Voltage, Current, Resistance definitions

In summary, voltage is the energy in an electron and current is the speed of the electron, while resistance is the multiple of speed reduced from the electrons.
  • #1
mtanti
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Can someone please give a straight forward and easy to understand definition of the 3 mentioned phenomenone in terms of electrons if possible?
Thanks!
 
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  • #2
Voltage is directly related to the force electrons feel in a wire. This force propels them through the wire. You can think of voltage (more correctly expressed as a difference in electrical potential) as an analogy to water pressure in a pipe. The pressure is what causes water to flow out of your tap, for example.

Current is a measure of the number of electrons that pass through some given point in a wire per unit time. The larger the current, the more electrons flow through the wire per unit time.

Resistance is caused by a material's interaction with electrons. Some material inhibit electrons from moving quickly through them, in the same way that a sponge shoving into your water faucet would inhibit the flow of water.

- Warren
 
  • #3
So voltage is the amount of energy in each electron and current is the speed of the electrons whilst resistance is the multiple of speed reduced from the electrons?
 
  • #4
Yes, voltage is related to the kinetic energy of each electron. An electron moving through a potential difference of 100 volts gains twice as much kinetic energy as an electron moving through a potential difference of 50 volts.

Current, however, is not related to speed. You can have a large number of very slow electrons passing some point in a wire, or a smaller number of very fast electrons, and the current will be the same. Keep in mind that the actual speed of electrons in wires -- the speed they move from one terminal of a battery to another, for example -- is quite slow. You should not worry much (at this point) about speed at all.

Resistance is not so much a process of slowing electrons down as it is a process of stripping them of kinetic energy and turning that energy into heat. Certainly, you can't reduce kinetic energy without reducing speed, but it's much simpler to view resistance as a phenomenon of energy rather than speed.

- Warren
 
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  • #5

Related to Voltage, Current, Resistance definitions

1. What is voltage?

Voltage is the measure of electrical potential difference between two points in a circuit. It is often described as the force that pushes electrons through a conductor.

2. How is voltage measured?

Voltage is measured in units of volts (V) using a voltmeter, which is connected in parallel to the component or circuit being measured.

3. What is current?

Current is the flow of electric charge through a conductor or circuit. It is measured in units of amperes (A) and is often described as the rate of flow of charge.

4. How does resistance affect current?

Resistance is a measure of how much a material or component impedes the flow of current. The higher the resistance, the lower the current will be. This relationship is described by Ohm's law: V = IR, where V is voltage, I is current, and R is resistance.

5. What factors affect resistance?

Resistance is affected by the material of the conductor, its length and cross-sectional area, and the temperature. It also varies with the type of material used, as some materials have higher or lower resistance than others.

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