What is Solid state physics: Definition and 264 Discussions

Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy. It is the largest branch of condensed matter physics. Solid-state physics studies how the large-scale properties of solid materials result from their atomic-scale properties. Thus, solid-state physics forms a theoretical basis of materials science. It also has direct applications, for example in the technology of transistors and semiconductors.

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  1. gaiussheh

    I How is spin exchange interaction generalised to many electrons?

    In solid state physics or statistical physics, the many-body spin Hamiltonian is written as ##\sum_{i,j} \hat{S}_{i}\cdot \hat{S}_j##. I referred to many textbooks, and most of them just generalised this from the two-electron case ##\hat{S}_{1}\cdot \hat{S}_2##. While this seems natural, it is...

    I Why do GaN based LEDs continue to function despite a high number of defects?

    From the book The Blue Laser Diode: The Complete Story, it said that I am wondering, after 20 years, is this problem still puzzling for scientists? How far have we understood about this problem?
  3. kori2003

    Physics Lost undergrad looking for advice on career path and grad school

    Hello, First of all, I'd like to thank everyone who takes their time to read through my post and make a response, I really appreciate your help that is given for free. Background. I’m a Physics student in his last year, my expected graduation date is June 2024. I study at one of the best...
  4. Slimy0233

    Solid State Is Adrianus J. Dekker forgotten or irrelevant?

    I was previously thinking of buying Solid State Physics by Kittel, but it turns out it's not beginner friendly and neither is Ashcroft & Mermin. One book that is supposedly beginner friendly is AJ Dekker (1956) but it has received little discussion on this physics forum and on reddit (as a...
  5. Slimy0233

    Solid State Should I buy Kittel's Introduction to Solid State Physics?

    I want to know your opinion on whether I should buy Kittlel's Introduction to Solid State Physics or some other book to study Solid State Physics. I was going through the solutions manual for the book and I realized that it had only 72 questions in it. I was wondering if it was enough to get a...
  6. Slimy0233

    Requesting Resources and Animations to understand Solid State Physics

    TL;DR Summary: I need animations to understand physics better. Any links and animations would be very appreciated. I have started learning Solid state physics and I am struggling somewhat to understand and imagine certain things. I feel like this is one area of physics which needs extensive...
  7. rogdal

    Classical magnetic dipole-dipole interaction in iron

    I'm having a bit of trouble with this exercise because, even if I understand the physics of the dipole-dipole interaction in an ideal classical system, I don't get to know how to approach this problem. I've got a few doubts about how this system would work. First of all, what would be the...
  8. Roger Dalton

    Dependence of Hall coefficient on temperature in semiconductors

    My first assumption is that the temperature dependence on the mobilities can be neglected, and so we would have: $$R_H(T)= \frac{1}{e} \frac{p_v(T)\mu_h^2-n_c(T)\mu_e^2}{(p_v(T)\mu_h+n_c(T)\mu_e)^2}$$ The expression for the electron and hole densities could be derived from...
  9. E

    Express entropy density in terms of energy density (Ashcroft/Mermin)

    The starting point is the identity $$\left(\frac{\partial u}{\partial T}\right)_n = T\left(\frac{\partial s}{\partial T}\right)_n.$$ I then try to proceed as follows: Integrating both with respect to ##T## after dividing through by ##T##, we find $$ \int_0^T \left(\frac{\partial s}{\partial...
  10. E

    Ensemble vs. time averages and Ashcroft and Mermin Problem 1.1

    The question is as seen below: My attempt (note that my questions are in bold below) is below. Please note that I am self-studying AM: (a) By the independence of any interval ##dt## of time and time symmetry, we expect these two answers are the same (Is there any way to make this rigorous?)...
  11. P

    Problem on SSH Model Tight Binding Approach

    I'd like to proceed in a linear fashion, taking each part on one by one. For the first part, we can write the Hamiltonian as ##H = \sum_{n}^{N} w(c_{An}^{\dagger}c_{Bn}+c_{Bn}^{\dagger}c_{An})+v(c_{Bn}^{\dagger}c_{A(n+1)}+c_{A(n+1)}^{\dagger}c_{Bn})##. We can convert the creation and...
  12. M

    I Understanding Diffraction Condition in Kittle's Intro to Solid State Physics

    I am going over the diffraction condition section in Kittle's Introduction to Solid State Physics physics and I am having a hard time understanding why the phase difference angle for the incident wave is positive while the phase angle difference for the diffracted wave is negative. Thank you...
  13. besebenomo

    Einstein solid state model exercise

    I tried to solve it considering the canonical ensemble (since the system is at the equilibrium with temperature T) and started finding the partition function:The problem is I am not sure if I have done it correctly and need help because I don't really know where to check.
  14. Alpha Roy

    A Mapping High Symmetry Points from Primitive to Conventional Cell

    We usually plot electronic bands with the help of high symmetry points of the irreducible zone of primitive cell of particular material. But if we want to plot bands with conventional cell, we have to map the high symmetry points from primitive cell to conventional cell. so how can we map the...
  15. C

    Solid State Solid State Physics by Springer

    I have the opportunity to get a Springer book for free, provided that it is cheaper than 200$. I am considering an introductory one about Solid State Physics, but I have never heard about a valid one from Springer (I know about Kittel, Ashcroft and Simon only). Do you have any suggestion? Thank...
  16. Viona

    Best Solid State Physics Book for Beginners

    TL;DR Summary: Gerald Burns's book: Solid State Physics: is it good for begginers or there are best books? Hello, I am looking for the best book to study solid state physics for begginers. Some one recommended Gerald Burns's book: Solid State Physics. So, what is your opinions about this book...
  17. R

    Does Drain Current Increase if Doping Increases?

    I'm an EE with only a surface knowledge of solid state. I know this forum is mostly for students but I don't know where else to find a lot of physicists. Also, please forgive me if this is a dumb question. For a circuit I want to build, I need a transistor that can conduct > 10,000 A, but does...
  18. Mr_Allod

    Built in Voltage of 3-Layer PN Junction

    For a normal PN junction I would try to find $V_{bi}$ by integrating the carrier density (eg. the electrons n) from one region to the other: $$\int_{n_{p0}}^{n} \frac {dn}{n} = \frac {q}{kT}\int_{V_p}^{V_n} dV$$ Which would yield: $$V_{bi}=V_n-V_p=\frac...
  19. chikchok

    Phonon density of states and density of states of free electrons

    In the following pdf I tried to calculate the density of states of free electrons and phonons. First, I found the free electron DOS in 1D, it turns to be proportional to (energy)^(-1/2) and in 2D it is constant. However, I am not sure I found the DOS for phonons in the second part of the...
  20. chikchok

    I Chemical potential and Fermi level

    Does fermi level (in metals) depend on the density of states? I am asking this because from fermi-dirac distribution it seems like that fermi level is non-dependent of DOS, but there is chemical potential in fermi-dirac distribution, which is said to be dependent of DOS.
  21. chikchok

    I The meaning of the Fermi energy

    The Fermi energy Ef is defined as the energy of the topmost filled level in the ground state of the N electron system. Ground state is n=1 level. And in the ground state there can be only one orbital right? One orbital can have only up to 2 electrons. Does this mean that fermy energy is the...
  22. hagopbul

    I Another question from Ashcroft and Mermin: Fermi-Dirac Distribution

    Good Day : i reached the page 40 of Ashcroft Mermin book and after the equation 2.38 there is this expression of E(a,N) which is equal to Helmoltez Free energy F = U - TS , how this two terms F , E are related ? anyone can provide adequate explanation , and few useful references Best...
  23. Dario56

    Definition of Absolute Electrode Potential

    Hey guys, I have two questions: 1) I thought absolute electrode potential is galvani potential difference at the interface. However, it is given by this equation in John Bockris - Modern Electrochemistry: $$ E(abs) = ^M\Delta^S\phi - \mu_e^M/F $$ First term is galvani potential difference on...
  24. F

    I Gap between introductory physics & solid state physics?

    The left pic is the initial state and the right pics are 2 different descriptions for a metal under electric field E. Are the 2 on the right contradictory and which is correct?
  25. cemtu

    What makes up a "current" in solid state physics?

    If there is some incoming light that has hit electrons of a N-type doped silicon and broke loose these electrons from their covalent bounds and excited them to the conduction band and also excited the electrons in the donor energy level to the conduction band as well, here we know that, the...
  26. T

    A Properties of Degenerate Electron Gas

    Basically the thread title. For some background, I'm trying to model laser-material interactions, where I'm assuming that the laser is interacting with a free electron gas (copper). To model the interaction, I need to determine the properties of the electron gas, such as the heat capacity...
  27. Rzbs

    Solid State A book about the history of solid state physics

    What is the best books about the history of solid state physics? I only found this: Out of the Crystal Maze: Chapters from the History of Solid State Physics by Lillian Hoddeson Are there any other books? Thanks for your suggestions
  28. J

    Debye Approximation of Heat Capacity in 1D

    So really i am just unsure how to answer the last part of the question. I am unsure how to apply the low and high temperature limits the way i have done it. Do i set upper/lower limits on the integral and solve? If so i am not sure what to put Here is what he book has for 3d
  29. D

    Help with neutron scattering in solid state physics

    Hello fellow physicists, I have a homework assignment which is to make a scientific essay (10-15 pages long) on neutron scattering in solid state physics. Our teacher is kind of the worse and he hasn't specified what he wants it on. He just said what I'm telling you: "An essay on neutron...
  30. S

    Assignment on the tight binding model

    Summary:: Due tight-binding model I derived the energy spectrum of the particle, showing that it comprises three energy bands E+(k), E−(k) and E0(k)=0. Now, I have to find the dispersion laws. Why do I have a flat energy band? What is its physical significance?. Also, what happens to the...
  31. S

    Physics Solid State Physics or Quantum Electronics/Optics

    For which field is there more demand in the industry? And is knowledge of quantum electronics/optics useless without having a phd, as I see most job offers ask for a doctorate degree. Are the skills and knowledge from quantum electronics transferable to engineering positions or is what you...
  32. D

    A B.D. Cullity § C.D. Graham-Introduction Magnetic Materials Solutions

    Hi, I have to check some questions answers for my homework (Problem 3.5 and 3.6). Please help me find this book solution manual.
  33. A

    I Fermi-Liquid - amount of electrons available for the interaction

    I have attached the pages in Kittel's book (pages 417-420) regarding my question. My question is simply based off of the second to last photo, where e_f = 5*10^4 K and e_1 = 1K. e_2<e_f and |e_2|<e_1. So how can (e_1/e_f)^2 be less than 1? The energy of the free flowing electron is assumed to...
  34. hagopbul

    I Biological solid state physics

    Hello all: I was wondering are we have a name for protein structure , or we consider them amorphous? Any one did a phono propagation in protein molecules ? Protein folding and phonons any relationship? When peptides came together and start to form the protein dose phonons/photon propagation...
  35. A

    Solid State What is the best online course that follows Kittel for solid state physics?

    Hi, I am currently studying solid-state physics course from Charles Kittel's "introduction to SSP" I searched more on youtube to get lectures to follow the book of Kittel but failed. Really I would appreciate if anybody advises me online source which can help me to comprehend the contents of...
  36. J

    Standard enthelpies of formation of carbon nanotubes etc.

    I am curious about the standard enthalpies of formation of carbon nanotubes, diamond, carbon buckyballs, graphene, etc. I read from physics forums that the standard enthalpies of formation of these allotropes of carbon are small. However, since diamond is fabricated naturally under extreme...
  37. dRic2

    Solid State Book for graduate solid state physics

    Hi, I have to study for a solid state physics course and I'm not sure what textbook would be the best. Our professor suggested "Principles of the theory of Solids" by Ziman, or "Solid state physics" by Ashcroft. I'll intend to use both: one I buy, the other one I borrow from the library. But...
  38. Error404!

    A Effective Mass of Electron for White Tin

    For some work of mine i need the plasma resonance frequency for tin nanoparticle, i searched various research papers and found different efffective masses tin for different orbits. here i attached screen shot from W A Roger and S B Woods (Cyclotron effective masses in white tin). What value is...
  39. Asuratyr

    I Best video lectures on SSP following Kittel

    Hi, I am currently studying for our third year solid state physics course. We follow chapters 1-9 From Charles Kittel's "introduction to SSP" Youtube has a lot of videos on solid state physics yet i am struggling to find any video source for lectures that follow the book of Kittel. I would...
  40. Kyueong-Hwang

    What are the lattice points for this?

    In picture, there is crystal structure with two atoms. Question is, what is the lattice points? Find a set of lattice points. I think green and pink points are both lattice points. Am i right? This is our full hw.
  41. L

    I What is the relation between chemical potential and the number of particles?

    Chemical potential is defined as the change in energy due to change in the number of particles in a system. Let we have a system which is defined by the following Hamiltonian: $$H = -t \sum_i^L c_i^\dagger c_{i+1} + V\sum_i^L n_i n_{i+1} -\mu \sum_i^L n_i$$ where ##c^\dagger (c)## are creation...
  42. confusedius

    Solid State Physics: Draw the Dispersion Relation from the Fermi Surface

    Homework Statement ln the figure below you (b, which is taken from Jenö Sólyom Fundamentals of the physics of solids. Volume 2 chapter 19) see the Fermi sphere of radius k_F inside one section in two dimensions of the Brillouin zone of Na. Draw the dispersion relation E(k) from the I point in...
  43. Z

    "The theoritical minimum" modern equivalent for solid state?

    Hi, for those who don't know, Landau (Lev Davidovitch Landau) had a famous exam called "The theoretical minimum". That exam had to be passed by any future grad-student of his. That test was extremely extensive and difficult, and the student was supposed to be knowledgeable about many fields of...
  44. steroidjunkie

    Powder sample crystal is analyzed using Debye-Scherrer method....

    Homework Statement Powder sample of monoatomic cubic lattice crystal is analyzed using Debye-Scherrer method. Primitive vetors of direct lattice are: a1 = (a, 0, 0), a2 = (0, a, 0) i a3 = (0, 0, a). Wavelength of x-ray radiation is 1 Å. a) Find primitive vectors of reciprocal lattice. b) Find...
  45. N

    Why is there a voltage drop in a metal with no electric field present?

    Metals are highly effective at screening electric fields. If we place two contacts reasonably far away from each other on a piece of metal and apply a voltage bias, the charge carriers in the section that is far enough from both the contacts should be unaffected by the electric field. Why then...
  46. Joaco

    Studying Condensed Matter Physics Grade vs Materials Science?

    Hi, I'm an undergrad materials engineering student. I am thinking of studying all the way to a PhD as I'm interested on working in research. Right now I work with Semiconductors and I like the field a lot. However, considering what I'm studying, I want to know if it's a good Idea to look for a...
  47. MathematicalPhysicist

    Ashcroft and Mermin's problem 13.4.

    Homework Statement I need some help on how to solve this problem. I am attaching the problem: [![enter image description here][1]][1] [![enter image description here][2]][2] For item (a) in the problem, I think I need to use eq. (13.21) in the following pic: [![enter image description...
  48. C

    Finding the potential inside a semiconductor

    Homework Statement My question is more about understanding the task itself, not about calculation. I am supposed to use the poisson equation, to derive the potential inside a semiconductor for a barrier with potential height ##\phi_B## and a donator doping with ##N1 > N2##. Then I should use...
  49. G

    A Fraunhofer's multiple slits versus atomic scatteres (diffraction theory)

    Hey, I am currently busy with studying solid state physics and looking at diffraction theory. Following link explains Frauenhofer diffraction pretty good: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/phyopt/mulslid.html#c3 Let's assume a N=6 multiple slits. Its diffraction pattern depends on slit...