What is Magnification: Definition and 181 Discussions

Magnification is the process of enlarging the apparent size, not physical size, of something. This enlargement is quantified by a calculated number also called "magnification". When this number is less than one, it refers to a reduction in size, sometimes called minification or de-magnification.
Typically, magnification is related to scaling up visuals or images to be able to see more detail, increasing resolution, using microscope, printing techniques, or digital processing. In all cases, the magnification of the image does not change the perspective of the image.

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  1. Dr Wu

    Microchip Imaging: What Magnification is Needed for Electron Microscopy?

    Assuming the use of an electron microscope, what magnification would be needed to image a computer microchip at the micrometer level? Thanks in advance.
  2. Skaiserollz89

    I Tilted plane wave through a 2 lens system

    I have 2 lenses. L1 and L2 with focal lengths f1=910mm and f2=40mm, respectively. They are separated by a distance d=f1+f2. The magnification of the system is M1=-f2/f1=.044. If I have a normally incident, collimated beam pass through my system I will have a beam, parallel to the optic axis exit...
  3. H

    I How to Measure Magnification of a Lens System with Liquid Surface

    HI I am currently playing with imaging device that would take pictures of the content of the bottom of the small plastic container. The container is just a tube of 7mm in diameter. When I image an empty tube I get a proper high contrast image of the dust on the bottom of it. However the...
  4. Aymangh994

    I Total focal length and magnification

    I would like to realize an image of the cantilever. The dimensions are (450x50) microns. I would like to use a self-constructed telephoto lens. This consists of two lenses. The image magnification can be 4 to 8. The magnification of the image is nothing more than the ratio between the two focal...
  5. L

    Image position and magnification for underwater spherical lens

    Using the data given and recalling that in this configuration ##R<0## I get: ##\frac{1.33}{0.5}+\frac{1.5}{q}=\frac{1.5-1.33}{-0.2}\Rightarrow q\approx -0.427 m=-42.7 cm## so the image is virtual and is ##42.7\ cm## to the left of vertex ##V##. The magnification is ##M=\frac{n_1 q}{n_2...
  6. N

    I Pentaprism with magnification, which surface is curved?

    I would like to use a pentaprism with some amount of magnification. The pentaprism will be used to reflect a real image at 90 degrees angle but I also want the reflected image to appear larger. The distance between the prism and the real image is about 70cm. The pentaprism has two reflecting...
  7. ThiagoMNobrega

    B Low magnification, high resolution, experiments on photon sieves?

    In the video above we can see the wave like patterns. The microscope on the video, used on the experiment, has a low quality and a low magnification. If anyone has a scientific article or a video source for such experiment with low magnification but with a high quality of definition it would be...
  8. L

    A reflective spherical balloon

    From ray tracing I would say that the image is upright. Using the equation ##\frac{1}{p}+\frac{1}{q}=\frac{1}{f}## with ##f=-\frac{R}{2}=-2## and ##M=-\frac{q}{p}=\frac{3}{4}## I get ##p=\frac{2}{3}cm\simeq 0.67 cm##. Is this correct? Thanks
  9. B

    I Compound Microscope System: Magnification Power Explained

    Ok so for a compound microscope system like the one below, Magnification power is ## MP = M_T * M_A ##. My present understanding is that ##M_T## refers to the magnification by height ratios of the object through L1, and ##M_A##, in this case, refers to the ratio of unaided and aided angles of...
  10. B

    A Question of Electronic Live Image Magnification

    I have a difficult to articulate question about digital microscopes. I was reminded by my post in the STEM toys thread when I mentioned the Eyeclops. How does one define what strength something is magnified at when you can cast the live image onto monitors of various sizes? An image magnified...
  11. A

    I Gravitational lensing: deriving magnification of lensed image

    In gravitational lensing, the image magnification is defined as the image area over the source area. But many texts also give it as the inverse of the determinant of the jacobian, A, of the of the lens equation. My question is how these are equivalent. The lens equation is...
  12. Make it glow art

    Object magnified inside a cylinder of water

    Would you able to tell me what’s the ideal angle Of a curved glass in order to Magnify an object inside an aquarium to the maximum. Also what would be the ideal distance of the object inside the aquarium. Sorry if I didn’t explain myself properly. I‘m hopeful somebody would be able to explain it...
  13. Addez123

    Lateral magnification in mirrors, simple issue

    The equation gives us that i = -mp = -0.4 * 30 = -12 The 'correct' answer is +12. Did I miss something here?
  14. NP04

    Magnification for Curved Mirrors

    Magnification |M|<1 = smaller |M|>1 = larger This is my reasoning because the magnification is -d0/di so it is the ratio that matters. Because wouldn't the sign just affect the type of image?? If you consider the sign in image size, you are saying that only one type of image (real/virtual)...
  15. B

    Question about the derivation of linear magnification

    I tried assumed ##\theta \approx sin \theta \approx tan \theta##. By Snell's law(after approximation), $$n_1 \tan( i_1)= n_2 \tan( i_2)$$ If ##\tan (i_1)=\frac {h_o}{ u}## and ##\tan (i_2)=\frac {h_i}{ v}##,then $$m=\frac {h_i}{h_o}=\mod{\frac {v n_1}{un_2}}$$ Which is the expected...
  16. DharshanT

    Finding the magnification of a ball lens

    I don't really know how to relate the effective and back focal lengths for magnification purposes. Literature review suggests that a lens of 1mm diameter can have a magnification of 350x-400x, but I don't really know the calculations behind it. Please advise.
  17. R

    B Magnification scale of order

    In order to get a very general sense of the scale of order of magnification power of telescopes: If a hobby telescope i have, has a magnification power of X100, what would be the magnification power in terms of X, of the following: 1. Hubble 2. James Webb 3. Gravitational lensing
  18. J

    Focal length of converging thin lens graphs

    I tried -M=pq = f/(f-p) = f/f - f/p = 1-(f/p) => M+1= -f/p => -Mp-p=f But since it’s the y intercept, p will equal zero and so the focal length will be 0?
  19. navneet9431

    Magnification of an Astronomical Telescope

    My teacher taught me a formula for magnification in case of Compound Microscope, Magnification=(Angle Made By Object On Aided Eye)/(Angle Made by Object on Un-aided Eye) Can I use this formula for calculating magnification of Astronomical Telescope? Thanks!
  20. JulioHC

    How to measure the magnification of a microscope in the lab

    Good evening, In the following weeks, I will be performing a lab project during three sessions and one of the things that I have to do is to create a microscope using a set of lenses (We are using a 50mm focal length convergent lens as the objective and a 100m focal length convergent lens as...
  21. F

    Microscopy magnification problem

    Hello, I'm having trouble understanding how and why the math is the way that it is to get the answer. The question states: A specimen has a diameter of 1.5 micrometer. What is the minimum magnification that will allow a human to resolve this object? 150 micrometer/1.5 micrometer = 100X <--...
  22. DarkStar42

    A Do any coordinate systems include self magnification?

    Take a neutron star, its surface will be gravitationally self magnified so that it looks bigger to the distant observer, than it 'really' is, plus you can see some of the rear facing surface. If you take the centre of the neutron star, then this process must go on there also, although unseen...
  23. K

    What is the power of the lens in diopters?

    Homework Statement It is desired to magnify reading material by a factor of 3.5× when a book is placed 9.5 cm behind a lens. What is the power of the lens in diopters? Homework Equations 1/f = 1/di + 1/do M = -di/do P=1/f The Attempt at a Solution I set equal the magnification to -di/do and...
  24. MermaidWonders

    MHB Object Distance & Magnification: Explained w/Diagram

    An object and its lens-produced real image are 2.4 m apart. If the lens has 55-cm focal length, what are the possible values for the object distance and magnification? Can someone please explain this with a diagram of the different possibilities (or, if not, just give a detailed explanation on...
  25. Jonforall

    Must we always use absolute value for lens magnification?

    My brother's physics teacher says that magnification and height of image are always positive. Is she right?
  26. jim hardy

    Firefox won't display the PF page until I change magnification

    Firefox 59 intermittently displays only part of content on a page if i click menu bar and change magnification up or down one setting, ie from 100% to 90 or 110 it finishes but if change back to initial magnification it disappears again windows 7 firefox 59.0.1 anybody else seen that ? old jim
  27. P

    Focal Length given M and distance between obj and img

    Homework Statement The distance between an object and its upright image is 28.0 cm. If the magnification is 0.550, what is the focal length of the lens that is being used to form the image? Homework Equations 1/f = 1/so + 1/si M= -si/so The Attempt at a Solution See included image...
  28. N

    Image Magnification: Find Height of Image with f=42

    Homework Statement f=42[/B] Find the height of the image produced when a 3.0 cm -high object is placed at distance f+10cm Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution 1/52= 1/3 +1/di di=49 However, this is wrong for some reason. Thanks
  29. N

    Optics - Adding magnification in an optical system

    Homework Statement I have a system like image below An object 1 (OP = Object plane) is projected onto the image plane 1 (IMP) where an eye is located, with a beam splitter (BS). This eye is also looking at some object at distance far away. I would like to magnify this image of the object at...
  30. M

    What is the max magnification of 0.5mm film lens.

    What is the max magnification of 0.5mm film lens. Film is just on the top of flat object(Paper, Display, Picture, etc). If Fresnel lens is made on top of the film, Can I magnify the object? Thank you.
  31. izMuted

    Magnification, when is it negative?

    Homework Statement In magnification, I keep on confusing the signs. From what I understand currently, magnification is positive when the image is erect. An image is only erect when it is a virtual image, therefore virtual images = positive magnification. Vice versa, magnification is negative...
  32. Cocoleia

    Magnification formula for a Galilean telescope

    Homework Statement I am asked to draw the ray diagram for an incident plane wave whose rays are at an angle α with respect to the optical axis of the telescope. I have done this, but I need to find an expression for the angle between the outgoing rays and the optical axis, in terms of f1, f2...
  33. B

    Calculating Magnification: Diverging and Converging Lenses Equations Explained

    Homework Statement "Find the magnification of the following system: A diverging lens with focal point -9.5 cm is placed 4.35 cm to the right of a converging lens with its own focal point of 13.0 cm. Parallel light enters the converging lens from the left." Homework Equations M = -p/q 1/p + 1/q...
  34. R

    Near Point Distance of 25cm, how far should object be?

    Homework Statement A magnifier has a magnification of 9× How far from the lens should an object be held so that its image is seen at the near-point distance of 25 cm? Assume that your eye is immediately behind the lens. Express your answer to two significant figures and include the...
  35. K

    Can you find lens magnification from focal length?

    If you know the focal length of a lens and use the lens equation 1/do + 1/di = 1/f by assigning some arbitrary do and solve for di, can you then find the magnification just from the focal length from -di/do?
  36. M

    Find Magnification of Reflecting Telescope

    Homework Statement Find the magnification of a 10" reflecting telescope with a focal length of 1250mm and a 250mm eyepiece. Homework Equations 1/f=1/do+1/di M=hi/ho=-di/do The Attempt at a Solution Not really sure where to start. If you could, please explain how you got the answer. Thanks for...
  37. koustav

    Seeing Newton's Rings: Why Magnification is Needed

    why do we can't see Newton's ring through our naked eye?why do we need microscope? but interference pattern due to oil film or soap bubble can be seen through naked eye
  38. V

    Problem understanding magnification

    So there are two facts that I know: 1) The farther the image is formed from a mirror/lens, the bigger it is. 2) The more powerful a lens is, the closer the image is formed assuming the object at a fixed distance. I can't reconcile these two facts. Common sense says that the stronger the lens...
  39. S

    Microscope magnification using Ray Optics

    Homework Statement Basically, derive the formula ## m = \frac{ 25 cm}{f_e} \frac{L}{f_o} ## using ray matrices. This just has variable tube length and assumes eye to object distance is 25 cm. Homework Equations Ray matrices: ## \left[ \begin{array}{cc} 1 & d \\ 0 & 1 \end{array} \right] ##...
  40. A

    Magnification confusion

    Homework Statement The distance between the objective and eyepiece lenses in a microscope is 21cm . The objective lens has a focal length of 5.5mm. What eyepiece focal length will give the microscope an overall angular magnification of 350? Homework Equations M=(25*d)/(fe*fo) or...
  41. gracy

    Angular magnification what is angle subtended?

    In case of simple microscope .we take angular magnification I know The angular magnification of an instrument is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye when using the instrument divided by the angular size without the instrument But what I am not getting is how this subtended angle is...
  42. S

    Convex Lens and Magnification

    Homework Statement You wish to obtain a magnification of -2 from a convex lens of focal length f. The only possible solution is to: A) place a virtual object at a distance 2f/3 from the lens. B) place a virtual object at a distance 5f/3 from the lens. C) place a real object at a distance...
  43. K

    Magnification through a lens at various diameters

    We have a high power plus lens of known front curve, index, and center thickness and have placed a known diameter circular target at a known distance behind the lens. Observing the circular target through the lens we compute the ratio between the diameter of the original circular target behind...
  44. B

    Distance from the object to objective lens and focal length

    Homework Statement 1) The medium-power objective lens in a laboratory microscope has a focal length fobjective = 3.70mm . If this lens produces a lateral magnification of -42.5, what is its "working distance"; that is, what is the distance from the object to the objective lens? 2) What is the...
  45. X

    Error in angular magnification calculation

    Homework Statement The wing of an insect is 1.7 mm long. When viewed through a microscope, the image is 1.4 m long and is located 5.9 m away. Determine the angular magnification. Homework Equations di/do=hi/ho M=beta/alpha alpha=object size/object distance beta=image size/image distance The...
  46. X

    Find angular magnification

    1. Homework Statement The wing of an insect is 1.7 mm long. When viewed through a microscope, the image is 1.4 m long and is located 5.9 m away. Determine the angular magnification. Homework Equations di/do=hi/ho M=beta/alpha alpha=object size/object distance beta=image size/image distance...
  47. RaulTheUCSCSlug

    Unraveling the Mystery of Strained Eye Magnification

    Homework Statement This is not really a homework problem but I wanted to figure out how to derive the equation for a strained eye which is $$ M= (N/f) $$ where N is the object distance from the normal near point, and f is the focal length of a magnifying glass. But then, this is for a relaxed...
  48. S

    Fake magnification and other information

    Hello, I bought 20x50 (150m/1000) binoculars that were not expensive from untrusted market but they were relatively cheap. But when I decided to sell them to another person he told that they zoom no more than 12 or even less. I don't understand how magnification is calculated. I didn't thought...
  49. P

    Hi/ho problem -- Lens magnification

    Homework Statement An arrow h0 = 2.20 cm long is located 74.0 cm from a lens, which has a focal length = 30.6 cm. If the arrow is perpendicular to the principal axis of the lens, as shown in the figure below, what is its lateral magnification, defined as hi/h0? I am given: ho=2.20 cm. do 74.0...
  50. R

    Compound Microscope Magnification @ Infinity

    is magnification negative for a compound microscope at infinity
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