1. If e.m.f is NOT a force, but actually energy – and e.m.f is measured in Voltage – then why is p.d. (V) NOT used up? Since we know energy *does* get used up by the component. I know the electrons are just the medium – energy carriers – but Voltage doesn’t mean number of electrons; it means the “energy” they carry right? So energy *should* be used up. I know this is THE classic misunderstanding – but I’ve read tons online – but still not clear on this. 2. If a circuit diagram goes from: Battery (one terminal) = 6V –> before component = 6V – > after component = 0V – > return to battery (other terminal) = 0V THEN it looks like the “V” got used up right there at the component! 3. How DO electrons end up holding on to some of their energy when there are 3 components in a series - as if they’re “experiencing” that there’s a total of 3 components? A lot of people have asked this exact question – but answers usually end up saying that there’s a bunch of electrons choosing x or y path – rather than ONE path. In one path (series) they are having to hang on to some of that energy for a bit longer. It’s as if the component can only “ask” for a photon of a certain lower frequency if there’s 3 components present. And if there was 1 component it could now take the higher frequency photon in the final energy-transfer. Extreme lack of clarity here. 4. Why don’t electrons take a shortcut through the electrolyte? From the side they’re sitting in to the side they “want” to be in – I mean; why go all the way round the wire if it’s an actual closed circuit? 5. If p.d. is just an electric field created – then what’s the “range” of this field? Electrons sitting at any given part of the circuit will experience the force and move, so do we assume the range is the entire wire? And nothing else. Maybe some EMR escapes outside the wire too? 6. Big question: WHAT is the INITIAL energy? Is it somehow energy stored in chemical bonds? It all MUST have started with some chemical energy – middle-schoolers know that much. I know it’s a redox reaction whereby something like Cu gets reduced, and after becoming ions the electrons flow towards Cu+ ions. I don’t mean to be stupid – but how is redox releasing ENERGY – it’s not like some chemical bond has been made. Is there? 7. I’m having a hard time visualizing this “electric field”. It’s nice to visualize a tiny formula unit of say Na+ and Cl- each ion then exerting a small field of attraction towards each other – but this electric field in a wire is not nice. Doesn’t want to be visualized. Does the field pull the electrons for example 1 nanometer at a time (like a knock-on effect like Newton’s Cradle) – or the entire distance to the other electrode? By “pull” I mean the “location they’re trying to get to”. I guess I’m saying is: how exactly is it produced – and what does the field look like and how do charges experience this field precisely, going from anode to cathode?