What is Relativistic effects: Definition and 51 Discussions
Relativistic quantum chemistry combines relativistic mechanics with quantum chemistry to calculate elemental properties and structure, especially for the heavier elements of the periodic table. A prominent example is the explanation of the color of gold: due to relativistic effects, it is not silvery like most other metals.The term relativistic effects was developed in light of the history of quantum mechanics. Initially quantum mechanics was developed without considering the theory of relativity. Relativistic effects are those discrepancies between values calculated by models that consider relativity and those that do not. Relativistic effects are important for the heavier elements with high atomic numbers. In the most common layout of the periodic table, these elements are shown in the lower area. Examples are the lanthanides and actinides.Relativistic effects in chemistry can be considered to be perturbations, or small corrections, to the non-relativistic theory of chemistry, which is developed from the solutions of the Schrödinger equation. These corrections affect the electrons differently depending on the electron speed compared to the speed of light. Relativistic effects are more prominent in heavy elements because only in these elements do electrons attain sufficient speeds for the elements to have properties that differ from what non-relativistic chemistry predicts.
I have derived the Coulombian potential as an effective potential between two spinless charged particle taking the non-relativitic approach on the scattering amplitude obtained in terms of the Feynman rules in SQED.
The scattering amplitudes are:
I'm using the gauge in which xi = 1.
How could...
Does mechanical watch ticks slower when move fast, due to relativistic effects?
To make watch tick slower you must change oscillation of balance wheel inside watch, so if answer is yes, what myster "force" change balance wheel oscillation in mechanical watch to ticks slower?
How can we know the age of the universe, with time dilation due to the mass and velocity of matter which condensed after the big bang. If time passes at different speeds depending where it is perceived, does this not make the age of the universe somewhat moot.
Ateempt of solution:
There are two key coordinates in this scenario, the leftmost tip of the rod, which in ##S'## is ##C_{0} = (t', 0, ut',0)## and the opposite tip
##C_{1} = (t', L,ut',0)##
An angle ##\phi## could be found through a relationship such as ##tan(\phi) = \frac{ \Delta x}{ \Delta...
Hello everyone, I was doing some calculations recently regarding particle velocities for different elements at different temperatures and I have a few questions for the experts in here.
Usual gas laws in my school book provides information about the velocity of particles in gases, it provides...
Summary: Relativistic effects on the quantum states of electrons in Copper and Gold
Hello. I am a new member.
I have read that the explanation for the colors of copper(red) and gold(yellow) compared to other metals being silver or grey in color is due to relativistic effects on the valence...
Hi there guys,
I'm struggling! I've been looking at the International Earth Rotation Services (IERS) "standards" for motion of a satellite in GR. the expression is far from trivial and I'm battling to determine where to even start with this bad boy.
The expression is given by
\Delta...
Lets suppose a radiating body moving relative to a frame. At a certain time because of relativistic beaming one observer in that frame would observe a different luminousity of the body. But observes placed at a different angle in that frame relative to the body would also observe different...
Sorry if this is a dupe:
An astronaut is in a windowless, sensorless starship that is drifting in an unknown location in space. There is an accelerometer aboard which reads zero. The astronaut turns on his ideal linear propulsion engine for one second, losing a negligible amount of propellant...
Homework Statement
I have encountered a problem in Sean Carroll's GR book, exercise 1.1
Consider an inertial frame S with coordinates ##~x^μ = (t, x, y ,z)~##, and a frame S' with coordinates ##x^{μ'}## related to S by a boost with velocity parameter ##v## along the y-axis. Imagine we have a...
Hello everyone!
I had a question about a particle (say a proton) with relativistic energies interacts with a magnetic field (in the z direction). As it is accelerates the particle emits synchrotron radiation. Naturally I assume that this emission of photons reduces the particle's energy. My...
Homework Statement
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A low flying Earth satellite travels at about 8000m/s. For the satellite, the relativistic factor $$\gamma = \frac{1}{\sqrt{1-\beta^2}}$$ where $$\beta = \frac{v}{c}$$ is close to 1 because v<<c. Estimate by how much gamma actually deviates from 1 by expanding gamma in...
If light was being produced in an intense gravity field, would the light be of higher or lower frequency/energy to a distant observer? I understand that the light escaping the gravitational field would be red shifted, but that is not what I'm asking. I'm asking about the relativistic effects on...
I have limited physics knowledge, but I have always been interested in the physics and I am an industrial radiation safety officer with an engineering background.Have there been any experiments in respect to measuring half life with large variance in gravitational fields? Although half life may...
On the ISS, special relativity dictates the station's clocks run slower than clocks on Earth because of the high velocity, but general relativity dictates that the station's clocks run faster than clocks on Earth because of the lesser gravity. Which effect is predominant, and do the station's...
I was just thinking about this, and from a perspective of an inertial frame, it's easy to see how distances contract, times dilate, simultaneity varies between observer and the speed of light is exactly c in each case.
But what about non-inertial frames? In the presence of gravity almost...
Let's say there's a current going around in a superconducting loop in vacuum. Then the loop gets buried in huge amount of matter, which has the same magnetic susceptibility as vacuum. (when not affected by gravity the matter has the same magnetic susceptibility as vacuum)
Will the magnetic...
Homework Statement
The example below illustrates the relativistic phenomenon that synchronicity of events is not absolute but it depends on the reference frames.
Spaceships A and B, while moving away from each other with a constant speed of v = 0.553c, are watching a competition between...
Hi everyone, first post here. Lurking for a while but it was time to register..
I'm trying to conceptualize an idea in which humans are sent to orbit a very massive object, like a neutron star, a magnetar or even possibly a black hole. I would like the ship to be relatively close to the surface...
Hi, I recently came across the idea that relativity can play a role in the repulsive force of a charge outside of a current-carrying wire. The situation described was when a positive charge (q) moves at the same speed and direction as the drift velocity of the electrons in the wire (assume...
I have heard people argue that light doesn't experience time or space. That it is everywhere at once. I suppose that they base this on the relativistic idea that time and space are warped by speed, and that the closer an object gets to C, the more time slows down and space contracts relative to...
So, I was thinking about this the other day. If we watch material approaching near the event horizon of a black hole get scattered all over the place, then would the opposite be seen for an observer falling into a black hole? Instead of us seeing them scattered all over the place, would they see...
So I understand the basics of the general and special relativistic effects on the speed of the satellite clocks onboard the GPS satellites, and why they are rigged to calculate time slower than an atomic clock at sea level.
But then, in several articles, I read that GPS receivers are also...
A sphere with the radius of 4 kilometers and a mass of 2 suns moves to observer at the speed of 0.866c. From sphere frame of reference it's mass is 1 sun's mass, radius 4 kilometers and velocity 0. Can light escape from such object? Does escaping is also relative? How about direction of light...
Here's a few smattered questions I've had a hard time finding good answers for:
1. Why is the speed of light a constant? Is it related to the fact that it is massless? Is it because it isn't subject to time dilation?
2. Why is the speed of sound, or EVERYTHING for that matter, not...
A mathematical statement of energy conservation can be given using the continuity equation in terms of the total energy
\frac{\partial}{\partial t}\iiint_V\epsilon dV+\iint_S \epsilon \mathbf{V\cdot dS}=0
where t is time, V is a velocity vector, V is the volume of the system, dS is a point...
Homework Statement
An electron is accelerated through a potential of 10^9 Volts. What is the Energy, Kinetic Energy, and Momentum in the lab reference frame?
Homework Equations
(1/2)mv^2=eV=1.6E-10 J=1000 MeV
The Attempt at a Solution
Solving for the kinetic energy gives 1000...
before i ask my question i want to review two points:
1. place a body like a moon or a planet near a black hole, as the body approaches the extreme gravity affects the body deferentially.
2. review the tidal forces on Jupiter's moon Io leading to volcanic/tectonic consequences.
now take...
Hi all, I've just been thinking about something today which I freely admit I've not got the knowledge to actually comprehend at this time (my physics studies don't start until September!) and so it might actually belong in engineering or it might just be a load of nonsense that I've gotten...
Can/do relativistic effects explain select quantum "phenomena"
Can/do relativistic effects explain select quantum "phenomena"?
A photon (a mass less "particle" that travels at the speed of light) experiences space-time in a different manner.
A photon does not experience time.
Would the sun...
Hi all!
I'm doing a statistical mechanics class this semester where very often questions like "consider the limit of temperature going to..." pop up.
Now, if you consider a relativistic system (say some gas), to what extent does it make sense to talk about temperature going to 0? [to me...
While observing the Sun, which is 8 light-minutes 12 light-seconds away from us. We (by visible and invisible spectrum of the electromagnetic radiation) observe its state 8.20 minutes ago. Special relativity forbids any information to travel at speeds greater than that of light. This should...
I was trying to read up on the effects of the Lorentz transforms on electromagnetic fields in the stationary and moving frames and came across the following equation for the E-field:
[1] E= \frac {Q}{4 \pi \epsilon_0 r^2}* \frac {1- \beta^2}{(1- \beta^2 sin^2 \theta) ^{3/2}}
The first...
I'm looking over some common physics equations as a review for the course I'll be taking next semester, and for each equation, I'm coming across two equations for each, a relativistic and a non relativistic. The class I'll be taking will be on mechanics, inertia, etc., so I figure I'll only...
I'm trying to confirm my understanding of the simple effects of SR Lorentz contraction and SR aberration on the apparent angular size of an object receding at relativistic speeds.
Consider a detector at rest in inertial frame S, which is observing light emitted uniformly from the planar...
Hi all,
I'd like to know what happens when we consider relativistic effects in generating a pseudopotential?
Any refrence recommandation is welcome.
regards,
Hana
Heey everybody,First my excuses, I'm not a natural English speaker, so there will be some languistical mistakes in my question :smile:.
Now my question: I'm going to make a C-program to show relativistic effects. I would prefer to make a short 'movie' and then 'convert' it in the C-program so...
Are relativistic effects "real"?
At this point i'd like to detour the topic and ask why time is so special that it doesn't come back to its original measurement. After all, once all moving observers are stopped wrt to each other, and they compare their measuring rods, they measure equal. so why...
Homework Statement
Within the system of the muon, which relavisitic effect increases the probability for the muon to reach the Earth surface?
Length contraction of the distance to Earth.
Time dilation of its mean-life.
Both of the above.
None the above, the probability is lower in the...
[SOLVED] Relativistic Effects in the magnetic field of a synchroton
The Question is about the magnetic field which is needed to keep electrons in uniform circular movement (UCM) when their speed is not negligible compared with the speed of light.
If we ignore relativistic effects, magnetic...
This Question is about the magnetic field which is needed to keep electrons in uniform circular movement (UCM) when their speed is not negligible compared with the speed of light.
If we ignore relativistic effects, magnetic field will take the following value:
B = (v*m)/(r*q) Where...
Suppose i have two clocks on Earth showing 12:00 hours.
After, one of the clocks is put in a gps satellite for a year.
After one year that clock returns to earth.
Due to relativistic effect what time that clock shows? Less than 12:00?
If so why?
In a textbook about relativity, I read that particle accelarators can get to a limit because of the relativistic effects. Is that not the limit of speed of light?
Thanks for any help.
Hi
Does anyone have a link to a proof that magnetism is a result of relativistic effects on a moving charge? I am sure that I have seen one but I can't find it.
Thanks
John
Homework Statement
n a Rutherford scattering experiment a target nucleus has a diameter of 3.5 10-14 m. The incoming has a mass of 6.64 10-27 kg. What is the kinetic energy of an particle that has a de Broglie wavelength equal to the diameter of the target nucleus? Ignore relativistic...
Last night I watched a program on TV that made the statement that in the interior of our sun the gravity is so intense that a photon of light can travel only several thousandths of an inch per minute. It takes hundreds of thousands of years for a photon of light to travel from the interior of...
"Electrons are accelerated by a potential of 350kV in an electron microscope. Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of those electrons taling relativistic effects into account"
I attempted the following:
W = W(kin) = 350keV
now
W(kin)= (1-gamma)mc^2
so, now one could solve for...