What is Covid: Definition and 88 Discussions

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The first known case was identified in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The disease has since spread worldwide, leading to an ongoing pandemic.Symptoms of COVID-19 are variable, but often include fever, cough, headache, fatigue, breathing difficulties, and loss of smell and taste. Symptoms may begin one to fourteen days after exposure to the virus. At least a third of people who are infected do not develop noticeable symptoms. Of those people who develop noticeable symptoms enough to be classed as patients, most (81%) develop mild to moderate symptoms (up to mild pneumonia), while 14% develop severe symptoms (dyspnea, hypoxia, or more than 50% lung involvement on imaging), and 5% suffer critical symptoms (respiratory failure, shock, or multiorgan dysfunction). Older people are at a higher risk of developing severe symptoms. Some people continue to experience a range of effects (long COVID) for months after recovery, and damage to organs has been observed. Multi-year studies are underway to further investigate the long-term effects of the disease.Transmission of COVID-19 occurs when people are exposed to virus-containing respiratory droplets and airborne particles exhaled by an infected person. Those particles may be inhaled or may reach the mouth, nose, or eyes of a person through touching or direct deposition (i.e. being coughed on). The risk of infection is highest when people are in close proximity for a long time, but particles can be inhaled over longer distances, particularly indoors in poorly ventilated and crowded spaces. In those conditions small particles can remain suspended in the air for minutes to hours. Touching a contaminated surface or object may lead to infection although this does not contribute substantially to transmission. People who are infected can transmit the virus to another person up to two days before they themselves show symptoms, as can people who do not experience symptoms. People remain infectious for up to ten days after the onset of symptoms in moderate cases and up to twenty days in severe cases.Several testing methods have been developed to diagnose the disease. The standard diagnostic method is by detection of the virus' nucleic acid by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), or by reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) from a nasopharyngeal swab.
Preventive measures include physical or social distancing, quarantining, ventilation of indoor spaces, covering coughs and sneezes, hand washing, and keeping unwashed hands away from the face. The use of face masks or coverings has been recommended in public settings to minimize the risk of transmissions.
While work is underway to develop drugs that inhibit the virus (and several vaccines for it have been approved and distributed in various countries, which have since initiated mass vaccination campaigns), the primary treatment is symptomatic. Management involves the treatment of symptoms, supportive care, isolation, and experimental measures.

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  1. russ_watters

    COVID Understanding COVID Quarantine Guidance

    Unfortunately this topic is relevant to me now.... CDC Guidance: https://www.cdc.gov/respiratory-viruses/guidance/respiratory-virus-guidance.html https://www.cdc.gov/respiratory-viruses/guidance/faq.html The CDC has generalized its exposure control guidance to respiratory viruses, not...
  2. T

    Why Is the Origin of COVID-19 Causing Controversy?

    A New York Times article about the current controversy over origin of the COVID-19 virus. Titled: The Government Must Say What It Knows About Covid’s Origins Wide ranging but somewhat superficial, it does have about 15 links to references embedded in it though...
  3. bhobba

    Covid Vaccines Reducing Infections

    Where I am in Australia, there has been a lot of media talk that Covid vaccines were useless in slowing the spread. It reduces the severity and death rate - no question. I have seen reports that if you have the Covid booster, you are significantly less likely to die...
  4. jedishrfu

    Recent Article on the Evolution of a Theory of Covid Origins

  5. russ_watters

    COVID Vaccines: Annual Updates and Potential Impacts on Immunity and Profit

    We've been speculating about this happening for a couple of years: https://www.cnn.com/2023/01/23/health/fda-covid-vaccines-strategy-shift/index.html I think at this point most of us saw this coming, but it will still be interesting to see how the transition happens, both for the vaccine and...
  6. russ_watters

    Is China's 'Zero COVID' Policy Coming to an End?

    It looks like backlash against China's ZERO COVID policy is finally causing its end. The upside is they succeeded in delaying mass infection until (presumably) everyone was vaccinated. The downside is now they're getting the organic mass infections they'd been largely able to prevent until...
  7. berkeman

    COVID COVID researchers discover why some people are asymptomatic

  8. Astronuc

    Can a COVID vaccine cause a cancer (e.g., lymphoma) to be worse?

  9. kyphysics

    Long-Term Effects/Risks/Vulnerabilities of Having Had COVID

    We have lots of different COVID threads (some on vaccines, some on individual variants, etc.), but none on its long-term effects. I wasn't sure where to place this recent news item (and others like it), so I thought I'd create a thread solely devoted to it. Here is said recent news article...
  10. T

    Long COVID - Blood Markers linked to Mental Problems

    Viral particles linger in brain cells. The analysis detected much higher average levels of two SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins they measured—the nucleocapsid protein and the spike protein—in blood plasma samples collected between six and 12 weeks after diagnosis from patients infected with COVID who...
  11. T

    COVID How Will North Korea Handle Its First Major COVID Outbreak?

    So north Korea announced its first COVID outbreak a few days ago and now nearly 200000 people caught the "fever with unexplained causes". North Korea itself has poor medical and anti Covid tools due to persistent sanctions against it. What do you think this will mean for the country and Kim Jong In?
  12. jim mcnamara

    US Covid Deaths Reaching 1M: 997041 in 2022/18/03 18:51 MDT

    Per Worldometer 2022/18/03 18:51 MDT data: Reported Covid US deaths 997041, World deaths 6093047 Population of the US 334256039, World (est) 7934365211 USA as % of world population 4.2% USA as % of world Covid deaths 16.3% In a short while the Worldometer counter for USA deaths will hit 1...
  13. M

    What's going on with the COVID cases in Alabama?

    The CDC reports a 450% increase in Covid cases in Marengo County, Alabama ( https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#county-view?list_select_state=all_states&list_select_county=all_counties&data-type=Cases&metric-cases=new_cases_week_over_week_percent_change ). The same thing is visible on New...
  14. jim mcnamara

    Long Covid and gut microbiotic changes

    https://gut.bmj.com/content/early/2022/01/05/gutjnl-2021-325989 https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/gut-bacteria-may-play-a-role-in-the-development-of-long-covid The immune system is disrupted by Covid - e.g., cytokine storm. This disruption appears in the genetic "makeup" of fecal...
  15. Ygggdrasil

    COVID US Postal Service begins shipping free COVID tests

    Just an FYI to the American users of the forum: you can go to covidtests.gov to order free at-home rapid antigen tests. (source: NPR) Unfortunately, the tests will likely arrive after the peak of the Omicron wave (or at least I hope Omicron is on the decline by the time the tests start...
  16. T

    COVID How has COVID affected your school?

    I am studying Data Science in University right now and because of COVID lessons are 95% online. I have to watch the webinar for 2 whole hours and because of that my grades are dropping as I have no mood to study. Academics asides I also felt socially disconnected in my school because I can't see...
  17. mktsgm

    Medical What determines the long-term effectiveness of a viral vaccine?

    It is well known that RNA viruses mutate very quickly. Hence, it is said that it is very hard to develop an effective vaccine against it. With HIV and influenza RNA viruses the scientific world is still facing difficulty in developing effective long-term vaccines against them. Most influenza...
  18. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID What do we know about the new Covid variant B.1.640.2 and its potential dangers?

    Source: https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.12.24.21268174v1 Source: https://www.dw.com/en/new-corona-variant-identified-in-france/a-60329823
  19. jim mcnamara

    Does oxidative stress play a role in Covid and its severity?

    If you already kind of understand anti-oxidant effects on inflammation jump past the "background" paragraphs Background anti-oxidant: Mitochondria produce energy in the cell, primarily from Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle is another name). Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) like H2O2 Hydrogen...
  20. StevieTNZ

    COVID Covid Variant Omicron (B.1.1.529)

  21. pinball1970

    Covid worldometer Spike 6.10.21

    I check this pretty regularly so I am sure this is a recent adjustment. China made a similar adjustment last year, around May adding 1200. The UK too some numbers off towards the end of last year (around 5,000?) How does this work? This spike seems very large...
  22. Y

    Are all 3 shots of the Pfizer Covid vaccine the same?

    Like the name, are all 3 shots of Pfizer Covid vaccine identical in composition or they are different formula following the mutation of the virus? I took all 3 shots, just curious whether it's more of the same.
  23. E

    Implications of Covid becoming endemic

    In this thread I'd like to explore the substantial impacts that SARS-2 becoming endemic will have on future life, economy, travel, the healthcare system and social life in general. For starters, it seems high inflation will be the norm. Some economies will likely crash and most will become...
  24. jim mcnamara

    COVID Covid vaccines - CDC report on associated mortality

    https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/70/wr/mm7043e2.htm?s_cid=mm7043e2_w CDC MMWR report on research: Weekly / October 29, 2021 / 70(43);1520–1524 "COVID-19 Vaccination and Non–COVID-19 Mortality Risk — Seven Integrated Health Care Organizations, United States, December 14, 2020–July 31, 2021" This...
  25. Stephenk53

    COVID Effectiveness of COVID policies

    I was wondering if anyone had any data on the effectiveness of Covid policies on Covid transmission. Ill start, keep in mind my information comes from an email I was sent by the college and their site not a research paper, at Merrimack college masks are currently required in "certain indoor...
  26. C

    How Can Engineering-Based Blood Filtering Help Treat COVID?

    I am watching the video in this post;- https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/is-the-waning-of-covid-vaccines-over-time-a-big-issue.1008171/post-6554749 (yes, I do fully read and try to understand people's posts, not sure it is reciprocated) and I was unaware of the content of the video, where...
  27. bhobba

    Is the Waning of Covid Vaccines over Time a Big Issue?

    This started from the following post: We have no idea if we will need to keep boosting every few months. The latest information I am aware of is the following: https://www.cnbc.com/2021/10/04/pfizer-covid-vaccine-protection-against-infection-tumbles-to-47percent-study-confirms.html That...
  28. pinball1970

    COVID publications from the PHE are now issued by the UKHSA

    Public Health England are being/are replaced by Health Security agency Latest publication below. Very similar format to PHE https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/1023849/Vaccine_surveillance_report_-_week_40.pdf Vaccine uptake by age...
  29. bhobba

    COVID Peter Doherty On Covid with Informative Video That Is A Must Watch

    Hi All I mentioned I was reading Peter Doherty's book on Covid. Good book. But it turns out there was no need to buy it even though it was cheap. He has it all on his institute's website, plus stuff he has written since releasing the book. Here it is...
  30. T

    COVID US-Japan COVID R.1 Variant: What To Know

    Lots of detail but no links to supporting docs, way above my paygrade! https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamhaseltine/2021/09/20/a-new-usjapan-variant-to-watch/?sh=722a90aa3509
  31. jim mcnamara

    (US) FDA approves Covid Pfizer booster (3rd shot) for Seniors 65+....

  32. U

    Does smoking Hookah cause COVID?

    I want to know about this thing.
  33. russ_watters

    Are the COVID Vaccines Unusually Ineffective?

    Background: While discussing a moderator action in the private forum a statement was made that points to a potentially fundamental misunderstanding of how vaccines/vaccinations work that may be pervasive regardless of which side is correct. I'm spinning that discussion off and re-starting it...
  34. mktsgm

    Mechanism of asymptomatic Covid infections

    How we may explain or understand the absence of symptoms in an asymptomatic Covid patient? Which following scenario may explain asymptomatic infection more clearly? A highly efficient innate immunity arm takes care of the infection without the need for intervention from the adaptive arm as...
  35. Sagittarius A-Star

    COVID Covid-19 mRNA/LNP Vaccine: understanding Biodistribution

    When mRNA/LNP vaccine gets injected into the upper arm (30 µg for BionTech/Pfizer, 100 µg for Moderna), small amounts get distributed to other organs. Source: https://blogs.sciencemag.org/pipeline/archives/2021/01/21/mrna-vaccines-what-happens Source...
  36. Evo

    COVID Covid Side Effects: Unraveling the Neurological & Psychiatric Impacts

    I thought it might be interesting and helpful to put all information on known side effects of Covid in one thread. Please feel free to add any information on side effects here...
  37. E

    Herd immunity with new COVID variants?

    If someone has had the original COVID-19 strain and survived, does this mean that they have any immunity to the new variants? Or do the new variants completely ignore any antibodies that someone who survived the original virus has?
  38. kyphysics

    With College Starting Up in Week or Two, How Are Your Campus COVID Rules?

    I know lots of people here are in undergrad or graduate school (some maybe even as faculty). I'm curious how your institution is handling the return-to-school process in the midst of COVID/Delta? Are you at 100% capacity? Maybe 50% (with a hybrid online mix, for example)? Will masks and/or...
  39. kyphysics

    COVID Booster Shots - Thoughts/News?

    Anyone have research on whether it's necessary and/or a good idea to get one? Pfizer has said it's vaccine efficacy drops to 83.7% after 4 to 6 months...
  40. mktsgm

    What are the mechanisms of immune response after Covid vaccination?

    As the Covid vaccines become more prevalent worldwide, the hospitalization and mortality rates are coming down hearteningly. Actually, what happens after vaccination? 1) Vaccination causes the production of antibodies. So when later infection happens, the antibodies are up and ready to bind...
  41. bhobba

    COVID Peter Doherty's Book On The Covid Pandemic

    Peter is a Nobel Laurite researcher who was going to retire just after Covid hit. He put off his retirement to work on Covid and has released a book about the experience: https://www.booktopia.com.au/an-insider-s-plague-year-peter-doherty/book/9780522877519.html Looks interesting. I will be...
  42. morrobay

    COVID Cross Reactive Covid 19 Immunity From Exposure to Endemic Coronaviruses

    https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.26958. Since the majority of Covid cases are mild or Asymptomatic one possible factor could be existence of cross immunity in a population as a result of previous exposure to other Endemic Coronaviruses.
  43. Ygggdrasil

    COVID COVID-19's Impact on the Brain: New Evidence Emerges

    Here's a nice news piece from Nature summarizing various studies to find the underlying causes behind the neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19. In particular, the article highlights studies suggesting that SARS-CoV-2 can infect astrocytes in the brain, that SARS-CoV-2 can affect blood...
  44. kyphysics

    What Are Reasons for "Breakthrough Infections" of COVID?

    I know even the best vaccines aren't 100% effective at preventing infections and there are lots of people who take immunosuppressants whose immune systems don't mount the proper response to the COVID vaccines. Other than these specific folks, I'm wondering what other reasons there might be for...
  45. Evo

    Delaying a COVID vaccine’s second dose boosts immune response

    I was wondering if @Ygggdrasil has more information on this. Is there only documentation on people over 80? What is the likely hood that this would also be the case for those younger? I believe the study is only for the Pfizer vaccine. https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-021-01299-y Is the...
  46. MidgetDwarf

    Question regarding Penicillin Allergy and Covid Vaccines

    Greetings. I have been contemplating getting the Covid Vaccine. However, I have a sever allergy to Penicillin. The last time I received penicillin, I was a young child. Difficulty breathing/hives, and went to the hospital. Anyways, I have been reading online to see if a Covid vaccine is safe...
  47. Evo

    COVID Get Vaccinated Against the Covid Delta Variant

    Get vaccinated! https://www.yahoo.com/news/the-covid-19-delta-variant-what-you-need-to-know-151035628.html...
  48. bhobba

    COVID Stunning Effectiveness of the Covid Vaccines

    I have mentioned it in passing before, but I reread it in a recent article, so thought I would post it for reference: https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-05-tiny-vaccine-breakthrough-covid-cases.html In those vaccinated .0007% hospitalisations and .0001% deaths. Please keep these figures in...
  49. G

    COVID Anyone else having a terrible reaction to the COVID vaccine?

    Man this is killing me (figuratively I hope). I know I’m whinging, but I rarely get sick, and here I am experiencing full on flu symptoms along with a slightly discomfortable chest after the 2nd Pfizer. In addition to the sore arm. Being sick sucks, especially when it’s fake sickness meant to...
  50. T

    COVID Antibody from Common Cold reacts to COVID

    THIS POST TITLE IS MISLEADING. I paraphrased/lifted from the jpost. com article but did not read the research article. @Ygggdrasil graciously points out the error in post #3 below. Thanks...