# Predicting Precipitates: A Double Displacement Homework Exercise

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In summary, solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve in another substance to form a homogeneous mixture. It is affected by factors such as temperature, pressure, and the nature of the solute and solvent. A precipitate is a solid that forms when the concentration of a solute exceeds its solubility limit. To increase solubility, one can adjust temperature, pressure, or the nature of the solvent, or add a solute that reduces intermolecular bonds. Solubility and concentration are related, but not the same, as concentration also takes into account other factors such as temperature and pressure.
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## Homework Statement

Which of the following combinations of compounds will produce a precipitate?

1. Barium hydroxide and ammonium phosphate
2. Silver nitrate and potassium acetate
3. Copper(I) sulfate and sodium chloride

## Homework Equations

Double displacement.

## The Attempt at a Solution

1. ##3(Ba(OH)_2 )_{aq} + 2((NH_4)_3 PO_4)_{aq} → Ba_3((PO_4 )_2)_{s} + 6(NH_4 OH)_{aq}##

The solid precipitate formed will be barium phosphate.

2. This one I'm a bit unsure about because of the potassium acetate.

##(AgNO_3)_{aq} + (KC_2H_3O_2)_{aq} → (AgC_2H_3O_2)_{s} + (KNO_3)_{aq}##

The solid precipitate formed will be silver acetate.

3. ##(Cu_2SO_4)_{aq} + 2(NaCl)_{aq} → 2(CuCl)_{s} + (Na_2SO_4)_{aq}##

The sold precipitate formed will be copper(I) chloride.

Do these look okay? I want to make sure I'm doing these properly.

Yes, your solutions look correct. In double displacement reactions, the positive ions in each compound switch places to form new compounds. If one of the new compounds formed is insoluble, it will precipitate out of solution. This is why barium phosphate, silver acetate, and copper(I) chloride all form precipitates in the given reactions. Good job!

## What is solubility?

Solubility refers to the ability of a substance (solute) to dissolve in another substance (solvent) to form a homogeneous mixture. It is typically measured in terms of the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a specific temperature and pressure.

## What factors affect solubility?

The solubility of a substance is affected by factors such as temperature, pressure, and the nature of the solute and solvent. Generally, solubility increases with higher temperature and decreases with higher pressure. The polarity of the solute and solvent also plays a role, as polar substances tend to dissolve in polar solvents and nonpolar substances tend to dissolve in nonpolar solvents.

## What is a precipitate?

A precipitate is a solid that forms in a solution when two or more substances react chemically. It usually forms when the concentration of a solute exceeds its solubility limit, causing the excess solute to come out of solution and form a solid. Precipitates can also form when the solvent evaporates, leaving behind the solute.

## How can you increase the solubility of a substance?

The solubility of a substance can be increased by increasing the temperature, decreasing the pressure, or changing the nature of the solvent. Adding a solute that interacts with the solute in a way that reduces its ability to form intermolecular bonds can also increase solubility. For example, adding a salt can increase the solubility of a nonpolar substance in water.

## How does solubility relate to the concentration of a solution?

Solubility and concentration are related, but they are not the same. Solubility refers to the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent, while concentration refers to the amount of solute present in a given amount of solution. Solubility can be used to calculate the concentration of a solution, but other factors such as temperature and pressure also play a role in determining the concentration of a solution.

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