What is Obesity: Definition and 15 Discussions

Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to an extent that it may have a negative effect on health. People are generally considered obese when their body mass index (BMI), a measurement obtained by dividing a person's weight by the square of the person's height—despite known allometric inaccuracies—is over 30 kg/m2; the range 25–30 kg/m2 is defined as overweight. Some East Asian countries use lower values. Obesity is correlated with various diseases and conditions, particularly cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. High BMI is a marker of risk, but not proven to be a direct cause, for diseases caused by diet, physical activity, and environmental factors. A reciprocal link has been found between obesity and depression, with obesity increasing the risk of clinical depression and also depression leading to a higher chance of developing obesity.Obesity has individual, socioeconomic, and environmental causes, including diet, physical activity, automation, urbanization, genetic susceptibility, medications, mental disorders, economic policies, endocrine disorders, and exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. While a majority of obese individuals at any given time are attempting to lose weight and often successful, research shows that maintaining that weight loss over the long term proves to be rare. The reasons for weight cycling are not fully understood but may include decreased energy expenditure combined with increased biological urge to eat during and after caloric restriction. More studies are needed to determine if weight cycling and yo-yo dieting contribute to inflammation and disease risk in obese individuals.Obesity prevention requires a complex approach, including interventions at community, family, and individual levels. Changes to diet and exercising are the main treatments recommended by health professionals. Diet quality can be improved by reducing the consumption of energy-dense foods, such as those high in fat or sugars, and by increasing the intake of dietary fiber. However, large-scale analyses have found an inverse relationship between energy density and energy cost of foods in developed nations. Low-income populations are more likely to live in neighborhoods that are considered "food deserts" or "food swamps" where nutritional groceries are less available. Medications can be used, along with a suitable diet, to reduce appetite or decrease fat absorption. If diet, exercise, and medication are not effective, a gastric balloon or surgery may be performed to reduce stomach volume or length of the intestines, leading to feeling full earlier or a reduced ability to absorb nutrients from food.Obesity is a leading preventable cause of death worldwide, with increasing rates in adults and children. In 2015, 600 million adults (12%) and 100 million children were obese in 195 countries. Obesity is more common in women than in men. Authorities view it as one of the most serious public health problems of the 21st century. Obesity is stigmatized in much of the modern world (particularly in the Western world), though it was seen as a symbol of wealth and fertility at other times in history and still is in some parts of the world. In 2013, several medical societies, including the American Medical Association and the American Heart Association, classified obesity as a disease.

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  1. jim mcnamara

    Obesity (BMI>25) in 50%+ population == much higher Covid fatalities

    https://www.worldobesity.org/news/statement-coronavirus-covid-19-obesity This is more of a medical practitioner's site than a research facility. This shows far greater impact on medical facilities and fatalities, apparently 90% of fatalities occur in chubby countries. News version...
  2. Ygggdrasil

    Medical New MC4R Variants Discovered to Protect Against Obesity

    Published this week in the journal Cell, researchers report discovering variants of the human gene MC4R that protect against obesity by helping to make people full. These new findings, combined with previous work on other MC4R variants that contribute to obesity, suggest the potential for new...
  3. Wrichik Basu

    Medical Are rheumatic fever and obesity related?

    I know that rheumatic fever is caused by the bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. It mostly develops after a streptococcal throat infection. But are rheumatic fever and obesity related? For example, are obese people more susceptible to rheumatic fever than a normal person (keeping in mind that the...
  4. wolram

    Childhood Obesity: Is It a Problem?

    Is child hood obesity a problem? all the kids i know are slim and active. http://www.usc.edu/org/InsightBusiness/SP07articles/obesity.pdf
  5. Ygggdrasil

    Caffeine & Obesity: Scientists Explore Impact on Brown Fat

    Scientists studying obesity have had great interest in brown fat, adipose tissue that actually helps burn fat (for example, to generate body heat in the cold). Studies suggest that higher levels of brown fat correlate with lowered risks for obesity and diabetes, and scientists are studying...
  6. T

    Electronic chip to reduce obesity

    Something really surprising, a electronic chip that will help to reduce eating. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-21852062
  7. zoobyshoe

    Medical Exploring the Obesity Paradox: Fitness Over Weight Matters

    And quite a paradox it is. Goes against everything we have been taught: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/18/health/research/more-data-suggests-fitness-matters-more-than-weight.html
  8. Q_Goest

    Medical Falling asleep with TV on linked to depression, obesity and other issues

    I was walking down the hallway at work and saw a poster. Someone must have put it up outside their office. It said that falling asleep with the TV on reduces the bodies production of melatonin. So I looked it up and found an interesting article on Discovery.com...
  9. D

    The Obesity Epidemic: What Can Be Done to Stop It?

    What are the steps the medical system takes nowadays to raise awareness in the public regarding obesity epidemic who rages through the western world , and to put an end to it ? Is there a concerted effort to put it at an end ? Should governments, through their healthcare policies, get...
  10. N

    Obesity and health - pointer to a way to reduce costs?

    I caught the tail end of a news item, something about 25% of New York (city? state?) residents being obese (presumably including whatever is more than obese)*, and that got me thinking. Take all the research results on health, nutrition, etc, and assume a New York population that has an...
  11. Evo

    Making Money from the American Obesity Boom

    Oh yes, I want a "foot funnel" :bugeye: Americans are out of control. I can't believe how many people in this office are doublewides. Jan. 6, 2006 — While doctors and other health experts are wringing their hands over the rise in obesity in the United States, another group of professionals...
  12. Mk

    How is excess sodium in the diet linked to obesity

    How is excess sodium in the diet linked to obesity and high blood pressure?
  13. ShawnD

    The past generation is responsible for today's obesity problem

    Right now, my parents are angry at me because I won't eat with them. I'm just not hungry. I had a big breakfast and I haven't done any physical activity all day, so I have no need to eat more at this time. That doesn't matter though, they're still angry and being dramatic because I won't eat...
  14. E

    Obesity: Is it a Disease? Insurance Implications

    I just read the following article and can't understand why stapling the stomach would be an expense that might get covered under insurance? http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A52835-2004Jul15.html If stapling the stomach reduces the amount of food that gets in, is that the...
  15. ShawnD

    Health issue: obesity vs. amphetamines

    Amphetamines, commonly known as "speed", and adrenaline activate the body in a similar way. Breathing and heart rate speed up, the pupils widen, blood pressure increases, and appetite is suppressed. Overuse of speed (too much at once or too often) can cause heart attacks. I almost don't...