# What is Electron spin: Definition and 89 Discussions

In atomic physics, the electron magnetic moment, or more specifically the electron magnetic dipole moment, is the magnetic moment of an electron caused by its intrinsic properties of spin and electric charge. The value of the electron magnetic moment is approximately −9.284764×10−24 J/T. The electron magnetic moment has been measured to an accuracy of 7.6 parts in 1013.

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1. ### A Understanding the Limitations of Electron Spin Resonance

Hello, I have a question regarding the limitations of Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). I've read somewhere that ESR cannot detect radicals with short lifetimes. I'm trying to understand why is that? For example: a highly dynamic system like liquid sulfur at high temperatures, where sulfur...
2. ### I Measuring electron spin and measuring entangled electron spin

Hi people, Lets assume, we have a stern gerlach setup and we are going to measure an atom's last orbit electron's spin with 60 degree from vertical axis. Therefore, in this case, our outcomes would be 3/4 for spin up, 1/4 for spin down. Let's assume, we have the same setup but we are going to...
3. ### A Question on Skin Effect and Eddy Currents

When you try to create time varying magnetic fields in solid metals, there is severe heating due to eddy currents, when you increase the frequency, just like in NDT(non destructive testing) the magnetic field is pushed away from the core to the periphery due to eddy currents opposing the field...
4. ### I Intuitive/classical picture of electron spin g-factor of 2?

It's been troubling me for a while, is there some kind of intuitive heuristic picture of why the electron spin g-factor is 2? I remembered this question because of the thread about the nature of spin. One of the early models of spin that were proposed was that it represented the electrons...
5. ### B Is the Velocity of Electron Spin Calculable Using Classical Models?

Addressing to electron as being rigid body that precesse is probably controversial. Are there any attempts to stick to that model and to calculate its quantize tangent velocity?
6. ### I Spherical Symmetry & Electron Spin: An Exploration

Can an electron in a spherically symmetrical potential energy function have non-zero spin angular momentum?
7. ### A Electron spin resonance in metals

In practice, ESR/EPR seems to concern only unpaired electrons in the outer layers of organic radicals or complexes. But what about the free electrons of metals? Does it also give rise to a signal? I can't find any information on the web. Thanks
8. ### I What happens if B measures the x-axis spin in an entangled pair?

Watching an old (2012) youtube video (), the narrator says (time 10:38) that if A measures the y-axis spin of an entangled pair and communicates his finding to B, then B "cannot" measure his x-axis spin, because doing so would give him knowledge of the spins along both axes, which uncertainty...
9. ### Electron spin probabilities

Homework Statement After beta- decay electron and antineutrino comes out, electron is moving along z axis and it is moving with velocity v. It's spinor is ## \mid\chi\rangle=A\left(\frac{\sqrt{1+\frac{v}{c}}\sin\frac{\theta}{2}}{\sqrt{1-\frac{v}{c}}\cos\frac{\theta}{2}}\right) ## where A is...
10. ### Electron Spin and current-induced magnetic fields

Hi, I'm currently investigating magnetic fields/their cause. This has inevitably led me to learn all about electrons. Here I want to post my understanding on electron 'spin' so people can correct me if I'm wrong/help others get a better understanding. So I watched this YouTube video for...
11. ### I Solving 2 Electron Spin 1/2 System: Need Help!

Hey, I am studying Spin 1/2 system, the case of 2 electrons in a magnetic field, since we have 2 electrons, we expect that the matrix will be of the size 4x4, which is what I have got. As I know that I could use the density matrix to calculate the expectation values of any physical quantity...
12. ### I Electron Spin vs Domain Creation in Permanent Magnets

I am having difficulty thinking through how a ferromagnetic substance is permanently magnetized. I think I understand that when for example a sample of iron is heated above it curie temperature and then exposed to an external magnetic field , the sample will become permanently magnetized. The...
13. ### I Only One Electron? Exploring the Origin of the Claim

I was reading through a thread and read someone say that there is really only one electron traveling through time which is why all electrons we see are the same. IS this an accurate claim? if so, where does it come from?
14. ### I Help Understanding Electron Spin Resonance

Hello, I am learning about electron spin resonance and I just want to see if my understanding is correct. From what I gathered, if you place a paramagnetic material in a magnetic field, the electron energy levels split, and when you then apply EM radiation (generally microwave frequency) that...
15. ### B A question about Electron spin

I was wondering just what physical properties of an electron influence it's probability of being detected in a certain spin state? For example, if I prepare an electron in the spin up state along say the way y-axis (vertical axis) and pass it through a detector that is at 0 degrees, then using...
16. ### Is Electron Spin always Well Balanced?

Just curious. Any answers would be appreciated. Thanks!
17. ### I Understanding Electron Spin: Deep Theoretical Reasons Explained

This has always bugged me, but it appears that the answer is out there via this: "But deep theoretical reasons having to do with the rotational symmetry of nature lead to the existence of spins for elementary objects and to their quantization." The sentence before says this: "A simple answer...
18. ### Basis for electron spin in a quantum field

I get the notion that an elementary particle derives from a localized perturbation of that particles quantum field. What I don't get is how that perturbation can lead to two alternative quantum states for that particle - for example, an electron with two spin states (spin up and spin down). Are...
19. ### Electron Spin Problem: Exploring the Stern-Gerlach Experiment

Hello, I've been reading the Stern-Gerlach experiment, and where the concept of electron spin is introduced, am facing a problem, i.e., if you consider electron a charged rotating sphere, then the electromagnetic energy and size of the electron becomes huge! So how do you deal with this? Thanks...
20. ### Electron spin in an atom

In the stern-gerlach experiment, silver atoms with a +1/2 would be deflected up, and atoms with a -1/2 spin would be deflected down. With that in mind, would electrons' orbitals within an atom be affected by its spin?
21. ### Understanding Slater Determinants Using He 1s2 & 1s12s1

I am really really really confused how to read and construct Slater determinants :( Can someone please explain it using He at the ground state (1s2) and He at excited state (1s12s1) ?
22. ### What dictates electron spin?

Spin is an intrinsic property of particles meaning that they have it naturally. Electrons can have either +1/2 spin or -1/2, what dictates that it is one instead of the other?
23. ### Need some confermation on electron spin meaning?

I just need a simple confermation, when the outermost shells of an atom have unpaired electrons is it the pairing of electrons between two different atoms say oxygen and two hydrogens that causes them to bond together? I keep going back to counting subshells and their spins? my mind went...
24. ### Electron spin clarification

I just want to clear up something about electron spin to see if I have it correctly. As far as I understand it is it not really spinning but it's just a convenient word and what it denotes is the the particular quantum number is either up or down. Now I think I've got it right to say that this...
25. ### How fast does an electron spin

how fast does an electron spin? if an electron has no volume and is a point, then surly speed would have no meaning. So could it spin at what ever speed it likes? would it just be pure spin (think of a square, it has 4 corners and 4 sides, if the length of the sides were zero, then it would be...
26. ### Does Magnetic Field (=/need) electron spin + movement of charge?

Does Magnetic Field (=/need) electron spin + movement of charge? A proton can create a magnetic field too, but does it have spins as well? Hmm super confused. What is a spin?
27. ### Exploring Pauli Exclusion Principle: SP3 Orbitals & Electron Spin

The 3s and 3p orbitals are filled by 4 electrons.A single atom has [Ne]3s2 3p2.But when multiple atoms get together they do so in order to minimize the overall energy.And to minimize the overall energy,the 3s and 3p orbitals hybridize to form 4 tetrahedral SP3 orbitals.And the Si atoms get...
28. ### Understanding Electron Spin and its Effect on Protons

how actually electron and protons spin? explain me whether this spinning could provide torque to the positive charges then it means electrons and protons keeps rotating under their electrostatic field?
29. ### External Magnetic Field & Electron Spin Interaction

In my lecture notes, there is a slide about an external field interacting with a system of electron spins. In this situation can we assume that B=B_0 ( or in other words that μ_0*M =0)? I would think so, but does a system of electron spins imply that these electrons belong to some matter...
30. ### What is the relationship between proton and electron spin in atoms?

If you see a statement like "Spin analysis of H(22S) atom can be achieved through the use of Stern Gerlach interferometry" are they talking about the spin of protons or electrons? Are they perhaps always correlated ie. the same? What about H(22P)?
31. ### Electron spin vs proton spin

I'm no physicist, so please enlighten me. Is an electron's spin related to the spin of a proton? Do they spin at the same frequency? I read that electrons have a higher magnetic moment and stuff.
32. ### What causes the electron spin collapse

I have read about the Stern-Gerlach experiment in Wikipedia, this experiment proved that electron spin could only take two discrete values. The experiment consist in sending neutral charged atoms through a inhomogeneous magnetic field so it would change the particle’s direction a quantity...
33. ### Electron Spin: +-1/2 | Physics Forum Q&A

Mellow, all Physics Forum member, Please help me to have the answer of question, Why electron spin is +-1/2. What is the reason of integral spin of subatomic particle?
34. ### Electron spin and magnetism

1 - How does an electron's spin generate its own magnetic field? 2 - Why are only the orientations of electrons taken into account in statements such as "permanent magnets are created when the orientations of the spin of the electrons are orientated in the same direction" when protons also have...
35. ### Can hydrogen atoms with same electron spin combine?

Paulis exclusion principle say that two electrons around a nucleus can't have the same quantum number. Does that mean that, say, two hydrogen atoms with electrons with the same spin can't make hydrogen gas? Or does one of the electrons change its spin?
36. ### Why Do Fermions Have +1/2 and -1/2 Spin?

Hello, Fermions have a +1/2 and -1/2 spin. Is there any reason for that or is it just an intrinsic property?
37. ### Magnetism due to electron spin

hi i have a doubt about magnetism i am assuming that magnetism is caused by spinning electric flux if we change the velocity(voltage) of the electron does the spin increase? how can we calculate spin of the electron which forces are responsible for electron spin
38. ### Faster than light electron spin

I understand that we are not to think of an electron literally spinning on its axis because the equatorial speed would far exceed the speed of light. However, just for fun, I've been trying to find out just what the speed would be to make the numbers come out to agree with the observed angluar...

Hello Physics Lovers, I was working and suddenly got this question. What external forces have effects on electron spin, like slowing down/speeding up? Is that a possible thing in the first place?
40. ### Multiple Electron Spin Measurements

Homework Statement The z-component of the spin of an electron is measure and the value h-bar/2 is found. Immediately afterwards, the spin along a direction making an angle θ with the z-axis is measured. What are the possible outcomes of this second measurement and with which probabilities do...
41. ### Magnetism and Electron spin

From what I've learned atoms with unpaired electrons are paramagnetic and those without are diamagnetic. Strontium has electron configuration of [Kr] 5s^2 so why is it paramagnetic?
42. ### Electron spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle.

How is it that only 1 spin up and 1 spin down electron are allowed in an atom even though there is no measurement to collapse the state function?
43. ### Is electron spin uniquely determined?

If I give you a box, completely empty except for one hydrogen atom, could you theoretically measure the spin of its electron to tell me if it is +1/2 or -1/2? If this can be done, how can it be accomplished (at least in theory). Or if the question is complete nonsense, why is that? (Sorry for...
44. ### Does Electron spin generate electricity?

Does Electron spin generate electricity? I know that with the electron spin generates a magnetic field, but does it generate an electricity? Thanks for any input!
45. ### Description of Electron spin

Homework Statement Can someone tell me if the spin on an electron can change orientation as it flits around in our universe? Is the spin confined to specific orientations. or can it the axis shift around in a continuum? For entangled particles, is the spin locked into a specific orientation...
46. ### Exploring Electron Spin: The Stern-Gerlach Experiment and its Implications

Which experiment does show that electron has a spin of magnitude of \frac{1}{2}\hbar? I guess, Stern–Gerlach experiment shows that electron has a kind of intrinsic spin; because of which, particle beam gets deflected in some specific way under the application of an external magnetic field...
47. ### Confused about electron spin (stern gerlach experiment)

Here is a diagram to help understand what I'm talking about: My textbook had a similar diagram that depicted the beam traveling between the two magnets as hydrogen atoms. Here is how my textbook describes it: "When a beam of atoms that have one or more lone electrons passes through a...
48. ### Electron spin state representation

Homework Statement The spin of an electron points along the +x direction. a) What is this state in the representation where +z= \left( {\begin{array}{c} 1 \\ 0 \\ \end{array} } \right) -z= \left( {\begin{array}{c} 0 \\ 1 \\ \end{array} } \right) b)...
49. ### In Electron Spin Resonance, Does Spin Up Have More Energy Than Spin Down?

Also, is spin +1/2 the same as spin up? And is spin -1/2 the same as spin down? The first image in the link below is a good reference. http://depts.washington.edu/cmditr/mediawiki/index.php?title=Electron_Spin_Resonance_(ESR)" [Broken] Thanks, Jake
50. ### Permanent effects on electron spin by magnetic materials?

Hello all, I feel somewhat strange posting on this forum because I'm majoring in biology and we're supposed to be the enemies of physics, but I've come across a question that I can't seem to find an answer to; this is actually in regards to independent research. Does instantaneous or prolonged...