What is Disorder: Definition and 77 Discussions

Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder characterized by periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood that last from days to weeks each. If the elevated mood is severe or associated with psychosis, it is called mania; if it is less severe, it is called hypomania. During mania, an individual behaves or feels abnormally energetic, happy, or irritable, and they often make impulsive decisions with little regard for the consequences. There is usually also a reduced need for sleep during manic phases. During periods of depression, the individual may experience crying and have a negative outlook on life and poor eye contact with others. The risk of suicide is high; over a period of 20 years, 6% of those with bipolar disorder died by suicide, while 30–40% engaged in self-harm. Other mental health issues, such as anxiety disorders and substance use disorders, are commonly associated with bipolar disorder.While the causes of bipolar disorder are not clearly understood, both genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Many genes, each with small effects, may contribute to the development of the disorder. Genetic factors account for about 70–90% of the risk of developing bipolar disorder. Environmental risk factors include a history of childhood abuse and long-term stress. The condition is classified as bipolar I disorder if there has been at least one manic episode, with or without depressive episodes, and as bipolar II disorder if there has been at least one hypomanic episode (but no full manic episodes) and one major depressive episode. If the symptoms are due to drugs or medical problems, they are not diagnosed as bipolar disorder. Other conditions having overlapping symptoms with bipolar disorder include attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, personality disorders, schizophrenia, and substance use disorder as well as many other medical conditions. Medical testing is not required for a diagnosis, though blood tests or medical imaging can rule out other problems.Mood stabilizers—lithium and certain anticonvulsants such as valproate and carbamazepine—are the mainstay of long-term relapse prevention. Antipsychotics are given during acute manic episodes as well as in cases where mood stabilizers are poorly tolerated or ineffective or where compliance is poor. There is some evidence that psychotherapy improves the course of this disorder. The use of antidepressants in depressive episodes is controversial—they can be effective but have been implicated in triggering manic episodes. The treatment of depressive episodes is often difficult. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is effective in acute manic and depressed episodes, especially with psychosis or catatonia. Admission to a psychiatric hospital may be required if a person is a risk to themselves or others; involuntary treatment is sometimes necessary if the affected person refuses treatment.Bipolar disorder occurs in approximately 1% of the global population. In the United States, about 3% are estimated to be affected at some point in their life; rates appear to be similar in females and males. The most common age at which symptoms begin is 20; an earlier onset in life is associated with a worse prognosis. Interest in functioning in the assessment of patients with bipolar disorder is growing, with an emphasis on specific domains such as work, education, social life, family, and cognition. Around a quarter to a third of people with bipolar disorder have financial, social, or work-related problems due to the illness. Bipolar disorder is among the top 20 causes of disability worldwide and leads to substantial costs for society. Due to lifestyle choices and the side effects of medications, the risk of death from natural causes such as coronary heart disease in people with bipolar disorder is twice that of the general population.

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  1. J

    Entropy: Does Disorder Really Measure Order?

    Let's say you have a very dirty small room room and a giant clean library (lots of organized books) and let's say these occupy the same number of microstates. The entropy according to this equation is the same for the library and the room. But one is more ordered than the other one. How does it...
  2. W

    Can chronic anxiety disorder be cured?

    I'm sorry for posting this thread. I know that this is not the right site to ask but my curiosity is really bothering me and I need an answer about this serious illness that I'm having right now. In these past few days, I noticed that I have this anxiety called " Chronic anxiety" and honestly I...
  3. gonadas91

    A Random potential disorder average

    Hi, I have a basic question concerning disorder average in random potentials. Suppose we have a hamiltonian (in second quantised notation) in the form: $$H=H_{0}+\int d\vec{r}\psi^{\dagger}(\vec{r})V(\vec{r})\psi(\vec{r})$$ with ##V(\vec{r})## some random potential satisfying ##\langle...
  4. fluidistic

    Probability, genetic disorder related

    Note: not homework; thread moved to biology 1. Homework Statement It is not a textbook problem, but a real life scenario, as such I am not sure the solution exists. A child is born with a rare genetic condition (1 chance in a million). There is about 1/3 chance it comes from a mutation that...
  5. D

    How does corrective treatment of lymphedema help lymph flow?

    Homework Statement Produce an detailed understandsing of the anatomy and function of the lymphatic system, using correct scientific terminology to explain the rationale for use of corrective treatment for lymphedema. Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution Lymphatic edema is the...
  6. D

    How does Hodgkin's lymphoma affect the lymphatic system?

    Homework Statement How does Hodgkin's lymphoma effect the "normal" function of the lymphatic system? Homework Equations N/A The Attempt at a Solution After research I have found out that HL casues lymph nodes to become inflames. I have concluded HL causes lymph fluid to get blocked at lymph...
  7. L

    Is entropy truly a measure of disorder or is it something else entirely?

    How much correct to say entropy is always measure of disorder Is disorder always related to entropy
  8. Grajmanu

    How can we best describe entropy other than with disorder?

    Entropy is often represented as a representation of disorder in a system or the amount of energy deposited as unusable in a system. What are the other perspectives about entropy?
  9. Robert Webb

    Entropy: why measure disorder?

    Something I've always wondered: why do we measure the amount of disorder (entropy) rather than the amount of order? We don't measure brightness by the amount of "dark". Surely order is the thing of interest, so why don't we measure that rather than measuring the absence of it? And in...
  10. shihab-kol

    Does Building Construction Defy the Second Law of Thermodynamics?

    From what I know, the law says that disorder increases over time. But, when a building is constructed the disordered bricks,cement etc. take form of the ordered building. Am I wrong or is this an exception?
  11. A

    I Localization of particles and disorder at the quantum level?

    Hi all, Based on a previous post on Anderson Localization, I'm posting a more general question here: given that there is substantial disorder in many systems in general (e.g., the body, or the Earth), why do we not see effects like Anderson Localization more frequently - that is, why aren't...
  12. A

    I Anderson Localization and general disorder of matter?

    Hi all, Just did a little bit of (layperson) reading about Anderson localization and disorder in crystal structures. Here's my question: shouldn't all matter contribute to 'restricting' the wave function of e.g., an electron, whether it's in a crystal structure or not? That is, what's specific...
  13. S

    Refuting the idea of entropy equalling "disorder"

    Hi. I have heard this, that entropy is often called "disorder" but _isn't really so_. And I am even more puzzled by the connection and difference between entropy from "information theory" pov and from "thermodynamic" pov. I see stuff like this...
  14. M

    B How to distinguish order and disorder?

    Thinking of entropy as a measure of disorder, how do we distinguish order and disorder. Entropy should increase with time resulting in more and more disorder with the passage of time. The solar system evolved with time. Now, do we consider the formation of the solar system as getting ordered or...
  15. 24forChromium

    Is disorder required to store information?

    Would a perfectly ordered crystal in an isolated system with no temperature be able to store information that can be used to predict the future of that system? I am asking this question with the Big Bang in mind: intuitively, it appears to me that at the beginning of the universe there should...
  16. ujjwal3097

    Overcoming Social Anxiety: My Story

    I have written a common app essay about my social anxiety disorder and how I overcame it and how it made me stronger but I am bit confused that whether this topic will be apt for college essay.I am thinking it might have a negative impact on my profile but I also want to write about it because...
  17. Jewish_Vulcan

    Describe disorder in terms of entropy

    when they mean disorder do they mean the range of velocities of the particles increasing as entropy increases? so there are larger differences between the low KE particles and the high KE particles?
  18. Demystifier

    How does life defy the laws of thermodynamics?

    How can life be compatible with the second law of thermodynamics? Here is how. Life is a self-organized system. A self-organized system is a system in which organization arises SPONTANEOUSLY, which means that the probability of the appearance of organization is large. But this means that...
  19. A

    Is entropy a measure of disorder ?

    Is entropy a measure of "disorder"? In textbooks I never saw a definition of entropy given in terms of a "measure of disorder", and am wondering where this idea comes from? Clausius defined it as an "equivalent measure of change", but I do not see the relation with a concept of "order" or...
  20. J

    Weak Localization, Anderson Localization and disorder

    Hey, I was wondering if anybody could give me a brief overview (if possible) of how weak localization differs from strong localization, and any rigorous definitions of "disorder" and "localization" (if they exist) and perhaps recommend some good papers to read on the subject. Thanks
  21. N

    Medical Mental Illness: Arguing/Fighting - Is There a Disorder?

    I am seeking information regarding mental health. I am wondering if there is a mental illness, disorder, syndrome, etc. that is characterized by persistent arguing/fighting? Is there an adult version or form of the oppositional defiant disorder? Almost as if the individual is addicted to arguing...
  22. danihel

    Understanding Entropy: Order vs Disorder

    Hi, I'm sorry and hope this forum allows people who don't study but are interested in physics to post their primitive questions: I like watching documentaries and in every documentary on physics that i watched when it came to entropy, it was simply described as disorder as if that was a...
  23. B

    How can I survive the future if I have language disorder?

    Hello, I was diagnosed with language disorder(learning disability) since I was a kindergarten. I am having a lot of trouble with reading and writing, and also have poor communication skills when it comes to meet people in general. It also affects my schoolwork no matter what subject I'm...
  24. H

    Exploring Entropy: Order vs Disorder in Physical Systems

    In my TD classes I have to deal with entropy. But what does it really mean? I know that it is the degree of disorder and the equation S=q/t. But what is this disorder? How can a physical system be aware of order and disorder since it is an abstract concept?They say that solids have high order...
  25. G

    How order and disorder defined for entropy?

    Entropy is the measure of ored and disorder. But who tells that what is order and what is disorder? Isnt it a relative or subjective thing? How to define it in general, or it can be definet only for thermodinamic systems?
  26. S

    Physics How a person with bipolar disorder become a good physicist?

    I am a year three who suffer badly from bipolar disorder II, it damages me both school grades and communication skills (and honestly speaking, not training myself on these things, I have been only doing only what I want, not what I need, bad idea) . nevertheless, I like nature, I spent far...
  27. D

    Noob here Order from Disorder

    I am convinced that order must come from disorder. If there is something to be disordered, then if there is nothing constraining things to become ordered, then it seems axiomatic that some order eventually arises. Specifically, with regard to the formation of the Observable universe from a...
  28. C

    Medical Short burst of hypersensitivity disorder?

    Hey guys, I am curious about a condition I have had ever since I can remember. It is a short burst in hypersensitivity especially in hearing and touch. It last for up to about 2 minutes and is quite annoying. It makes every movement feel more difficult and exhausting. When I listen to music...
  29. R

    Entropy and Disorder (Crystallization)

    To show that entropy is not the same thing as disorder (what people intuitively accept as disorder) my textbook gives an example of crystallization in a supersaturated solution. And it argues that since both temprature and disorder decrease the entropy must decrease also, but it does not. Hence...
  30. C

    Medical What disorder does this seem like?

    I have a very hard time learning in public education environments for the following reasons: Whenever I'm attending a class, and the teacher/professor is talking, I would block out everything around me, including but not limited to the teacher talking, most visual information (at least in...
  31. M

    Medical I want to cure a disorder. Help?

    Can a man cure a disease lacking research? I have a neurologic-visual disorder called HPPD since 1 year ago. My vision is a mess. There is no cure nor satisfatory treatment and it's lacking research. I'm 20 years old, am currently coursing engineering. I'm very intelligent and would like to...
  32. S

    Medical Both Kurt Cobain and Amy Winehouse suffered from bipolar disorder

    Both Kurt Cobain and Amy Winehouse suffered from bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder. Both rocketed to international fame but died young of unnatural causes. Kurt shot himself at the peak of his career (April 5, 1994). Amy's career was largely over after winning 5 Grammy Awards in March 2008...
  33. G

    Questions about examples of why entropy is NOT disorder

    I understand the pedagogical concern that the idea of “disorder” should be discouraged when introducing entropy to new students (e.g. http://entropysite.oxy.edu/cracked_crutch.html). But I also just read http://www.science20.com/train_thought/blog/entropy_not_disorder-75081" by Steve...
  34. micromass

    Do you suffer from an affective disorder?

    Do you suffer from an affective disorder?? Mental illness is very though to deal with. Most people will just not understand what's going on and think that you're crazy. When you have a broken leg, then people will sympathize with you and help you. But when you have a mental illness, then people...
  35. B

    Universe from Order to DisOrder - Evolutionary Mishaps

    Folks, According to physics, the universe is expanding with increasing entropy from a state of Order to Disorder. Can this be connected with the idea of the mishaps/misfiring that occur in evolution ie dysfunctional organsims etc that we see all around us. Ie the process of going from...
  36. R

    Order and harmony vs disorder and chaos.

    The word 'cosmos' is defined as an orderly harmonious systematic universe. There are some people who actually think that disorder, randomness and chaos is a better description of the Universe, but I disagree. For the most part the Universe exhibits a very high degree of order, harmony and...
  37. T

    Confusion about entropy and disorder

    On pages 46-6 and 46-7 of Feynman Lectures, Vol 1, Feynman talks about irreversibility, order, and entropy in mechanics. He gives an example of an irreversible process: (p. 46-7) He then gives the definition of entropy as the logarithm of the number of ways in which the molecules could be...
  38. A

    Lumpiness & Disorder: A Physics Comparison

    Hi, first of all I have to say that I know practically nothing about cosmology, though I know some basic physics. The reason for this post is that while reading "A brief history of time" by S. Hawking, he mentions in some parts of the book that a lumpy universe corresponds to a disordered...
  39. J

    Is nostalgia a some kind of disorder?

    Is nostalgia a some kind of disorder? Aren't some people more prone to nostalgic thoughts, or is it that they have more time for such thoughts, or is it that from their point of view their past was more relaxed and wonderful as compared to the present period they are going through, or is it that...
  40. M

    Medical Bipolar Disorder: Impact on Interests & Mind - Worried about Courses?

    Do people lose their interests when treated for bipolar disorder? Are there any other changes in the mind itself? I am worried ill lose my edge in biology courses if i begin treatment.
  41. L

    Is the Universe Becoming More Orderly or Disorderly?

    Hi all, I've been confused lately by the appearance that the universe is becoming more orderly and the second law of thermodynamics that states that all systems start from order and become disordered. I assume that the Big Bang was hot and disorderly and that it started to get orderly after...
  42. N

    Exploring Entropy: How is the Universe Increasing in Disorder?

    For example, an increase in the entropy of the system will be exactly equal to the entropy decrease of the surroundings. So the net change in the entropy of the system and its surroundings is zero. Putting this in perspective to all the systems and environments in our universe, how is the...
  43. E

    Medical Is Schizoid personality disorder Asperger/Autism ?

    Is Schizoid personality disorder "Asperger/Autism"? "Schizoid personality disorder People with SPD are seen as aloof, cold and indifferent, which causes some social problems. Most individuals diagnosed with SPD have difficulty establishing personal relationships or expressing their feelings in...
  44. R

    Entropy is disorder = outmoded theory?

    "entropy is disorder" = outmoded theory?? The wikipedia article I quote below is confusing me. I followed the links to Frank Lambert's website, where he claims that Peter Atkins, in the 8th edition of his Physical Chemistry, has come around to Lambert's idea that entropy is not related to...
  45. F

    Does Darth Vader have borderline personality disorder?

    Like a commenter said, who says academics don't make meaningful contributions to public life? :smile: http://bps-research-digest.blogspot.com/2010/06/does-darth-vader-meet-diagnosistic.html
  46. W

    Quantum hall effect and disorder

    Hello fellow PFers! I have been trying to understand the Integer Quantum Hall Effect for quite a while. Many things seem to be understandable, however, I cannot create a satisfactory explanation of why IQHE (i.e. plateaux in the the Hall resistance R as a function of the magnetic field B)...
  47. D

    Disorder: Is it really increasing?

    Scientists say disorder is increasing? How come that we have well-orderd galaxies (from randomness) with the passage of time (many are in the process of evolution)? How come elememts have combined together to form cells and eventually living beings. How come humanbeings have started to...
  48. S

    What is the current status of Colony Collapse Disorder?

    Hi I read an article on this about a year ago or so which outlined the issues and the possible causes. Aside from cellphone radiation, it seemed like none of the other proposed causes had been conclusively ruled out. I'm just wondering if anyone could give me a bit of an update on this...
  49. N

    Medical How Can I Stop My Obsessive Compulsive Behaviors?

    Hope this isn't in the wrong forum, but I couldn't quite find a place to put this. Do any of you have OCD? I think I might have it because I often engage in repetitive behaviours. I'm not satisfied with myself unless I do every question in a section and get every question correct. I find...
  50. M

    How does disorder change superconductor's Tc?

    How does disorder (such as structure defect, doping,substitution, etc. )change superconductors' Tc?No matter what kind of superconductor it is. Is there any resent paper exactly and detailedly discussing about this question? Thanks in advance.