What is Depression: Definition and 120 Discussions

The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States. The timing of the Great Depression varied across the world; in most countries, it started in 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s. It was the longest, deepest, and most widespread depression of the 20th century. The Great Depression is commonly used as an example of how intensely the global economy can decline.The Great Depression started in the United States after a major fall in stock prices that began around September 4, 1929, and became worldwide news with the stock market crash of October 29, 1929, (known as Black Tuesday). Between 1929 and 1932, worldwide gross domestic product (GDP) fell by an estimated 15%. By comparison, worldwide GDP fell by less than 1% from 2008 to 2009 during the Great Recession. Some economies started to recover by the mid-1930s. However, in many countries, the negative effects of the Great Depression lasted until the beginning of World War II.
The Great Depression had devastating effects in both rich and poor countries. Personal income, tax revenue, profits and prices dropped, while international trade fell by more than 50%. Unemployment in the U.S. rose to 23% and in some countries rose as high as 33%. Cities around the world were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many countries. Farming communities and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by about 60%. Facing plummeting demand with few alternative sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as mining and logging suffered the most.
Economic historians usually consider the catalyst of the Great Depression to be the sudden devastating collapse of U.S. stock market prices, starting on October 24, 1929. However, some dispute this conclusion and see the stock crash as a symptom, rather than a cause, of the Great Depression.Even after the Wall Street Crash of 1929, where the Dow Jones Industrial Average dropped from 381 to 198 over the course of two months, optimism persisted for some time. The stock market turned upward in the early 1930, with the Dow returning to 294 (pre-depression levels) in April 1930, before steadily declining for years, to a low of 41 in 1932.At the beginning, governments and businesses spent more in the first half of 1930 than in the corresponding period of the previous year. On the other hand, consumers, many of whom suffered severe losses in the stock market the previous year, cut their expenditures by 10%. In addition, beginning in the mid-1930s, a severe drought ravaged the agricultural heartland of the U.S.Interest rates dropped to low levels by the mid-1930, but expected deflation and the continuing reluctance of people to borrow meant that consumer spending and investment remained low. By May 1930, automobile sales declined to below the levels of 1928. Prices, in general, began to decline, although wages held steady in 1930. Then a deflationary spiral started in 1931. Farmers faced a worse outlook; declining crop prices and a Great Plains drought crippled their economic outlook. At its peak, the Great Depression saw nearly 10% of all Great Plains farms change hands despite federal assistance.The decline in the U.S. economy was the factor that pulled down most other countries at first; then, internal weaknesses or strengths in each country made conditions worse or better. Frantic attempts by individual countries to shore up their economies through protectionist policies – such as the 1930 U.S. Smoot–Hawley Tariff Act and retaliatory tariffs in other countries – exacerbated the collapse in global trade, contributing to the depression. By 1933, the economic decline pushed world trade to one third of its level compared to four years earlier.

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  1. LCSphysicist

    How to deal with depression in undergraduate studies?

    Hello everyone. Could you give me some advices on how to deal with depression, without medications (if i take medications, i will sleep too much), while you are on undergraduate? Thank you.
  2. StevieTNZ

    No clear link between low serotonin and depression - study

    https://www.1news.co.nz/2022/07/22/no-clear-link-between-low-serotonin-and-depression-study/ https://www.nature.com/articles/s41380-022-01661-0
  3. BillTre

    Sex Differences in Adolescent Brain Development & Depression Risk

    Here is a study on the sexual differences in development of certain parts of the brain of human adolescents who may become depressed. I am not an expert on this stuff, so comments would be interesting to me...
  4. shivajikobardan

    MHB My Failed University Life: Addictions, Depression, and Uncertain Future

    1) Really messed up my uni life. Indulged into various addictions like addiction of making money online. making free money. wasted almost 3 years of uni life in it. 2.5 years to be exact.. Didn't keep notes of any subject even though i passed subject with ease as I had good track record of being...
  5. W

    Coping mechanisms for thermodynamics?

    Wasn’t sure whether I should post this here since it’s a more qualitative question, or under the Thermodynamics thread because that’s a more specific topic. For all practical purposes, the laws of thermodynamics are inviolable, and statistical mechanics puts them on an even firmer theoretical...
  6. T

    Major Depression Relieved within a Week with Magic Mushrooms

    "This randomized clinical trial found that psilocybin-assisted therapy was efficacious in producing large, rapid, and sustained antidepressant effects in patients with major depressive disorder." https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamapsychiatry/fullarticle/2772630 Apparently the Natives had...
  7. K

    What can we do to reduce depression or improve motivation?

    In addition to sports and exercising, what is proved or widely believed by the field of medicine that we can do to reduce depression, manage emotion or improve motivation?
  8. K

    Finding the depression and the tension of the string

    I would assume that all the tension in the wire originates from the weight of the mass, and is equal to ##T=mg##, but that is incorrect. Forming a right triangle with a hypothenuse denoted by ##x## and applying Pythagoras theorem: \begin{cases}x^2=y^2+l_o^2 \\ x+y=l_o+\Delta l\end{cases} Solving...
  9. B

    Angle of Depression Help: Using the Sine Rule to Solve for Unknown Angles

    Is it like using the sine rule to figure it out: 1.5/sin 68 = x/sin 17 = 0.47 which doesn't seem to be correct. I tried to determine the angle. I though the 5 degree slope means it could be 95 degrees cause the triangle looks like a right angle triangle.
  10. PrinceWalnut

    Admissions PhD Applications with a low GPA (due to depression in my junior year)

    Hi all, It's a few short months before grad school applications are due, and I find myself in a bit of a dilemma. Prior to my junior year, I knew what I wanted to do is physics research for my career, and I'm particularly interested in biological and condensed matter physics. My skills are more...
  11. T

    Overcoming Depression: Tips & Advice to Improve Thinking & Focus

    I had depression 3 years back and was prescribed anti-depressants which my doctor stopped me from taking one and half years back. I am completely cured now but other problems in thinking do persist. I just don't want to talk on why I got depression on first place ! Though I have good mood now...
  12. A

    Studying How to pull myself together when facing disease, burnout, depression and more?

    Sorry for being annoying, but I am a student of physics for a month now. I started really well by setting up super good work habbits but all was ruined in a day when I was arguing with my parents about my treatment for my desiese. Since then everything has been hell, I fell behind bad, I am...
  13. Krunchyman

    Other Restoring Curiosity: Learning Math Beyond Grades & Money

    I began to study mathematics in college because I was fascinated by the subject and have a naturally high degree of curiosity for it along with the rest of the sciences--but stress, depression and other factors take away that curiosity as I progress through each semester, leaving me bored...
  14. Mr Real

    Why does adding solute particles decrease the freezing point?

    When solute particles are added to a solvent boiling point increases, I am quite clear with its explanation (in terms of vapour pressure) but when it comes to freezing point, why does it decrease? What does it have to do with vapour pressure? My textbook says it's because liquid and solid state...
  15. Vavi Ask

    Measuring Molecular Mass with Freezing Point Depression

    Homework Statement 6g of non-volatile solute dissolved in 500g of water freezes at 272.64K. What is the molar mass of the solute? Data given- Tsolution = 272.64K Kf = 1.8 wsolute = 6g wsolvent = 500g 2. Homework Equations ∆Tf = T0 -Tsolution ∆Tf = Kf × molality (m) The Attempt at a Solution...
  16. Shakir

    OCD and Depression: Unraveling the Connection

    Hello PF First a bit about my illness. I have been suffering from Major Depressive Disorder since I was 18 (I am 23 now). The first few years were unbelievably painful and difficult to carry on, and very risky and dangerous (too many suicidal thoughts, sometimes 100+ suicidal thoughts a day)...
  17. V

    MeOH:H2O Freezing Point Depression Calculation Issue

    I noticed that my windshield washer fluid has methanol in it to reduce the temperature of which it freezes. I know it freezes at approximately -28°C which gives us a concentration of MeOH at approximately ~30% by weight. However, when I try to calculate the required methanol using the mSolute...
  18. P

    Schools Struggling with physics as a life choice, depression, etc....

    Idk if this is the forum to turn to or even if its the correct forum thread thingy. In that case i apologize in advance. I got no where else to turn to, and I really have hoped to gain some answers somewhere. I have a lot of problems with physics. I'm starting to only now get A's in most of my...
  19. Cjosh

    Taking physics and dealing with depression/anxiety

    I suffer from serious bouts of depression/anxiety that come and go for no obvious reason. I started physics this year and its hit me half way through the semester. I made a doc appointment to fix this and I am afraid it will hurt me academically if its not fixed and I won't be able to do awesome...
  20. thefurlong

    Is Self-Study Outside Academia Hindering My Progress in Physics?

    I hope this is right place to post this. I just wanted to get this off of my chest. I am frustrated, and depressed because I am an outsider to the physics community. I am posting this with the hope that somebody else might be able to add perspective to my situation. I apologize if that's...
  21. T

    Studying while suffering from recurring depression

    I'm in year two as a physics undergrad. I have a number of obstacles in my studies, the most prominent one being a physical disability causing severe pain and fatigue, essentially precluding attendance of most lectures. That is something I have so far been able to deal with through planning...
  22. B

    Other Overcoming Depression to Excel in Physics

    I hate that I am not doing well in physics... I can't stop having suicidal thoughts and I hate it... All I want is to do well in physics and I can't for some reason. I refus to ****ing believe "you're just not cut out for it"... No... Thats not the case... No one is ever just not cut out for...
  23. H

    Angle of Elevation and Depression

    A man is standing on a 48.5 building and is looking on a second building. The angle of depression of the top and foot of the second building is 50 degrees and 80 degrees, respectively. What is the height of the second building? The height from the foot to the eye of the man is 1.5 m. Hello...
  24. gracy

    What is the Connection Between Entropy and Freezing Point Depression?

    In this thread https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/freezing-point-depression.275386/ in ygggdrasil answer I didn't understand this line This greater loss of entropy leads to a lower freezing point. Please explain.
  25. C

    How to get really deep depresion on an exoplanet?

    I want an exoplanet/exomoon with really deep depression. It would be the only place on that planet that's really habitable for humans without breating aid. Idea: -lower gravity (somewhere around 0.8 g) so the mountains should be able to be a bit taller -one supercontinent that's slowly...
  26. D

    Height of an object given angles of depression

    Homework Statement A hot-air balloon is floating above a straight road. To estimate their height above the ground, the balloonists simultaneously measure the angle of depression to two consecutive mileposts on the road on the same side of the balloon. The angles of depression are found to be...
  27. I

    Down time between graduating and working - depressed

    I was always looking forward to this period. University is finished and work is about to begin. However I ended up getting really depressed. Having found my degree went by fast, I'm not in touch with anyone from college either. Is this normal? I'm applying to a number of backups and reading...
  28. N

    Medical Depression linked to analytical thinking

    source: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=depressions-evolutionary&page=2 Interesting. So ,depression is linked to high analytical thinking skills; They are saying the reason why some people who isolate themselves from external stimuli like social interaction and not eating...
  29. G

    Depressing, my math skills have gone to crap

    since graduating from college (5 years ago). Today I had trouble remembering the limit definition of the derivative. To think I was studying Hilbert Spaces and logic my final year in college. If you don't use it you lose it. Come to think of it, I don't remember much from DiffEqs either. I...
  30. L

    Will One Course Ruin My Future? Life as a College Transfer Student

    I'm turning 20 in a month. I recently got accepted into UBC (college transfer) and i can't get into the 2nd year engineering program because of one course... physics 153. otherwise i have everything else. I registered this year crack of dawn and i wasn't even able to take physics 153 because of...
  31. T

    Cause of melting point depression

    Homework Statement An unknown compound gave a melting point of 230C. When the molten liquid solidified the melting point was determined to be 131C. Give a possible explanation for this discrepancy. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I understand that melting point...
  32. L

    Capillary action: mercury depression

    hi guys, need some help for this question. a capillary of unknown internal radius was inserted into a pool of mercury into a pool of mercury. the height of mercury within the capillary was depressed 1.6cm below the free liquid. Calculate the internal diameter of the capillary. For the...
  33. M

    How Does the Presence of Impurities Affect the Melting Point of Substances?

    I have tried a quick scan of the web for general information relating to the depression of melting points and found very little available, so i started this thread. The general idea is a depression curve which will help you identify by how much a sample contains impurities. I was looking for...
  34. F

    Can Physics Theories About the Universe's End Cause Depression?

    Whenever I try getting into physics, I get depressed because of all the theories about the end of the universe. Stuff like entropy, ekpyrotic universe (where the universe can end any second), proton decay, etc. Sure, they might be a lonnnnng way off, but it's still inevitable which makes every...
  35. Ivan Seeking

    News Do wars create wealth? aka, How did WWII help to end the Depression?

    There is a popular claim that the New Deal didn't end the Great Depression; that it only ended because of WWII. 1). How did WWII help to end the depression? 2). Generally speaking, do wars create wealth, and if so, how? If your answer to number 1 is government "government spending", then...
  36. E

    News Merill Lynch's chief North America economist believes we are in a depression

    You can download David Rosenberg's research note below. https://www.gpcresearch.ml.wallst.com/common/emaillink/pdf.asp?SSS_20E89F090409B81E37D8B7177FAE1685&
  37. M

    Freezing Point Depression and vapor pressure

    Why is the vapour pressure lowered when non volatile solute is added to a solvent? What is the physical reason? Also, why do binary solutions freeze over a range of temperatures, not at one specific temperature? Thanks guys, as usual, for sharing the knowledge!:smile:
  38. O

    News Real Time discusses income inequality and the Great Depression

    [url]iL6YS-8rBnE[/youtube] On Bill Maher's latest "Real Time" show, with one of the best panels he's had in months, he quotes BYU graduate, economist, and former fed chairman Marriner S. Eccles, who noted that when there is a large inequality in a society and the rich hold all the cards, it...
  39. M

    What Causes Lower Freezing Point Depression: Ionization or Non-Ionization?

    Homework Statement One mole of two different compounds happens to weight the same, but one compound ionizes in water and the other does not. Which will give the lowest freezing point depression? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution
  40. L

    What is the depressed polynomial for f(x) with an obvious root?

    how would i write the depressed polynomial for the obvious root of f(x) = x5 - .5x4 - 5.5x3 - 3.5x2 - 6.5x - 3
  41. W

    Can Academic Stress Lead to Serious Mental Health Crises?

    Hi all. I've been lurking for a while, reading all I can on getting a Physics BS. I posted another thread in the Academic and Career Guidance on my hopeful 3-year plan. Unfortunately it seems like I don't have the time (4 more years) or money to get an applied physics degree. I just started a...
  42. J

    Help. I have a BS in Physics and a BS in Computer Engineering. I'm Depressed.

    Hi PF, As stated in the title, I'm loaded with degrees; plus a minor degree in Japanese Studies. I'm not being boastful or anything but I would like you to understand why I am depressed. I was very happy while I took up Physics for four years, I particularly enjoyed the laboratory work...
  43. L

    How can a solution's boiling point decrease during distillation?

    I just finished a lab where I distilled a mixture of 2-methyl-2-butene and 2-methyl-1-butene in a dilute solution of sulfuric acid. The boiling points of the compounds respectively are 38.57C and 31.6C. The bp range ended up being a constant 32C. How is this possible? Shouldn't it be...
  44. ZapperZ

    Happy Most Depressing Day of the Year

    Today is http://www.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,1704887,00.html" . So don't do anything I wouldn't do. :) Zz.
  45. E

    Why does adding salt to water lower the freezing point?

    i was just wondering why salt, when it dissociates into Na an Cl as it is dissolved into water, decreases the freezing point of water. Why does more energy have to be taken out of the system? does it have to do with entropy or what?
  46. B

    Going to feel depressed when I graduate from college

    I'm currently in my junior year. I've yet to form relationships that are supposed to last a lifetime. I guess its partly due to my condition(I have asperger syndrome). I did manage to form one good potential friendship. I'm not really sure about yet. This person graduates next year , so I...
  47. E

    Dielectric constant depression of water?

    Hey Everyone. I am doing a project proposal where I am calculating the coupling efficiency between a quantum dot and a wire and I need to enter in values for the dielectric constant of the wire and the surrounding medium. I am working off a paper (doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.76.035420) where he uses...
  48. P

    Capillary Action (Capillary Depression)

    Hi, I have questions regarding capillary action and capillary depression for practical purposes. I'm fairly educated in physics and chemistry, but have some "what would happen if..." questions. Please help, and add any information you'd think helpful! 1) Imagine you have your typical...
  49. D

    Emotional Stress/Depression (How to deal with School)

    A few weeks ago I lost my girlfriend whom I dated for over 3 years. She immediately started dating another guy. I haven't been in a happy place since then... and find it extremely hard to motivate myself to do any work, study, or even just get out of bed. I've been getting help for it, but I...