magnetism Definition and Topics - 278 Discussions

Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. Magnetism is one aspect of the combined phenomenon of electromagnetism. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Demagnetizing a magnet is also possible. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, cobalt and nickel and their alloys. The rare-earth metals neodymium and samarium are less common examples. The prefix ferro- refers to iron, because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4.
All substances exhibit some type of magnetism. Magnetic materials are classified according to their bulk susceptibility. Ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, but there are actually several types of magnetism. Paramagnetic substances, such as aluminum and oxygen, are weakly attracted to an applied magnetic field; diamagnetic substances, such as copper and carbon, are weakly repelled; while antiferromagnetic materials, such as chromium and spin glasses, have a more complex relationship with a magnetic field. The force of a magnet on paramagnetic, diamagnetic, and antiferromagnetic materials is usually too weak to be felt and can be detected only by laboratory instruments, so in everyday life, these substances are often described as non-magnetic.
The magnetic state (or magnetic phase) of a material depends on temperature, pressure, and the applied magnetic field. A material may exhibit more than one form of magnetism as these variables change.
The strength of a magnetic field almost always decreases with distance, though the exact mathematical relationship between strength and distance varies. Different configurations of magnetic moments and electric currents can result in complicated magnetic fields.
Only magnetic dipoles have been observed, although some theories predict the existence of magnetic monopoles.

View More On
  1. Anmoldeep

    I Work Done in Changing Shape of Current Carrying Loop

    How would you go about calculating the work done in morphing a square current-carrying loop into a circular current-carrying loop, without change in length while maintaining the same angular orientation with an external magnetic field. My book suggests defining P(potential energy) = M.B (dot...
  2. Viona

    Spin-Orbit Coupling

    I was reading in the Book: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics by David J. Griffiths. In chapter Time-independent Perturbation Theory, Section: Spin -Orbit Coupling. I understood that the spin–orbit coupling in Hydrogen atom arises from the interaction between the electron’s spin magnetic moment...
  3. V

    Engineering What is the magnetic field of a half toroid?

    Hello, I would like to know what is the magnetic field of a half toroid. Would we use Ampere's law? So, considering that the integral is equal to BA, we would have BA = μo * i, then B = (μo * i) / r. But, using Biot-Savart's law, by symmetry, it seems that the vector sum of all the...
  4. N

    B Why do moving charged particles feel a force in a magnetic field?

    When I read things about magnetism on internet, I don't understand at all about one thing: If a moving particle receive a force if it's in a magnetic field, so it should accelerate, so what happen if we change the referential so that the particle now don't move? The particle shouldn't receive...
  5. P

    Can any object cause fluctuations in a magnetic field?

    Summary:: Can a moving object cause disruptions in a magnetic field that could be detectable? Hello, I was hoping someone could assist me on a query I have regarding disruptions in a magnetic field. For some context, I am creating a science fiction story which features a non-humanoid alien...
  6. S

    I Magnetism and Gravity Discussion/Questions

    Hi all, I've recently become transfixed with the idea of magnetism and gravity. I have two main questions I'd like to see discussed more. 1. Would it be possible to harness magnetic fields for energy on earth/for acceleration between planets? 1a. Has this been studied at all? 2. Why do we...
  7. P

    EM fields and Current between 2 charged cylinders

    The task is to find the magnetic field between the 2 long cylinders, which extend to infinity. Integration is involved to find the total current passing through the Amperian Loop shown below. What I do not understand is why only sides 1 and 3 contribute to that B ds part of Ampere's Law. Isn't...
  8. Ale_Rodo

    "Barlow's wheel" used as an electrical generator

    In this thread, I hope to find some help in understanding one of the first application of Faraday's law of induction: the "Barlow's wheel". Basically the machine converts electrical power to mechanical, so as you can imagine, a battery, some conductor wires, a horseshoe magnet and a metal wheel...
  9. P

    Why is magnetic field half at the sides of a solenoid?

    For a solenoid, magnetic field at the centre = ##\mu_0nI##. I see the argument on why at the opening at the ends of the solenoid, the B-field is ##\frac12\mu_0nI##. Apparently, B-field is ##\frac12 \mu_0nI## at the sides of the solenoid too. (ie at/within the wires that make up the solenoid)...
  10. P

    Qualitative explanation of Magnetic Braking

    When a magnet moves near a non-magnetic conductor such as copper and aluminium, it experiences a dissipative force called magnetic braking force. I am rather confused by the following explanation of magnetic braking force: The non-magnetic conductor here is the aluminium 'wall' seen on the...
  11. P

    Ampere's Law for a toroid (finding relative permeability of iron)

    Why is this equation: B(D - d)/mu + Bd = mu0 N I true? B = magnetic field in the hole of the toroid D = Average diameter of the toroid d = Diameter of hole of toroid mu = relative permeability of iron, or whatever the toroid is made of mu0 = 4pi x 10^-7 N = Number of turns on the toroid I =...
  12. E

    Magnetic field in a toroidal core with square cross section and 2 different Coil Windings

    I have a toroid with square cross section and 2 different circuit: ##C_1## where ##N=N_1## and ##I=I_1## ##C_2## where ##N=N_2## and ##I=I_2## I have a question that say I have to find the magnetic field ##B## produce by ##C_1## everywhere inside the coil. I assume here I have to find the...
  13. P

    Stewart-Tolman Effect (Current caused by Acceleration of wires)

    Consider the inertial reference frame in which the positive ions forming the crystal lattice of some portion of a metallic ring are at rest. In this frame, an inertial force of mra exists. Consider the electrons in this portion of the metallic ring. The inertial force of mra is exerted on the...
  14. P

    Rotating ring in a B-field

    Summary:: Please see the attached photo. I have obtained the correct answer, and my solution agrees with the official solution. However, I have some questions about why the solution is correct. (One may have to draw out some diagrams for this problem, it was quite hard to visualise for me.)...
  15. P

    Problem on induced electric field, electrodynamics

    The problem is shown above, the hint to solve the problem is below. See the hint if it is difficult for you to imagine what is going on. I am assuming the diagram in the hint shows what's happening when the mass is falling at terminal velocity. I have quite a few questions. 1. How do the wheels...
  16. P

    Does a charged insulating ring turn if a B-field is switched on?

    The physics behind this problem is that an electric field is induced (by Faraday's Law), when the B field is switched on. Charges on the ring now experience a force as given by dF = E dq. Apparently, because of this, the ring starts rotating. I understand that charges in an insulating material...
  17. Gonzalo Lopez

    Motion Equation for a magnet on a spring

    Apart from the trivial elements of the motion equation (m z'' = -kz -mg), I am required to find the force produced by the Eddy currents induced by the moving magnet. To do so, I calculated the magnetic flux through the hole plate: For a magnet: Bz=μo m 4π. 2z^2−r^2/(z^2+r^2)^5/2 so Φ = a→ +∞...
  18. Mr_Allod

    Magnetic Field, Field Intensity and Magnetisation

    Hello there, I've worked through this problem and I would just like to check whether I've understood it correctly. I found ##\vec H##, ##\vec B## and ##\vec M## using Ampere's Law and the above relations as I would for any thin current carrying wire and these were my answers: $$\vec H = \frac I...
  19. P

    Interactions Between 2 Dipoles

    Draw graphs showing how interaction energy depends upon the relative orientation of two dipoles if (i) p1 is parallel to r, (ii) p1 is perpendicular to r. I've done the first part and found the interaction energy as UInt = 1/(4*pi*epsilon0*r^3)*[p1.p2-3(p1.r^)(p2.r^)] which I know is correct...
  20. rayjbryant

    Cylindrical Halbach array with a vertical magnetic field?

    Similar to what is shown here, except the south side would be the weak side of the array. A link to purchase one of these or at least the magnetic field arrangement would be very helpful. Thanks in advance.
  21. Elder1994

    Magnetic field due to the current flowing in a bent wire

    Hello, in this problem I'm supposed to calculate de magnetic field due to a bent wire at any point of the x-axis after the bending of the wires. It is obvious that the part of the wire that is parallel to the x-axis makes no contribution to the field so we can focus on the other part of the...
  22. J

    Conventional current, magnetic fields and magnetic poles of different diagrams

    I need to do question 1. I understand the right hand rules but am lost on what to do here.
  23. astrocytosis

    Magnetic field of a rotating cylinder with permanent polarization

    I am struggling to get my work to match the posted solutions to this problem. I understand part (a) but can’t get the integral to work out for (b). I know I have to use Biot-Savart and add up the components from the the surface and volume currents. The cylinder is very long, so I need to make a...
  24. fisher garry

    Magnetic field inside a solenoid

    I have a problem with the derivation above I dont get how Can someone derive this and illustrate this visually for example by using Figure 2 or using another drawing?
  25. patrykh18

    Magnetic field outside a solenoid

    In his book on electrodynamics, Griffith talks about the magnetic field outside a solenoid. Firstly instead of dealing with a typical solenoid with closely wound loops, he instead works with a cylinder with a surface current that has no z-component. To get the angular component of the B-field...
  26. harsh22902

    Constancy of flux

    This is an excerpt from a high school physics textbook. I don't understand the possible reason behind this statement. If we change something in the circuit say for example add a resistor , the current and hence the flux should change. Then why/how is this statement true?
  27. rayjbryant

    I Question regarding Lenz's law

    I've attached an illustration of my set up.
  28. Z

    Eigenstates of a free electron in a uniform magnetic field

    I started with the first of the relevant equations, replacing the p with the operator -iħ∇ and expanding the squared term to yield: H = (-ħ^2 / 2m)∇^2 + (iqħ/m)A·∇ + (q^2 / 2m)A^2 + qV But since A = (1/2)B x r (iqħ/m)A·∇ = (iqħ / 2m)(r x ∇)·B = -(q / 2m)L·B = -(qB_0 / 2m)L_z and A^2 =...
  29. Physics lover

    Motion of a particle in a uniform magnetic field

    All i could think is that the z component of velocity will remain unchnged as there is no force in that direction.And for the x and y component can we imagine the helical motion as a superposition of a circle and a straight line.So for x and y component can we solve for a particle moving in a...
  30. TheBigDig

    Force on a magnet in a magnetic field

    So I'm kinda stumped. I'm assuming that since ##\vec{m}||\vec{B}##, the x and y components of both are zero. But I'm unsure how to take this further.