Simple harmonic motion spring question

In summary, an exponential process A(t) = A0e-λt has decay constant λ and time constant (or mean lifetime) 1/λ. λ can be found by using A(t) = A0e-λt, and plugging in the data given to you. It takes 57.88 seconds for the amplitude to reach 3.6 cm after 52 oscillations.
  • #1
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1.
A spring with spring constant 14.5 n/m hangs from the ceiling.
A 430g ball is attached to the spring and allowed to come to rest.
It is then pulled down 7.20cm and released.

What is the time constant if the ball's amplitude has decreased to 3.70 after 52.0 oscillations?


The Attempt at a Solution



w = squareroot (14.5 n/m / 0.43kg)

vmax = 2pi * 3.7 / T
vmax = w*a
w*a = 2pi*3.7/ T
solve for T

i know it's damping

not sure what it means by the time constant, nor what formula to use to solve for it

help would be appreciated, and an explanation of how you got to the awnser
 
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  • #2
vorcil said:
… not sure what it means by the time constant, nor what formula to use to solve for it

Hi vorcil! :smile:

An exponential process A(t) = A0e-λt has decay constant λ and time constant (or mean lifetime) 1/λ :wink:
 
  • #3
tiny-tim said:
Hi vorcil! :smile:

An exponential process A(t) = A0e-λt has decay constant λ and time constant (or mean lifetime) 1/λ :wink:


so 3.7 cm = 7.2cm * e^ (lavender t)

how do i get lavender?
and what am i suppose to be solving for, is it t?

or because lavender = 1/t do i go e^ (lavender * 1/lavender)
and solve for lavender, then solve for t?
 
  • #4
vorcil said:
how do i get lavender?

erm :redface: … it's spelt (and pronounced) lambda (originally, I think, from the Hebrew word for "swan")!

(and why didn't you just copy-and-paste my λ? :rolleyes:)

You get λ by using A(t) = A0e-λt, and plugging in the data given to you, and solving.
 
  • #5
tiny-tim said:
erm :redface: … it's spelt (and pronounced) lambda (originally, I think, from the Hebrew word for "swan")!

(and why didn't you just copy-and-paste my λ? :rolleyes:)

You get λ by using A(t) = A0e-λt, and plugging in the data given to you, and solving.

what is the t in e-λt, i would be able to solve for lavender if i had that little t,

and then once i got lavender i'd just use 1/lavender to solve for the time constant am i correct?

my first physics teacher was asian so i always thought he was pronouncing it lavender lol, lambda XD lamb duh
 
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  • #6
vorcil said:
what is the t in e-λt, i would be able to solve for lavender if i had that little t,

and then once i got lavender i'd just use 1/lavender to solve for the time constant am i correct?

my first physics teacher was asian so i always thought he was pronouncing it lavender lol, lambda XD lamb duh

w= squareroot spring constant / mass

w = 5.08 rads^-1

w = 2pi / t
2pi / w = t

3.2 = 7.2 * e^(-x*1.08)
got lavender being 0.61
1/0.61 = 1.63, awnser was wrong
 
  • #7
can someone help please? XD
 
  • #8
vorcil said:
can someone help please? XD

I tried using the energy approach but got an unsolvable awnser

here:

tried using the energy way, i need to find out how much time it takes for the energy in the system to damp by 37%
that's what Tau is, t

E[tex]_{}o[/tex] * e ^ -t / [tex]\tau[/tex] = E(t) = 1/2 k xmax^2 (3.2cm)
 
  • #9
omfg i did it, I SOLVED IT BOOYAH, my method

the intital amplitude at t = 0 is A = 7.2 cm
the time taken to reach 1/2 A is acquired by the following
w = squareroot k/mass
= 5.806 rads^-1

T = 2pi / w
2pi/5.806 = 1.08 seconds
and that is for each oscillation

now to reach 52 oscillations it takes 52 * 1.08 = 56.27 seconds
and that is the point which it reaches 3.7 cm

now solving for HALF the amplitude, 7.2cm / 2 = 3.6cm NOT 3.7 cm
so i have to find out how many oscillations it will have to do for 3.6 cms,
so if 7.2 - 3.7 = 3.5

3.5 /52 = 0.06730769231 is the distance reduced by each oscillation
7.2 - 3.6 = 3.6
3.6 / 06730769231 = 53.48 = is the number of oscillations needed to reach 3.6 cm

now i multiply that by the time it takes for each oscillation (from above)
53.48 * 1.08 = 57.88 seconds is the time needed to dampen to half the amplitude

from the formulas
1/2 A = A * e^(-t/2 tau)

the A's cancel out and tau is the time constant

1/2 = e^(-t / 2 tau )

take the logs
ln(1/2) = ln e ^ (-t / 2tau)

ln(1/2) = -ln2
-ln2 = t / 2tau
-ln2 * 2tau = t
t/2ln2 = tau

57.88 / 2ln2 = tau
41.75! AND IT WAS CORRECT
except off my a couple sigfigs so i must've rounded somewhere badlly
right awnser was 42.3 but it still gave me the correct marking
 
  • #10
Hi vorcil! :smile:

(just got up :zzz: …)

Well done for perservering, and even more so for getting it right! :biggrin:

Here's some extra symbols for you to copy-and-paste …

(and also try using the X2 tag just above the Reply box :wink:)
 

What is simple harmonic motion?

Simple harmonic motion is a type of periodic motion in which an object oscillates back and forth around a central equilibrium position due to a restoring force. This motion can be seen in a variety of systems, such as a mass on a spring or a pendulum.

How does a spring contribute to simple harmonic motion?

A spring provides a restoring force that causes an object attached to it to oscillate back and forth. The force exerted by the spring is directly proportional to the displacement of the object from its equilibrium position, according to Hooke's Law.

What factors affect the period of a spring's simple harmonic motion?

The period of a spring's simple harmonic motion is affected by the mass of the object attached to it, the spring constant, and the amplitude of the oscillation. The period is longer for larger masses, stiffer springs, and larger amplitudes.

Can simple harmonic motion be used to model real-world phenomena?

Yes, simple harmonic motion can be used to model many real-world phenomena such as the motion of a swinging pendulum, the vibration of a guitar string, or the motion of a mass on a spring. It is a commonly observed behavior in nature and can be described mathematically using equations.

How does damping affect simple harmonic motion?

Damping is a force that opposes the motion of an object and reduces the amplitude of its oscillations over time. In simple harmonic motion, damping can cause the oscillations to become smaller and eventually come to a stop. This can be seen in systems like a mass on a spring with a damping force, such as air resistance, acting on it.

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