Magnetism Definition and 290 Discussions

Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic fields. Electric currents and the magnetic moments of elementary particles give rise to a magnetic field, which acts on other currents and magnetic moments. Magnetism is one aspect of the combined phenomenon of electromagnetism. The most familiar effects occur in ferromagnetic materials, which are strongly attracted by magnetic fields and can be magnetized to become permanent magnets, producing magnetic fields themselves. Demagnetizing a magnet is also possible. Only a few substances are ferromagnetic; the most common ones are iron, cobalt and nickel and their alloys. The rare-earth metals neodymium and samarium are less common examples. The prefix ferro- refers to iron, because permanent magnetism was first observed in lodestone, a form of natural iron ore called magnetite, Fe3O4.
All substances exhibit some type of magnetism. Magnetic materials are classified according to their bulk susceptibility. Ferromagnetism is responsible for most of the effects of magnetism encountered in everyday life, but there are actually several types of magnetism. Paramagnetic substances, such as aluminum and oxygen, are weakly attracted to an applied magnetic field; diamagnetic substances, such as copper and carbon, are weakly repelled; while antiferromagnetic materials, such as chromium and spin glasses, have a more complex relationship with a magnetic field. The force of a magnet on paramagnetic, diamagnetic, and antiferromagnetic materials is usually too weak to be felt and can be detected only by laboratory instruments, so in everyday life, these substances are often described as non-magnetic.
The magnetic state (or magnetic phase) of a material depends on temperature, pressure, and the applied magnetic field. A material may exhibit more than one form of magnetism as these variables change.
The strength of a magnetic field almost always decreases with distance, though the exact mathematical relationship between strength and distance varies. Different configurations of magnetic moments and electric currents can result in complicated magnetic fields.
Only magnetic dipoles have been observed, although some theories predict the existence of magnetic monopoles.

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  1. Lotto

    B What magnetic fields can this hollow rod shield?

    I suppose it can shield only the external magnetic field, not the field of the magnet itself. But I am not completely sure.
  2. Lotto

    How to calculate magnetic induction just beyond the end of the magnet?

    I know I should use a limit $$B=\lim_{r\to l}{\frac{\mu}{4\pi}\cdot \frac{4rml}{{\left({r}^2-l^2\right)}^2}},$$,but in Wolfram I get a weird solution.[Divide[4rl,Power[\(40)Power[r,2]-Power[l,2]\(41),2]],r->l] What is the solution? It...
  3. vdance

    How are the poles of a tapered magnet distributed?

    How are the poles of a tapered magnet distributed? Is there any way to calculate its magnetic force?
  4. V

    Why are the effects of a magnetized material neglected in this case?

    According to what I know, the net magnetic field ##\vec B## inside a solenoid is given by $$\vec B = \mu_0 \vec H + \mu_0 \vec I$$ where ##\vec B## is the net magnetic field inside a current carrying solenoid, ##\vec H## is the magnetic intensity ( aka magnetic intensity or magnetizing field...
  5. V

    Why does a diamagnetic rod align perpendicular to a magnetic field?

    I know that each material is made up of tiny magnets due to electrons orbiting the nucleus and also from electron spinning about its own axis. In ferromagnetic or paramagnetic rod these tiny magnets align with the applied field causing the net field in the rod to increase. But for diamagnetic...
  6. X

    I Magnetic field strength of a stack of magnets

    I know that for a single cylindrical neodymium magnet, the formula $$ \displaystyle{\displaylines{B(z)=\frac{μ_0M}{2}(\frac{z}{\sqrt{z^{2}+R^{2}}}-\frac{z-L}{\sqrt{(z-L)^{2}-R^{2}}})}} $$ shows the relationship between the magnetic field strength and the distance between the magnet. I was...
  7. B

    Velocity of a relativistic particle in a uniform magnetic field

    d(ɣmv)/dt = qvB (dɣ/dt)mv + ɣm(dv/dt) = qvB Substituting gamma in and using the chain rule, it ends up simplifying to the following: ɣ^3*m(dv/dt) = qvB Now, I am confused on how to solve for v.
  8. dliu1004

    B Questions regarding Magnetorheological fluids

    Hello, has anyone worked with magnetorheological fluids before? I plan on creating one for a project by using carbonyl iron powder, a surfactant, and some oil. I have heard that when subject to a current, these liquids basically become solids. However, I am not sure if they become complete...
  9. Rzbs

    I Cobalt magnetic compounds

    We know cobalt is a magnetic material, it can attracted by magnet. Now if we want to know for example cobalt oxide (co3o4) has magnetic property or not what we should do? I mean is there a role to know bonding of cobalt with which elements results in magnetic property? or is there any online...
  10. Boltzman Oscillation

    I How does the magnetic component of an EM wave affect surroundings?

    Hi all, as we all know EM waves are made up of magnetic and electric waves in a plane perpendicular to the direction of propagation. Given this, why don't I see conductors being affected when I shine light at them? Woulnt the magnetism cause a force? Is is that the force is too small? What am i...
  11. samy4408

    I Weird question in electrostatics -- Work done bringing two positive charges together

    in a cours of electrostatic when we have a positive charge and we bring another one (also postitive)we have to do work and apply a force that equals the force of repultion over the distance which seems weird because if we do that the net force will be equal to 0 and the charge will not move can...
  12. A

    Trajectory of an electron traveling near a current-carrying wire

    B equals 50*10^-7 T (at first instance) Fm equals 8*10^-20 N (at first instance) I know Fm is perpendicular to the velocity, and I know the estimation of the trajectory (somewhat similar to the curve y=lnx). Since I think vertical velocity will be constant, only changing the x component, I...
  13. Anmoldeep

    I Work Done in Changing Shape of Current Carrying Loop

    How would you go about calculating the work done in morphing a square current-carrying loop into a circular current-carrying loop, without change in length while maintaining the same angular orientation with an external magnetic field. My book suggests defining P(potential energy) = M.B (dot...
  14. Viona

    Spin-Orbit Coupling

    I was reading in the Book: Introduction to Quantum Mechanics by David J. Griffiths. In chapter Time-independent Perturbation Theory, Section: Spin -Orbit Coupling. I understood that the spin–orbit coupling in Hydrogen atom arises from the interaction between the electron’s spin magnetic moment...
  15. V

    Engineering What is the magnetic field of a half toroid?

    Hello, I would like to know what is the magnetic field of a half toroid. Would we use Ampere's law? So, considering that the integral is equal to BA, we would have BA = μo * i, then B = (μo * i) / r. But, using Biot-Savart's law, by symmetry, it seems that the vector sum of all the...
  16. N

    B Why do moving charged particles feel a force in a magnetic field?

    When I read things about magnetism on internet, I don't understand at all about one thing: If a moving particle receive a force if it's in a magnetic field, so it should accelerate, so what happen if we change the referential so that the particle now don't move? The particle shouldn't receive...
  17. D

    Can any object cause fluctuations in a magnetic field?

    Summary:: Can a moving object cause disruptions in a magnetic field that could be detectable? Hello, I was hoping someone could assist me on a query I have regarding disruptions in a magnetic field. For some context, I am creating a science fiction story which features a non-humanoid alien...
  18. S

    I Magnetism and Gravity Discussion/Questions

    Hi all, I've recently become transfixed with the idea of magnetism and gravity. I have two main questions I'd like to see discussed more. 1. Would it be possible to harness magnetic fields for energy on earth/for acceleration between planets? 1a. Has this been studied at all? 2. Why do we...
  19. P

    EM fields and Current between 2 charged cylinders

    The task is to find the magnetic field between the 2 long cylinders, which extend to infinity. Integration is involved to find the total current passing through the Amperian Loop shown below. What I do not understand is why only sides 1 and 3 contribute to that B ds part of Ampere's Law. Isn't...
  20. Ale_Rodo

    "Barlow's wheel" used as an electrical generator

    In this thread, I hope to find some help in understanding one of the first application of Faraday's law of induction: the "Barlow's wheel". Basically the machine converts electrical power to mechanical, so as you can imagine, a battery, some conductor wires, a horseshoe magnet and a metal wheel...
  21. P

    Why is magnetic field half at the sides of a solenoid?

    For a solenoid, magnetic field at the centre = ##\mu_0nI##. I see the argument on why at the opening at the ends of the solenoid, the B-field is ##\frac12\mu_0nI##. Apparently, B-field is ##\frac12 \mu_0nI## at the sides of the solenoid too. (ie at/within the wires that make up the solenoid)...
  22. P

    Qualitative explanation of Magnetic Braking

    When a magnet moves near a non-magnetic conductor such as copper and aluminium, it experiences a dissipative force called magnetic braking force. I am rather confused by the following explanation of magnetic braking force: The non-magnetic conductor here is the aluminium 'wall' seen on the...
  23. P

    Ampere's Law for a toroid (finding relative permeability of iron)

    Why is this equation: B(D - d)/mu + Bd = mu0 N I true? B = magnetic field in the hole of the toroid D = Average diameter of the toroid d = Diameter of hole of toroid mu = relative permeability of iron, or whatever the toroid is made of mu0 = 4pi x 10^-7 N = Number of turns on the toroid I =...
  24. H

    Magnetic field in a toroidal core with square cross section and 2 different Coil Windings

    I have a toroid with square cross section and 2 different circuit: ##C_1## where ##N=N_1## and ##I=I_1## ##C_2## where ##N=N_2## and ##I=I_2## I have a question that say I have to find the magnetic field ##B## produce by ##C_1## everywhere inside the coil. I assume here I have to find the...
  25. P

    Stewart-Tolman Effect (Current caused by Acceleration of wires)

    Consider the inertial reference frame in which the positive ions forming the crystal lattice of some portion of a metallic ring are at rest. In this frame, an inertial force of mra exists. Consider the electrons in this portion of the metallic ring. The inertial force of mra is exerted on the...
  26. P

    Rotating ring in a B-field

    Summary:: Please see the attached photo. I have obtained the correct answer, and my solution agrees with the official solution. However, I have some questions about why the solution is correct. (One may have to draw out some diagrams for this problem, it was quite hard to visualise for me.)...
  27. P

    Problem on induced electric field, electrodynamics

    The problem is shown above, the hint to solve the problem is below. See the hint if it is difficult for you to imagine what is going on. I am assuming the diagram in the hint shows what's happening when the mass is falling at terminal velocity. I have quite a few questions. 1. How do the wheels...
  28. P

    Does a charged insulating ring turn if a B-field is switched on?

    The physics behind this problem is that an electric field is induced (by Faraday's Law), when the B field is switched on. Charges on the ring now experience a force as given by dF = E dq. Apparently, because of this, the ring starts rotating. I understand that charges in an insulating material...
  29. Gonzalo Lopez

    Motion Equation for a magnet on a spring

    Apart from the trivial elements of the motion equation (m z'' = -kz -mg), I am required to find the force produced by the Eddy currents induced by the moving magnet. To do so, I calculated the magnetic flux through the hole plate: For a magnet: Bz=μo m 4π. 2z^2−r^2/(z^2+r^2)^5/2 so Φ = a→ +∞...
  30. Mr_Allod

    Magnetic Field, Field Intensity and Magnetisation

    Hello there, I've worked through this problem and I would just like to check whether I've understood it correctly. I found ##\vec H##, ##\vec B## and ##\vec M## using Ampere's Law and the above relations as I would for any thin current carrying wire and these were my answers: $$\vec H = \frac I...
  31. P

    Interactions Between 2 Dipoles

    Draw graphs showing how interaction energy depends upon the relative orientation of two dipoles if (i) p1 is parallel to r, (ii) p1 is perpendicular to r. I've done the first part and found the interaction energy as UInt = 1/(4*pi*epsilon0*r^3)*[p1.p2-3(p1.r^)(p2.r^)] which I know is correct...
  32. rayjbryant

    Cylindrical Halbach array with a vertical magnetic field?

    Similar to what is shown here, except the south side would be the weak side of the array. A link to purchase one of these or at least the magnetic field arrangement would be very helpful. Thanks in advance.
  33. Elder1994

    Magnetic field due to the current flowing in a bent wire

    Hello, in this problem I'm supposed to calculate de magnetic field due to a bent wire at any point of the x-axis after the bending of the wires. It is obvious that the part of the wire that is parallel to the x-axis makes no contribution to the field so we can focus on the other part of the...
  34. J

    Conventional current, magnetic fields and magnetic poles of different diagrams

    I need to do question 1. I understand the right hand rules but am lost on what to do here.
  35. astrocytosis

    Magnetic field of a rotating cylinder with permanent polarization

    I am struggling to get my work to match the posted solutions to this problem. I understand part (a) but can’t get the integral to work out for (b). I know I have to use Biot-Savart and add up the components from the the surface and volume currents. The cylinder is very long, so I need to make a...
  36. fisher garry

    Magnetic field inside a solenoid

    I have a problem with the derivation above I don't get how Can someone derive this and illustrate this visually for example by using Figure 2 or using another drawing?
  37. patrykh18

    Magnetic field outside a solenoid

    In his book on electrodynamics, Griffith talks about the magnetic field outside a solenoid. Firstly instead of dealing with a typical solenoid with closely wound loops, he instead works with a cylinder with a surface current that has no z-component. To get the angular component of the B-field...
  38. harsh22902

    Constancy of flux

    This is an excerpt from a high school physics textbook. I don't understand the possible reason behind this statement. If we change something in the circuit say for example add a resistor , the current and hence the flux should change. Then why/how is this statement true?
  39. rayjbryant

    I Question regarding Lenz's law

    I've attached an illustration of my set up.
  40. Z

    Eigenstates of a free electron in a uniform magnetic field

    I started with the first of the relevant equations, replacing the p with the operator -iħ∇ and expanding the squared term to yield: H = (-ħ^2 / 2m)∇^2 + (iqħ/m)A·∇ + (q^2 / 2m)A^2 + qV But since A = (1/2)B x r (iqħ/m)A·∇ = (iqħ / 2m)(r x ∇)·B = -(q / 2m)L·B = -(qB_0 / 2m)L_z and A^2 =...
  41. Physics lover

    Motion of a particle in a uniform magnetic field

    All i could think is that the z component of velocity will remain unchnged as there is no force in that direction.And for the x and y component can we imagine the helical motion as a superposition of a circle and a straight line.So for x and y component can we solve for a particle moving in a...
  42. TheBigDig

    Force on a magnet in a magnetic field

    So I'm kinda stumped. I'm assuming that since ##\vec{m}||\vec{B}##, the x and y components of both are zero. But I'm unsure how to take this further.
  43. C

    A Couple Magnetism Questions

    Hello, there are a couple things about magnetism that I do not understand. 1. Why didn't we define the magnetic field to be in the directions of the force? This isn't really a technical question, I am just more curious about why it is this way. The way I was thinking of it, the math seems to...
  44. B

    A question about magnetism that causes a wheel-loop to rotate

    This question is from 1977 AP Physics C so I suppose it would be clear enough, but I am confused about question c. Question a is easy (it rotates counterclockwise), question b too (Στ=6*rxF=6*r x (I*i x B)=0.06). Question C is where I am stuck. The diagram provided with the question looks like...
  45. B

    Biot Savart Law with Different Magnetic Permeabilities

    I would like to make a program that produces a 2D heat map showing the magnitude of the magnetic field produced by a finite length solenoid. The heat map would show the field strength along the radial and axial directions of the solenoid. I plan to divide the conductor into "infinitessimally"...
  46. Zack K

    I Do two perpendicular wires exert a force on each other?

    I have a question for my E&M assignment (I'm not putting it in the homework thread since I just need more of a concept check) that involves a straight wire with current through it. If you have a wire with a current through it, and you have a rectangular wire also with current, to the right of...
  47. P

    Magnetism Question

    My 7 year old child asked me today about magnetism. His question was "Does the magnet pull in the paper clip, or does the paper clip pull the magnet" . He then said to me "If i tie a rope to a tree and pull on the rope with enough force I will be dragged to the tree, so how do you know which...
  48. Celso

    Induced EMF — generator coil area calculation

    Homework Statement What is the necessary area for a generator that produces an emf of ##\mathcal{E} = 150V## when it spins at a ratio of 60 revolutions per second, in a magnetic field of ##B = 0.5 T##? Homework Equations ##\oint_{c} E \cdot dl = \mathcal{E} = -\frac{d}{dt}\iint_{s} B \cdot dS...
  49. DLeuPel

    Can Mu metals redirect a magnetic field?

    I am trying to find a way to decrease the force between two magnets by putting a physical barrier in the middle of them. I’ve reasearched and found that Mu metals redirect the flux of the magnetic fields so those two magnets shouldn’t have any noticeable attraction between them. Of course...
  50. P

    Are these instances of identical magnetic fields?

    Are both magnetic fields emanated from an electromagnet fed with a current spike from a charge capacitor and a rotating static magnetic field from permanent magnets instances of time varying fields? The permanent magnet would be attached to perhaps some rotating disc thus passing over a target...