Something said in my physics textbook really confused me. The following was written : "Applied Force is our label for a contact force that a person exerts. When an applied force acts at an angle, it is actually a combination of two forces : normal and friction. The component of the applied force that is perpendicular to the surface is a normal force, and the component parallel to the surface is a friction force." I always thought an applied force acting at an angle was made up of Fa[y] and Fa[x] for the vertical and horizontal components respectively. I questioned my teacher about this and he said that the forces of friction and normal are between the surface of the object and the hand, not between the object and the ground, however that didn't help much at all. Could anyone provide some clarification with regards to the statement above please? Thank you.