Depression Definition and 71 Discussions

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. The Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the global economy can decline.The Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929, (known as Black Tuesday). Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II.
The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor countries. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade fell by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 23% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most.
Economic historians usually consider the catalyst of the Great Depression to be the sudden devastating collapse of U.S. stock market prices, starting on October 24, 1929. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression.Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, where the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped from 381 to 198 over the course of two months, optimism persisted for some time. The stock market turned upward in the early 1930, with the Dow returning to 294 (pre-depression levels) in April 1930, before steadily declining for years, to a low of 41 in 1932.At the beginning, governments and businesses spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, consumers, many of whom suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U.S.Interest rates dropped to low levels by the mid-1930, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment remained low. By May 1930, automobile sales declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices, in general, began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. Then a deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook; declining crop prices and a Great Plains drought crippled their economic outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance.The decline in the U.S. economy was the factor that pulled down most other countries at first; then, internal weaknesses or strengths in each country made conditions worse or better. Frantic attempts by individual countries to shore up their economies through protectionist policies – such as the 1930 U.S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries – exacerbated the collapse in global trade, contributing to the depression. By 1933, the economic decline pushed world trade to one third of its level compared to four years earlier.

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  1. W

    Coping mechanisms for thermodynamics?

    Wasn’t sure whether I should post this here since it’s a more qualitative question, or under the Thermodynamics thread because that’s a more specific topic. For all practical purposes, the laws of thermodynamics are inviolable, and statistical mechanics puts them on an even firmer theoretical...
  2. PrinceWalnut

    Admissions PhD Applications with a low GPA (due to depression in my junior year)

    Hi all, It's a few short months before grad school applications are due, and I find myself in a bit of a dilemma. Prior to my junior year, I knew what I wanted to do is physics research for my career, and I'm particularly interested in biological and condensed matter physics. My skills are more...
  3. Krunchyman

    Other Restoring curiosity

    I began to study mathematics in college because I was fascinated by the subject and have a naturally high degree of curiosity for it along with the rest of the sciences--but stress, depression and other factors take away that curiosity as I progress through each semester, leaving me bored...
  4. Cjosh

    Taking physics and dealing with depression/anxiety

    I suffer from serious bouts of depression/anxiety that come and go for no obvious reason. I started physics this year and its hit me half way through the semester. I made a doc appointment to fix this and I am afraid it will hurt me academically if its not fixed and I won't be able to do awesome...
  5. thefurlong

    Academia Outsider Depression

    I hope this is right place to post this. I just wanted to get this off of my chest. I am frustrated, and depressed because I am an outsider to the physics community. I am posting this with the hope that somebody else might be able to add perspective to my situation. I apologize if that's...
  6. C

    How to get really deep depresion on an exoplanet?

    I want an exoplanet/exomoon with really deep depression. It would be the only place on that planet that's really habitable for humans without breating aid. Idea: -lower gravity (somewhere around 0.8 g) so the mountains should be able to be a bit taller -one supercontinent that's slowly...
  7. D

    Depression is a trending tag

    That's somewhat depressing...
  8. D

    Height of an object given angles of depression

    Homework Statement A hot-air balloon is floating above a straight road. To estimate their height above the ground, the balloonists simultaneously measure the angle of depression to two consecutive mileposts on the road on the same side of the balloon. The angles of depression are found to be...
  9. I

    Down time between graduating and working - depressed

    I was always looking forward to this period. University is finished and work is about to begin. However I ended up getting really depressed. Having found my degree went by fast, I'm not in touch with anyone from college either. Is this normal? I'm applying to a number of backups and reading...
  10. N

    Medical Depression linked to analytical thinking

    source: Interesting. So ,depression is linked to high analytical thinking skills; They are saying the reason why some people who isolate themselves from external stimuli like social interaction and not eating...
  11. G

    Depressing, my math skills have gone to crap

    since graduating from college (5 years ago). Today I had trouble remembering the limit definition of the derivative. To think I was studying Hilbert Spaces and logic my final year in college. If you don't use it you lose it. Come to think of it, I don't remember much from DiffEqs either. I...
  12. L

    Life is a mess (depressed)

    I'm turning 20 in a month. I recently got accepted into UBC (college transfer) and i can't get into the 2nd year engineering program because of one course... physics 153. otherwise i have everything else. I registered this year crack of dawn and i wasn't even able to take physics 153 because of...
  13. T

    Cause of melting point depression

    Homework Statement An unknown compound gave a melting point of 230C. When the molten liquid solidified the melting point was determined to be 131C. Give a possible explanation for this discrepancy. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I understand that melting point...
  14. L

    Capillary action: mercury depression

    hi guys, need some help for this question. a capillary of unknown internal radius was inserted into a pool of mercury into a pool of mercury. the height of mercury within the capillary was depressed 1.6cm below the free liquid. Calculate the internal diameter of the capillary. For the...
  15. M

    Depression of melting points

    I have tried a quick scan of the web for general information relating to the depression of melting points and found very little available, so i started this thread. The general idea is a depression curve which will help you identify by how much a sample contains impurities. I was looking for...
  16. F

    Do physics make you depressed?

    Whenever I try getting into physics, I get depressed because of all the theories about the end of the universe. Stuff like entropy, ekpyrotic universe (where the universe can end any second), proton decay, etc. Sure, they might be a lonnnnng way off, but it's still inevitable which makes every...
  17. Ivan Seeking

    News Do wars create wealth? aka, How did WWII help to end the Depression?

    There is a popular claim that the New Deal didn't end the Great Depression; that it only ended because of WWII. 1). How did WWII help to end the depression? 2). Generally speaking, do wars create wealth, and if so, how? If your answer to number 1 is government "government spending", then...
  18. E

    News Merill Lynch's chief North America economist believes we are in a depression

    You can download David Rosenberg's research note below.
  19. M

    Freezing Point Depression and vapor pressure

    Why is the vapour pressure lowered when non volatile solute is added to a solvent? What is the physical reason? Also, why do binary solutions freeze over a range of temperatures, not at one specific temperature? Thanks guys, as usual, for sharing the knowledge!:smile:
  20. O

    News Real Time discusses income inequality and the Great Depression

    [url]iL6YS-8rBnE[/youtube] On Bill Maher's latest "Real Time" show, with one of the best panels he's had in months, he quotes BYU graduate, economist, and former fed chairman Marriner S. Eccles, who noted that when there is a large inequality in a society and the rich hold all the cards, it...
  21. M

    Freezing point depression

    Homework Statement One mole of two different compounds happens to weight the same, but one compound ionizes in water and the other does not. Which will give the lowest freezing point depression? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
  22. L

    Depressed polynomials

    how would i write the depressed polynomial for the obvious root of f(x) = x5 - .5x4 - 5.5x3 - 3.5x2 - 6.5x - 3
  23. W

    Depressed about school progress

    Hi all. I've been lurking for a while, reading all I can on getting a Physics BS. I posted another thread in the Academic and Career Guidance on my hopeful 3-year plan. Unfortunately it seems like I don't have the time (4 more years) or money to get an applied physics degree. I just started a...
  24. J

    Help. I have a BS in Physics and a BS in Computer Engineering. I'm Depressed.

    Hi PF, As stated in the title, I'm loaded with degrees; plus a minor degree in Japanese Studies. I'm not being boastful or anything but I would like you to understand why I am depressed. I was very happy while I took up Physics for four years, I particularly enjoyed the laboratory work...
  25. L

    Boiling point depression?

    I just finished a lab where I distilled a mixture of 2-methyl-2-butene and 2-methyl-1-butene in a dilute solution of sulfuric acid. The boiling points of the compounds respectively are 38.57C and 31.6C. The bp range ended up being a constant 32C. How is this possible? Shouldn't it be...
  26. ZapperZ

    Happy Most Depressing Day of the Year

    Today is,8599,1704887,00.html" [Broken]. So don't do anything I wouldn't do. :) Zz.
  27. E

    Freezing point depression

    i was just wondering why salt, when it dissociates into Na an Cl as it is dissolved into water, decreases the freezing point of water. Why does more energy have to be taken out of the system? does it have to do with entropy or what?
  28. B

    Going to feel depressed when I graduate from college

    I'm currently in my junior year. I've yet to form relationships that are supposed to last a lifetime. I guess its partly due to my condition(I have asperger syndrome). I did manage to form one good potential friendship. I'm not really sure about yet. This person graduates next year , so I...
  29. E

    Dielectric constant depression of water?

    Hey Everyone. I am doing a project proposal where I am calculating the coupling efficiency between a quantum dot and a wire and I need to enter in values for the dielectric constant of the wire and the surrounding medium. I am working off a paper (doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.035420) where he uses...
  30. P

    Capillary Action (Capillary Depression)

    Hi, I have questions regarding capillary action and capillary depression for practical purposes. I'm fairly educated in physics and chemistry, but have some "what would happen if..." questions. Please help, and add any information you'd think helpful! 1) Imagine you have your typical...
  31. D

    Emotional Stress/Depression (How to deal with School)

    A few weeks ago I lost my girlfriend whom I dated for over 3 years. She immediately started dating another guy. I haven't been in a happy place since then... and find it extremely hard to motivate myself to do any work, study, or even just get out of bed. I've been getting help for it, but I...
  32. S

    Freezing Point Depression and Ethylene glycol

    Homework Statement Ethylene glycol, the primary ingredient in antifreeze, has the chemical formula C_2H_6O_2. The radiator fluid used in most cars is a half-and-half mixture of water and antifreeze. What is the freezing point of radiator fluid that is 50% antifreeze by mass? K_f for water...
  33. H

    Artistic Depression

    Do you think an artists work can be affected by their depression or mental illness? I am doing a project for A level and would love as many different views as possible :)
  34. H

    SSRIs, dopamine and depression

    There is actually substantial critique against the simple "chemical hypothesis" that depression is caused by low levels of serotonin. See for instance:
  35. ShawnD

    Why do doctors give SSRI medication to treat depression?

    I'm not a doctor, but I'm a chemist who suffers from depression. I haven't worked in a hospital or a clinic, but I would like to think I have 20+ years of practical experience - myself. If you already know something about drugs or simply don't care about my story, scroll down to the "Question"...
  36. B

    Does it ever depress you that you're not the best?

    Does it ever depress you that you're not the "best?" So I'm going to do Maths + CS at university. Someone on a forum the other day posted a link to a guy called Terence Tao ( who was a child progidy and is obviously incredible good at Maths. I just feel...
  37. W

    Is depression really treatable?

    I have a serious question to ask. Is depression really treatable? I ask because I think I might to really see someone. It has really gotten worse over the years. However, my friend went to see someone and she is on a cocktail of meds, and when they are switched, she becomes really erratic. I...
  38. D

    The most depressing movie ever

    Has got to be Requiem for a Dream. Every time I watch this movie it makes me want to die.
  39. Ivan Seeking

    Medical Depression linked to depressing events [Broken] I am trying to think of something to say that won't require that I ban myself. One would think that someone might have looked at this long ago...?
  40. N

    Medical Serotonin Awarenss Depression.

    I'm trying to understand the role of Serotonin. DOes it cause you o be awake? IS it the sole thing that gives us happy moods? Drugs like DMT and LSD are confused with SOrotonin int he brain causing psychdellic trips. DMT is a substance which exists in our brain or Pineal Gland. I want to know...
  41. A

    Freezing point depression lab

    Hi Guys, I have a question and its regarding to the freezing point depression lab ... I did an experiment where I had to find an "i" value for KCl. I'm getting 2.4 for "i" ... but the theoratical value is 2. I was just wondering why expriment value os higher than the theortical value ? what...
  42. N

    Freezing point depression error

    So we did an experiment of freezing point depression and my calculated molar mass values were larger than actual... First, the freezing point of the pure solvent had to be determined and so if some of the solvent was on the walls of the test tube opposed to in the solution how would this affect...
  43. siddharth

    Since the past week, I find myself depressed, . . . .

    Since the past week, I find myself depressed, and I can't think of any reason why. :frown: To be more specific, there's this nagging feeling of futility. So, what do you do in situations like this? I know this question is vague, but I feel slightly better sharing this. (First signs of insanity...
  44. I

    Medical Depression: It's All In Your Head.

    Medical Explanation for Major Depression An important line of defense in treating Major Depression is realizing depression is a medical disorder. It’s a BRAIN disorder, not a MIND disorder (although depression effects the mind). A depressed brain is not running on all cylinders. Certain...
  45. A

    Ice cream and freezing point depression

    When you make ice cream using a couple of zip loc bags and a salt/ice mixture do the room and surroundings have any effect? Can you be in a warm room and still make the ice cream? Thanks.
  46. e-realmz

    Medical Brain tumor linked to depression?

    A brain tumor was recently experienced. It was on the surface tissue of the brain and was about 3 inches in diameter. Non cancerous. There was no reported brain damage. Everything healed up great. For a good month or two, way of thinking was altared a little. Presently that way of thinking is...
  47. S

    Suicidal/depressed for more than a year

    so as you guys already know, I'm mentally ill ... I have been suicidal/depressed for more than a year (and I'm still alive wow!) I'm also epileptic ... and I have several physical problems as well, but I would rather not discuss them on here but hey I'm not about to die or anything ...
  48. H

    Very depressed

    very depressed... Hi all.. Just finished my thermodynamics badly...not expected to be that bad... I used to score greatly in the first year...I got A+ in nearly all courses.. But this time...I am afraid that I would probably get a D or even can i accept this...sigh...
  49. C

    News Syriana, Depressing and true to life.

    I just saw Syriana. It shows that little bits of corruption end up killing reform in the middle east which in turn perpetuates terrorism. It also does a good job of showing that many terrorists are not indoctrinated to violence, they are slowly persuaded through peer pressure to do acts they...
  50. R

    News Side Topic for Great Depression Thread

    Side Topic for "Great Depression" Thread The demand for oil is also on the rise though. As vast as these reserves may be, all that does is buy us a little more time to figure out alternatives/fight over it. It will still run out eventually.