What is Australia: Definition and 99 Discussions

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country. Australia's population of nearly 26 million, in an area of 7,617,930 square kilometres (2,941,300 sq mi), is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Canberra is the nation's capital, while the largest city is Sydney, and other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, and Adelaide.
Indigenous Australians inhabited the continent for about 65,000 years, prior to the first arrival of Dutch explorers in the early 17th century, who named it New Holland. In 1770, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain and initially settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788, a date which became Australia's national day. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades, and by the time of an 1850s gold rush, most of the continent had been explored by European settlers and an additional five self-governing crown colonies established. On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Australia has since maintained a stable liberal democratic political system that functions as a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy, comprising six states and ten territories.
Australia is the oldest, flattest, and driest inhabited continent, with the least fertile soils. It is a megadiverse country, and its size gives it a wide variety of landscapes and climates, with deserts in the centre, tropical rainforests in the north-east, and mountain ranges in the south-east. Australia generates its income from various sources, including mining-related exports, telecommunications, banking, manufacturing, and international education.Australia is a highly developed country, with the world's twelfth-largest economy. It has a high-income economy, with the world's tenth-highest per capita income. Australia is a regional power, and has the world's thirteenth-highest military expenditure. Immigrants account for 30% of the country's population, the highest proportion among major Western nations. Having the eight-highest Human Development Index, and the ninth-highest ranked democracy globally as of 2020, Australia ranks highly in quality of life, health, education, economic freedom, civil liberties, and political rights, with all its major cities faring exceptionally in global comparative livability surveys. It is a member of the United Nations, the G20, the Commonwealth of Nations, the ANZUS, the OECD, the WTO, the APEC, the Pacific Islands Forum, the Pacific Community and the ASEAN + 6 mechanism.

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  1. D

    How Does Physics Influence Roulette Outcomes?

    Hey all, I am a longtime roulette player in Australia and have become curious about the physics involved in roulette, so I googled it and found this forum. I saw some threads on the topic so thought I'd join!
  2. Astronuc

    Heavy rainfall and flooding in central Victoria, Australia

    Unprecedented rainfall and flooding in parts of central Victoria, Australia. Goulburn, Ovens and King Rivers have overflowed the banks in places, especially the Goulburn near Shepparton and Mooroopna, Vic. https://www.sheppnews.com.au/news/live-blog-october-16/...
  3. S

    I Confused by this armillary sphere in Australia

    I presume that the sphere is pointing at the declination of -90, and that the descriptions "torrid" & "temperate" correspond to tropic & non-tropic, respectively; as such, it seems that these descriptions are on the wrong sides...
  4. bhobba

    COVID Australia Possibly Heading For 95% Vaccination

    See: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-09-25/nsw-on-track-to-hit-90-per-cent-first-covid-19-vaccine-rate/100489618 As the article says, Aus could get to 95%. 90% won't be hard; 95% would be a real achievement, but it is possible. I don't think anyone is sure exactly what will happen at that...
  5. Astronuc

    M 5.9 - 38 km S of Mount Buller, Australia

    Rather rare event. https://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us7000fd9v/executive 2021-09-21 23:15:53 (UTC) 37.488°S 146.364°E 10.0 km depth Melbourne, Victoria, Aus is 128.5 km (79.9 mi) WSW from the location of the quake. Edit/update: Building damage reported in central Melbourne...
  6. bhobba

    COVID Report On 80% Vaccination In Australia

    For those that like to read details about Covid modelling and vaccination rates, see the following: https://grattan.edu.au/report/race-to-80/ 80% is the magical number. It will be even better when we all get the third dose. Note (added later): Some assumptions are somewhat dubious - it is...
  7. bhobba

    Medical Australia to Make mRNA Vaccines

    Here in Aus, IMHO, we have not been proactive enough. Finally, someone is taking a more long term view: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-21/victoria-to-develop-mrna-covid19-vaccine-facilities/100083372 Thanks Bill
  8. davenn

    Visit to The National Gem and Crystal Expo, Windsor, NSW, Australia

    my first youtube video will do better next time ... was an awesome day with a wonderful selection of rocks, minerals fossils etc
  9. bhobba

    Why Is Australia Struggling with Its Vaccine Rollout?

    If anybody is interested in the woes of the vaccine rollout here in Aus see the following: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-04/australia-covid19-vaccine-supply-gaps-void-to-be-filled/100043348 Personally, I would feel a lot better if a logistics expert was in charge of it. We have at least...
  10. bhobba

    COVID Oxford Vaccine Approved In Australia

    The Oxford vaccine was approved here in Aus - finally: https://www.tga.gov.au/media-release/tga-provisionally-approves-astrazenecas-covid-19-vaccine It recommends a second dosing 12 weeks apart. The article in the local paper announcing this said with a 12 week second dose it had 82% efficacy...
  11. bhobba

    COVID Interesting Article On How Australia Is Making The Oxford Vaccine

    Hi All Here is how the Aussies are making the Oxford Vaccine: https://www.abc.net.au/news/science/2021-02-12/covid-19-vaccine-oxford-astrazeneca-adenovirus-csl-manufacturing/13140104 Thanks Bill
  12. bhobba

    What Are the New Degree Costs in Australia?

    Australia has recently revamped it's government funding for degrees: https://www.theguardian.com/australia-news/2020/jun/19/australian-university-fees-arts-stem-science-maths-nursing-teaching-humanities Guess which degree has had the biggest drop and is now the cheapest - Mathematics - a...
  13. R

    Could pressure washers solve the Australia bushfires problem?

    The JetLev water pack puts out about 60 psi but can lift a 400 pound weight 30 feet in the air. A lot of water can be provided by just those water jet pack units, 1,000 gallons per minute, providing 400 pounds of force, all of that powered by a 200 hp pump that trails behind remaining in the...
  14. davenn

    How Big is Australia Compared to Texas?

    With now over 800 homes destroyed, 300+ damaged and countless numbers of wildlife lost. Welcome to Christmas 2019 in Australia :cry::frown: from my Facebook
  15. davenn

    Mw6.6 Quake offshore of NW Western Australia, Australia .... NOW

    As I type, I'm recording a prelim. Mw6.6 just offshore of NW WA, Australia. Tho this is not the biggest Australian quake ( which also happened in the state of Western Australia), it is the largest one I have recorded so far. http://www.sydneystormcity.com/seismograms.htm...
  16. davenn

    Significant cyclone off shore of Queensland, Australia

    this is the 12:30pm AEDT ( Australian Eastern Daylight Time) 00:30UTC for the 21 Feb. 2019 Predicted track over next few days... cheers Dave EDIT: ... am so naughty ... didn't give image credits: Australian Govt, BOM Bureau of Meteorology http://satview.bom.gov.au/
  17. davenn

    20 Oct 2018 - more severe storms, Sydney, Australia region

    This session started off as a lot of large and reasonably individual cells but as they merged, they morphed into a 800 kilometre long storm line that stretched across the eastern side of the state of NSW ( New South Wales). Intense CG ( Cloud to Ground) lightning as it approached from the west...
  18. davenn

    2018-10-18 Significant storms around Sydney, Australia

    the last couple of days, 17th and 18th Oct have produced some severe thunderstorms in the Sydney basin and surrounding region. Here's several photos I did from yesterday's activity from my work place in western Sydney ( out towards Penrith) Intense lightning, heavy rain and surface flooding and...
  19. BillTre

    Blood Donor in Australia Affected Millions

    Here is a CNN article about James Harrison, a guy in Australia, who started donating blood when he was 14 (after he had an operation and required blod transfusions). He has aged out of being acceptable for donating blood at 81. He is considered the GOAT (Greatest Of All Time) Australian blood...
  20. ISamson

    Electronics Building a Radio: Basics for the High Schooler in Australia

    Hello. I have been interested in radios lately and wanted to make one by myself. I know that it requires a lot of knowledge in physics and electronics, but what basics do I need to know? Frequency, antennas, voltages... Could there be any legal issues? I live in Australia. I am only a high...
  21. davenn

    Photos of 2 Sydney, Australia Icons

    A couple of images from my photo activities Sydney Harbour Bridge - after the late afternoon storm had passed Affectionately known as "The Coathanger The Sydney Opera House in later afternoon sun "The Sails" Dave
  22. SquidwardTentacles

    Physics PhD in New Zealand (or Australia)?

    Hey everyone, I'm an American senior Physics major and I've been looking at New Zealand (and possibly Australia) for grad school. I wanted to ask if anyone could describe the system over there and answer a couple questions. First, is a bachelors good enough to start the PhD without doing a...
  23. davenn

    Major Tropical Cyclone NE Australia

    Cyclone Debbie is a major CAT 4 storm at the time it hit the Queensland coast in the Bowen area. It has sustained winds near the centre of 185 kilometres per hour with wind gusts to 260 km/hr have been recorded. The Bureau of Meteorology (Australian weather service) suggest the possibility that...
  24. B

    Engineering How hard is it to get a traineeship abroad (e.g. US)?

    I need someone to bring me back to reality because I may have disillusioned myself. I thought that it should not be too difficult to get a temporal job, graduate programme etc. applying from Europe. Yet I have so much trouble finding ads with visa sponsorship. I also start to think that my...
  25. fresh_42

    Earthquake in South Pacific, NE of Australia

    They set a tsunami warning. Seems to be several. http://geofon.gfz-potsdam.de/eqinfo/seismon/globmon.php http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/eventpage/us20007z8m#region-info
  26. S

    Physics Post-doc (Condensed Matter Physics) in Australia

    Hello Everyone, I have just completed my PhD in condensed matter physics. I want to apply for post-doc positions in Australia. Any suggestions?
  27. F

    Physics Med Physics: Moving from Australia to Canada

    Greetings fellow geniuses. As you may be aware from the title this thread is in regards to a career in Med. Physics. So I have lived in Canada for a decade and then moved down under. Now I have intentions of moving back to the cold weather :P. Anyhow I have an interest in a career in Med...
  28. Sirsh

    Schools Admission into UC University from Australia

    Hey all, Due to circumstances, I have been researching into universities within California to attend after I complete my undergraduate degree in mechanical engineering (B.Eng) to pursue a masters degree in engineering. I am under the assumption that it would be more difficult for myself to get...
  29. Junii1

    Physics Australia and particle physics

    Hey! I am a year 11 student from Australia and I am wanting to take course(s) in particle physics at university/college after high school. I am just wondering where I can do this as I haven't found many universities (In Victoria) that offer this. If anyone has experience from overseas I would...
  30. davenn

    Fireworks from Sydney, Australia

    our ( wife and myself) location 14km from the bridge 200mm, f2.8, 1000 ISO, 30th sec Dave
  31. J

    What sparked your curiosity about the natural world and space?

    My father was an exploration geologist in Australia mainly, in his early career dad geologically mapped large areas of Australia, South Australia mostly, during the 50s and 60s, and his maps were used by the Dept of Mines. My childhood memories are filled with images of topographic maps on the...
  32. A

    Cosmology - Is it a smart choice?

    I am interested in studying cosmology or physics during university (as an Australian) and hope that this can lead on to a job further involving cosmology. What are the chances of actually succeeding with this endeavor and is there any chance of employment as an Australian?
  33. J

    What sparked Justin's renewed interest in physics and math?

    Hi all, I have recently become interested in physics and maths again - I have a strong background in statistics (econometrics) from Uni a long time ago, and always have enjoyed maths and physics, but mostly just for fun. I hope to learn here, and maybe contribute something worthwhile. Thanks...
  34. A

    Admissions French applying for a 6 month internship in Australia

    Mentor note: removed the attachments, see post 3 Hi everyone, I am not sure if this is the right place to ask this, if I am wrong I will delete this thread as soon as possible. I am a french student, currently looking for a 6-months internship abroad, required by my school. Being interested in...
  35. S

    What are the benefits of joining a scientific community for students?

    My name is John and i am currently studying a bachelor of engineering at ANU and am currently in my first year. I joined this website because of the discussion about homework/problems, giving advice and asking for advice. As i always see results show on google, i thought it might be smart to...
  36. N

    Year 12 EEI - Cathode Ray Tube

    For my year 12 physics EEI (extended experimental investigation) i need to develop some sort of experiment with variables i can change to retrieve data from. I have a basic cathode ray tube from a few months ago much like the one in this video: . Does anyone have any idea of what variables i...
  37. K

    Physics Working as a Medical Physicist in Australia

    Hallo everyone, I am a new member at Physics Forums. I am considering immigrating with my family to Australia and work as a Medical Physicist. My bachelor degree is in Physics and I have MSc and PhD in Medical Physics. I am currently working in Greece as a medical physicist (for the last 14...
  38. T

    Mathematics or Math:General for Physics

    So I am a High school student from Australia and I'm slow when it comes to mathematics (2 Unit) and I'm not doing to well in the tests, I'm getting around 50%. I was wondering if I should drop to general Maths, which I know isn't recommended for University Physics. The recommended is instead...
  39. T

    Medical physics in Australia: ASPCEM TEAP experience?

    Is anyone enrolled in the TEAP program in Australia? Are registrar positions difficult to obtain, or does the graduate school match you with one? How bad is the ‘junior MP bottleneck’ down under?
  40. S

    Engineering Nuclear Engineering in Australia

    I am currently in Grade 10 in Australia and wish to pursue a career as a Nuclear Engineer. And unfortunately, there are no universities in Australia that offer Nuclear Engineering as a degree. Instead, I would have to obtain a degree in any other form of engineering (Mechanical) or science...
  41. Khronos

    How Can Studying in Rural Australia Enhance My Engineering Career?

    Hey everyone, i just thought i would introduce my self, my name is *removed* I live and study in rural Australia. I am currently studying a bachelor of Civil Engineering and aspire to pursue a matsters in structural engineering. I joined these forums to improve my mathematic skills, seek...
  42. Corpuscule

    Life after a PhD in physics in Australia / New Zealand?

    Hi all, I have recently finished a PhD in quantum physics. At the moment I am a postdoc in the same group. I really enjoy what I am currently doing. I am moderately successful in a sense that I will probably be able to find a second and maybe a third postdoc, but most likely not successful...
  43. P

    How can Amercan light bulbs be used in Australia?

    In America power is supplied at 110 V. In Australia power is supplied at 240 V, however American lights are routinely used in Australia. How is this possible?
  44. H

    Working in Aerospace in Australia

    Hi guys I'm interested in aerospace engineering. I love aircraft, especially military jets, and certain armaments such as missiles. I would love to design these things. The only problem is I'm in Australia :/ I have heard a lot that there is absolutely no aerospace engineering in...
  45. B

    Study Physics Masters in Australia | University of Sydney

    Good morning, I'm studying physics. I want to complete Masters in Australia . What do you think of the University of Sydney ? I do not have any idea. Thank you.
  46. StevieTNZ

    News Tony Abbott, the next Prime Minister of Australia

    Tony Abbott, the next Prime Minister of Australia. Congratulations to him and his party. http://tvnz.co.nz/world-news/tony-abbott-time-governing-has-arrived-5575840
  47. StevieTNZ

    News New PM for Australia: Kevin Rudd

    http://www.nzherald.co.nz/world/news/article.cfm?c_id=2&objectid=10893262 Due to an announced Ballot vote for leader of Labour (spelt Labor in Australia) by Julia Gillard yesterday, when the votes were cast she was oust as leader, and Kevin Rudd (who she previously ousted and replaced) is now...
  48. S

    Which universities in Australia offer a PhD in Astronomy?

    Hi I am a Physics masters student from India in a college in Texas. I want to pursue a PhD in Astronomy (observational/radio) Australia. I have heard Australia is very good at obs astronomy - however google searches are revealing a lot about the telescopes and other facilities there but...
  49. S

    What universities in Australia offer a PhD in Astronomy?

    Hi I am a Physics masters student from India in a college in Texas. I want to pursue a PhD in Astronomy (observational/radio) Australia. I have heard Australia is very good at obs astronomy - however google searches are revealing a lot about the telescopes and other facilities there...
  50. L

    Schools Chemistry or Physics? College Course - Year 11 Australia

    Hi everyone, I've always liked both Physics and Chemistry equally, but recently I've had to choose between either Physics or Chemistry as a course in some extension program I got into. At my age (16), which would be a better option for the future? I'm a mathematical person, so at the moment...