Hall effect Definition and 21 Discussions

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor that is transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current. It was discovered by Edwin Hall in 1879.A Hall effect can also occur across a void or hole in a semiconductor or metal plate, when current is injected via contacts that lie on the boundary or edge of the void or hole, and the charge flows outside the void or hole, in the metal or semiconductor. This Hall effect becomes observable in a perpendicular applied magnetic field across voltage contacts that lie on the boundary of the void on either side of a line connecting the current contacts, it exhibits apparent sign reversal in comparison to the standard ordinary Hall effect in the simply connected specimen, and this Hall effect depends only on the current injected from within the void.Superposition may also be realized in the Hall effect: Imagine the standard Hall configuration, a simply connected (void-less) thin rectangular homogeneous Hall plate with current and voltage contacts on the (external) boundary which develops a Hall voltage in a perpendicular magnetic field. Now, imagine placing a rectangular void or hole within this standard Hall configuration, with current and voltage contacts, as mentioned above, on the interior boundary or edge of the void. For simplicity, the current contacts on the boundary of the void may be lined up with the current contacts on the exterior boundary in the standard Hall configuration. In such a configuration, two Hall effects may be realized and observed simultaneously in the same doubly connected device: A Hall effect on the external boundary that is proportional to the current injected only via the outer boundary, and an apparently sign reversed Hall effect on the interior boundary that is proportional to the current injected only via the interior boundary. Multiple Hall effects superposition may be realized by placing multiple voids within the Hall element, with current and voltage contacts on the boundary of each void. DE Patent 4308375
The Hall coefficient is defined as the ratio of the induced electric field to the product of the current density and the applied magnetic field. It is a characteristic of the material from which the conductor is made, since its value depends on the type, number, and properties of the charge carriers that constitute the current.
For clarity, the original effect is sometimes called the ordinary Hall effect to distinguish it from other "Hall effects", which may have additional physical mechanisms, but build on these basics.

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  1. T

    Hall effect over a conducting ring

    This is the diagram provided in the question: The ring is made of conducting material. I was originally asked to find the potential difference between ##a## and ##b##. I did so using the Hall effect (and assuming it would work as per normal in this situation). This got me ##\Delta V = vBl##...
  2. ubergewehr273

    I On the anomalous Hall effect

    Hi! Reading through this paper, the Hall resistivity in ferromagnetic materials is given by $$\rho_H = R_0 B + 4 \pi R_s M$$ It is mentioned that ##R_s## (anomalous Hall coefficient) is significantly larger than ##R_0## (ordinary Hall coefficient) and has a strong dependence on temperature...
  3. ubergewehr273

    I Query on spin Hall voltage

    Hi! I'm trying to understand the dependence of spin hall voltage on various parameters of the material. I have been going through this paper, and it is mentioned that $$V_{SH} = 2 \pi R_s L j_x n \mu_B$$ In the equation, only ##L## and ##j_x## seem to be the variables. Does increasing ##L##...
  4. S

    Textbook says V=E/w but units don't match

    In my textbook, it is talking about the Hall Effect on a flat conductor with width w carrying a current i in a uniform magnetic field perpendicular to the plane of the strip. It says that this will create a potential difference of V=E/w where E is the induces electric field from the electrons...
  5. L

    Find the magnetic field given I, t, Hall EMF, and G_s

    Hi! I had this problem for homework (Mastering Physics), and I'm not sure what I'm doing incorrectly. Is there something fundamental that I'm misunderstanding? Each time I do this, I get 0.717136.. T as my solution 1. Homework Statement I = 12.6 A w = 0.0142 m t = 0.00122 m E_H = 1.82 *...
  6. fluidistic

    I Charge carrier density: Hall experiment vs Fermi-Dirac statistics

    Many times, the charge carrier density of a material is determined from a Hall effect experiment, from ##R_H=1/(ne)## (SI units). Where ##R_H## is determined from a measured voltage and other controllable parameters. As far as I know, this simple formula comes from the obsolete Drude's model...
  7. Philethan

    A Why do we need to know "two-bands" Hall coefficient and magn

    (Oh my god, why can't my post show normally? Some sentences just disappear, but I can still see them while editing. It's very weird. Can someone help me? I've reported.) I know only partially filled bands result in current density, and I think there must be not only 2 partially filled bands...
  8. A

    A Why is ##\omega_c \tau >>1## for several revolutions?

    Hey, I read about charge carriers in semiconductors in a magnetic field. They write that for several revolutions ##\omega_c \tau >>1## holds. But I think for one revolution it is ##\omega_c \tau = 2 \pi##. (##\tau## is the scattering time) Why they do not write ##\omega_c \tau >> 2 \pi##...
  9. adamaero

    Why does the trig expression just disappear?

    Homework Statement Homework Equations 3. Solution Then the equations from part (A) are used--but why does the converted trig (1-cos(etc)) go away? Does this have to do with the mean-squared bit?
  10. T

    Hall Effect in an alternating current circuit

    Since the classical Hall EMF is proportional to current, in an alternating current circuit, the Hall Emf should also follow an alternating pattern. Is it so? Or the Hall Emf doesn't change in a sine wave pattern instead remains more or less same and has a voltage based on the average/rms...
  11. T

    Charge Carriers in the Hall Effect

    For a lab I just finished this past week, we were working with the hall effect and finding hall voltages. The metals used were p-germanium and n-germanium semi-conductors. I understand why in n-germanium the hall voltage is positive and p-germanium is negative assuming negative charge carriers...
  12. S

    Precise Vertical Movement

    I want to test the accuracy a linear displacement sensor (Hall effect) that I have, but I'm not sure what to measure it against. The sensors are made to measure with a resolution of 10μm. My initial thought was to use a drill press to move up and down, but I don't think I know of any that are...
  13. S

    What magnetic position sensor to choose?

    I want to record the displacement of a small magnetic ball moving sideways across the face of the sensor. I've had a close look at AMS's catalog of magnetic position sensors and I'm not sure how to choose one. If I'm working with a movement range of <5mm and want a resolution of 5-10μm, and...
  14. D

    Engineering Finding the Total Force on the Circuit Loop

    Homework Statement The problem asks to find the Total Force on the Circuit Loop. I have a circuit loop with length 30.0 cm and width 10.0 cm with a current I2= 30.0 A that is flowing counter-clockwise. There is a wire that has the current I1=15.0 A flowing from left to right and is 7.50 cm from...
  15. H

    A Hall coefficient's finite temperature experiments in metals

    There are lots of measurements showing strong temperature ($T$) dependence of Hall coefficient ($R_H$) in correlated materials (eg. cuprate superconductors and other oxide materials) and such plots are available in many recent experimental papers. However, I could not find any $R_H$ vs $T$ plot...
  16. F

    I Carrier Concentration in a Semiconductor

    Suppose I have an n-doped semiconductor and want to measure the electron concentration in the conduction band as a function of temperature. How would I go about doing this by measuring the Hall coefficient as a function of temperature, given that I don't know the electron and hole mobilities...
  17. O

    Induced EMF from moving conducting rod

    Homework Statement Lets say we have two horizontal rails connected by a resistor to the left, and we have a movable conducting rod that slides without friction on the rails.There is a uniform magnetic field going into the page. Homework Equations F = ILB[/B] The Attempt at a Solution Now, I...
  18. O

    Measuring minority carrier density and mobility

    Homework Statement Hi all, I'm currently working on a Hall effect lab in which I analyze a p-type sample of germanium (I know it's p-type because I observe a hall voltage inversion point around 350 K which can only happen for a p-type sample). From the Hall and resistivity data I can obtain...
  19. M

    Help with radio waves and electromagnetic fields!

    I need help explaining that this assumption is not correct or correct: A product uses Radio waves to turn on a LED. Radio waves can be a form of electromagnetic fields therefore, a Hall Effect sensor could be used in this device to turn on that LED.
  20. S

    AC Current source

    Hi everybody, As part of my research at UCSD, we are trying to measure Hall resistance of some materials. And to do that we need to send an AC current. So I wondered how we could easily build an ac current source, probably based on op-amp. I know there is the Howland circuit (current pump), but...
  21. J

    Classical Hall effect when current has neutral charge

    If i have a current of both negative and positive charges(i know that there is also current from only negative and only positive charges,i'm not confused) along an infinite wire of square cross-section,and the we put a homogeneous magnetic field normal to the current,then a Lorentz force acts on...