Pressure and temperature -- the effects of one upon the other

• cGibson
In summary, the correlation between pressure and temperature is dependent on the equation of state of the material.
cGibson
Greetings,

I get that increased temperature increases pressure. But does increased pressure increase temperature. For example: 1) If I press down on a table with a heavy object, does it increase its temperature. 2) Or does the pressure of the crust and the mantle of the Earth, contribute to the increase of the temperature of the core?

Thanks!

cGibson said:
I get that increased temperature increases pressure. But does increased pressure increase temperature. For example: 1) If I press down on a table with a heavy object, does it increase its temperature. 2) Or does the pressure of the crust and the mantle of the Earth, contribute to the increase of the temperature of the core?
You should probably discard the idea of cause and effect here. It is not necessary and is a hindrance to understanding.

All other things being equal, there is a correlation between pressure and temperature in an ideal gas. If temperature is higher, pressure must be higher. If pressure is higher, temperature must be higher. It is not required that the increase in temperature caused the increase in pressure. It is not required that the increase in pressure caused the increase in temperature. It is enough that when given an increase in one you can calculate the increase in the other.

It is the same way with force and acceleration and f=ma. It does not matter whether the force of your hand on a ball causes an acceleration or whether the acceleration of a car causes a force of the seat on your posterior. It is enough that you can calculate either one when given the other.

cGibson said:
I get that increased temperature increases pressure. But does increased pressure increase temperature.

First, it is not necessarily true that increased temperature means an increase in pressure. It depends on the equation of state for the material. For example, if we use the ideal gas law as our EoS then we know that

## pV = mRT ##

And so we see that if the temperature of a fixed mass of gas goes up the product of the pressure and volume must go up. It could be that the volume goes up and the pressure is fixed, or the other way around.

You can find EoSs for solids if you look within the fields of geology and mineralogy. Once you examine these, you should be able to predict how increasing temperature impacts pressure and vice versa.

1. What is the relationship between pressure and temperature?

Pressure and temperature have a direct relationship, meaning that when one increases, the other also increases. This is known as the direct proportionality of pressure and temperature.

2. How does pressure affect the temperature of a substance?

When pressure is applied to a substance, its particles are forced closer together, resulting in an increase in temperature. This is because the particles have less space to move around and collide with each other, causing an increase in kinetic energy and thus, temperature.

3. Why does temperature decrease with increasing pressure in some cases?

In some cases, an increase in pressure can cause a decrease in temperature. This is known as the Joule-Thomson effect and occurs when a gas expands against a pressure gradient. This decreases the kinetic energy of the gas particles and results in a decrease in temperature.

4. How does the Ideal Gas Law explain the relationship between pressure and temperature?

The Ideal Gas Law, PV = nRT, states that the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its temperature when other variables such as volume and number of particles remain constant. This helps to explain the relationship between pressure and temperature in gases.

5. What are some practical applications of understanding the effects of pressure and temperature on each other?

Understanding the relationship between pressure and temperature is crucial in many industries, such as in the production of food and beverages, pharmaceuticals, and in the design of engines and other machinery. It also helps us to understand weather patterns and the behavior of gases in various environments.

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