What is Ebola: Definition and 19 Discussions

Ebola, also known as Ebola virus disease (EVD) or Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), is a viral hemorrhagic fever of humans and other primates caused by ebolaviruses. Signs and symptoms typically start between two days and three weeks after contracting the virus with a fever, sore throat, muscular pain, and headaches. Vomiting, diarrhoea and rash usually follow, along with decreased function of the liver and kidneys. At this time, some people begin to bleed both internally and externally. The disease has a high risk of death, killing 25% to 90% of those infected, with an average of about 50%. This is often due to shock from fluid loss, and typically follows six to 16 days after symptoms appear.The virus spreads through direct contact with body fluids, such as blood from infected humans or other animals. Spread may also occur from contact with items recently contaminated with bodily fluids. Spread of the disease through the air between primates, including humans, has not been documented in either laboratory or natural conditions. Semen or breast milk of a person after recovery from EVD may carry the virus for several weeks to months. Fruit bats are believed to be the normal carrier in nature, able to spread the virus without being affected by it. Other diseases such as malaria, cholera, typhoid fever, meningitis and other viral haemorrhagic fevers may resemble EVD. Blood samples are tested for viral RNA, viral antibodies or for the virus itself to confirm the diagnosis.Control of outbreaks requires coordinated medical services and community engagement. This includes rapid detection, contact tracing of those who have been exposed, quick access to laboratory services, care for those infected, and proper disposal of the dead through cremation or burial. Samples of body fluids and tissues from people with the disease should be handled with special caution. Prevention includes limiting the spread of disease from infected animals to humans by handling potentially infected bushmeat only while wearing protective clothing, and by thoroughly cooking bushmeat before eating it. It also includes wearing proper protective clothing and washing hands when around a person with the disease. An Ebola vaccine was approved in the United States in December 2019. While there is no approved treatment for Ebola as of 2019, two treatments (atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab and ansuvimab) are associated with improved outcomes. Supportive efforts also improve outcomes. This includes either oral rehydration therapy (drinking slightly sweetened and salty water) or giving intravenous fluids as well as treating symptoms. Atoltivimab/maftivimab/odesivimab (Inmazeb) was approved for medical use in the United States in October 2020, for the treatment of infection caused by Zaire ebolavirus.The disease was first identified in 1976, in two simultaneous outbreaks: one in Nzara (a town in South Sudan) and the other in Yambuku (Democratic Republic of the Congo), a village near the Ebola River from which the disease takes its name. EVD outbreaks occur intermittently in tropical regions of sub-Saharan Africa. From 1976 to 2012, the World Health Organization reports 24 outbreaks involving 2,387 cases with 1,590 deaths. The largest outbreak to date was the epidemic in West Africa, which occurred from December 2013 to January 2016, with 28,646 cases and 11,323 deaths. It was declared no longer an emergency on 29 March 2016. Other outbreaks in Africa began in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in May 2017, and 2018. In July 2019, the World Health Organization declared the Congo Ebola outbreak a world health emergency.

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  1. Ygggdrasil

    Medical Nearing a cure for Ebola

    This week, the US National Institutes of Health released an update on a trial in the Democratic Republic of the Congo comparing the effectiveness of two new antibody-based drugs (REGN-EB3 and mAb114) against existing treatments for Ebola (ZMapp and remdesivir). The trial was halted early...
  2. BillTre

    An Ebola Vaccine that Seems to Work

    Lancet has a report of a vaccine for the Ebola virus.
  3. G

    Ebola Virus Disease: Mechanism of infection

    I have looked in a lot of different websites for a explanation of the mechanism of the ebolavirus to infect our body: how it avoid our immunology system, what it exactly change from our DNA and the consequences in the body. I didn't found a clear information, can someone help me to understand ebola?
  4. M

    Ebola - Why fatal to humans but not chimps

    Ebola - chimpanzee - not fatal - bush meat - fatal to humans - why?
  5. S

    Can Nanotech/Bacteria Cure Ebola? Exploring Possibilities

    I was just wondering if some bacteria or nanotechnology could be genetically engineered to target the Ebola strains? Is this possible? If it is then why is no one coming up with a cure?
  6. D

    News The Exponential Spread of Ebola

    Have any of you been tracking the rate of new Ebola infections? It seems that there is pretty clear exponential growth, and the virus is anything but contained. Is anyone else bothered by this? By looking at this just mathematically, some huge swath of people will become infected. At a...
  7. B

    New Ebola Reservoir: Is It At Risk of Increasing Future Outbreaks?

    The Ebola virus as I understand it infects several mammals, including bats, monkeys and people of course. The reservoir of the virus is currently unknown I believe, though some of the hosts that people have contact with have been identified. With the current infections in major population...
  8. Hepth

    News The Ebola Situation : Are you prepared?

    So right now the mobile CNN website has 5/6 "top stories" with Ebola in the headline. We have a horrible escalation and failure of ceasefire in Gaza, Russia is possibly assisting Ukranian "rebels" shoot down airliners, and the republican house just placed a rule to effectively halt any...
  9. O

    If the ebola virus were to mutate

    Someone of unknown academic background mentioned on a news forum that if the ebola virus were to mutate so that it spread easier, like a cold or flu, that it would necessarily lose much of its ferocity, not killing in such high numbers. Is there any fact to this? And what are the odds that...
  10. G

    Ethics of Nanotech: Research Risks & Weaponization

    I'm wondering because drug delivery and nanotech will be my primary area of research. Right now we have a professor at my school that has made breakthroughs in drug delivery across the mucosa in the lung with nanonparticles. Also, there is hordes of research with regards to DNA/RNA/drug...
  11. I

    Potential MIT virus breakthrough?

    http://www.ll.mit.edu/news/DRACO.html Edit: Thanks to Ygggdrasil: Rider TH, Zook CE, Boettcher TL, Wick ST, Pancoast JS, et al. (2011) Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Therapeutics. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22572. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022572
  12. lisab

    Recap of Our Trip to the Festival - Almost Married :cry:

    I would have added to this thread but it's locked (too old I guess): https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=239891 I went this year, with my daughter and her boyfriend. WOW we had such a great time! I highly recommend it! Fantastic music, cool art thingies, amazing food. It's...
  13. T

    Approximately how many casualties would there be from a global H5N1 pandemic?

    About how many global casualties would there be if the H5N1 "bird" flu virus, which kills more than 80% of it's victims, were to become a level 6 pandemic? If the entire world's population were infected, I would imagine that about 5,000,000,000 people would die from the disease. Probably even...
  14. T

    Is it possile for ebola to mutate into an airborne virus?

    From what I understand, the Ebola virus cannot be transmitted through the air. It is transmitted similar to HIV/AIDS, by contact with blood and bodily secretions of an infected individual. But is it possible for the Ebola virus to naturally mutate and become airborne?
  15. J

    Ebola: 85% Mortality Rate & Mean of 100000 Contractors

    the deadly Ebola virus kills 85% of those who contract it. Of the next 100000 people who contract it, what is the mean number who will die?
  16. Mk

    Ebola outbreaks killing thousands of gorillas and chimpanzees

    http://www.nature-science.info/news/07041801.htm [Broken] Closely inspect? On https://www.physicsforums.com/showthread.php?t=167309" for other species doesn't seem like a very good idea to me. Why?
  17. C

    Origin of viruses which cause hemmoragic fevers?

    Viruses which cause hemmoragic fevers are usually passed on to humans through animals (eg: Lassa fever, Margburg virus, Ebola, etc). But from where to the animals get the virus from? Where do the viruses originate from? Is there always some animal carrying the virus in an inactive state?
  18. iansmith

    The Scientist - Human Ebola vaccine trial begins

    http://www.biomedcentral.com/news/20031124/06 [Broken]
  19. FZ+

    News How to discourage nuclear war

    (This is partially a joke. But if any government officials are reading, consider this a freebie from the famous FZ one-man thinktank. :smile:) Ok people, take notes now. The primary threat from nuclear conflict is due to the instability of world leaders, who command these arsenals. At any...
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