=\frac{-R1}{(Rphoto+R7)}*Vee$$

Then we're to solve for V2, which I found by NVA:
$$V_2 = \frac{R3*V1+R2*Vee}{(R3+R2)}$$

I don't think there is anything wrong with either of those equations, as I've verified that they give the correct voltages when simulating the circuit in PSpice.The given\known values in the circuit are Vee=-10V, R1=1k and the condition when Rphoto=400, V2 = 8V and when Rphoto=10k, V2=0V

$$8 = \frac{R3*\frac{-1000 \Omega}{(400 \Omega+R7)}*-10+R2*-10}{(R3+R2)}$$
and
$$0 = \frac{R3*\frac{-1000 \Omega}{(10000 \Omega+R7)}*-10+R2*-10}{(R3+R2)}$$With those 2 equations, I am to deduce values for R2, R3, and R7, which I can't seem to do having only the 2 equations. Can anyone push me in the right direction? Thanks.

Last edited by a moderator:
Since there are two equations and three unknowns, i would derive the third equation. For instance, derive an equation that defines the relation between V2 and output.

Hmm, which output? I'm not sure I see another equation for V2 that includes those unknown resistors.

Hmm, now I'm completely lost. How did you derive the last two equations? Another question, you're using voltage-divider for v1, how come there are no R1 in the denominator?

P.S I was talking about writing a equ. for the feedback loop for the second opamp.

The last 2 equations are simply V2 with the known values plugged in. As for V1, I solved that by analyzing the left-most op-amp by itself.

Using nva:

$$\frac{0-Vee}{(Rphoto+R7)} + 0 + \frac{0-V_1}{R1}=0$$
$$\frac{-Vee}{(Rphoto+R7)} = \frac{V_1}{R1}$$
$$\therefore \frac{-R1}{(Rphoto+R7)}*Vee=V_1$$

I went on to solve for V2 in a similar manner.

I was able to solve my original problem at school this afternoon. It turns out that R7 can be solved for directly by combining the two V2 conditional equations, and then the other values are fairly trivial to find.

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I was about to propose the same thing, but i thought that you've already tried it.

If you have more unknowns than equations, you can attribute an arbitrary value to one of the unknowns and solve for the other two.
Since R7 is in series with Rphoto, it must not be much greater than the minimum value of Rphoto nor much smaller than its maximum value. A good guess would be the geometrical mean between 400 and 10000.

That looks like one of the designs I had to do in my engineering courses as an undergrad. What school do you go to?

## 1. What is a circuit design?

A circuit design is a diagram or plan that shows the connections between various electronic components in a circuit. It is used to create a functioning electrical circuit that can perform a specific task.

## 2. Can you give an example of a circuit design?

Yes, an example of a circuit design is a simple flashlight circuit, which consists of a battery, a switch, and a light bulb connected in a series.

## 3. What are 2 equations that can be used in circuit design?

Two commonly used equations in circuit design are Ohm's Law (V=IR) and Kirchhoff's Laws (KCL and KVL). These equations help determine the relationships between voltage, current, and resistance in a circuit.

## 4. How do you solve for 3 unknowns in a circuit design?

To solve for 3 unknowns in a circuit design, you can use simultaneous equations. This involves setting up equations based on the known values and applying Ohm's Law and Kirchhoff's Laws to solve for the unknown variables.

## 5. What are some common challenges in circuit design with 2 equations and 3 unknowns?

Some common challenges in circuit design with 2 equations and 3 unknowns include dealing with non-linear components, such as diodes and transistors, and ensuring that the circuit is properly balanced to avoid any errors in the calculations.

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