What is Threshold: Definition and 130 Discussions

The electoral threshold, or election threshold, is the minimum share of the primary vote which a candidate or political party requires to achieve before they become entitled to any representation in a legislature. This limit can operate in various ways. For example, in party-list proportional representation systems an electoral threshold requires that a party must receive a specified minimum percentage of votes (e.g. 5%), either nationally or in a particular electoral district, to obtain any seats in the legislature. In multi-member constituencies using preferential voting, besides the electoral threshold, to be awarded a seat, a candidate is also required to achieve a quota, either on the primary vote or after distribution of preferences, which depends on the number of members to be returned from a constituency.
The effect of an electoral threshold is to deny representation to small parties or to force them into coalitions, with the presumption of rendering the election system more stable by keeping out fringe parties. Proponents note that simply having a few seats in a legislature can significantly boost the profile of a fringe party; and that providing representation and possibly veto power for a party that, say, receives only 1% of the vote, may not be appropriate. However, critics argue out that in the absence of a ranked ballot system, supporters of minor parties are effectively disenfranchised and denied the right of representation by someone of their choosing.
Two boundaries can be defined—a threshold of representation is the minimum vote share that might yield a party a seat (under the most favorable circumstances for the party) while the threshold of exclusion is the maximum vote share that could be insufficient to yield a seat (under the least favorable circumstances). Lijphart suggested calculating the informal threshold as the mean of these.

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  1. F

    Classifiers, threshold, and ROC curve

    Hello, A classifier is a ML model that can classify between 2 or more classes. Some classifiers are called probabilistic in the sense that they output a probability score that is then compared against a threshold value (usually 0.5) to make the class decision. Other classifiers are not...
  2. Laci

    I Why no plane waves of macroscopic bodies? The micro-macro threshold...

    One of the strange features of Quantum Mechanics is that for his formulation one needs the classical physics that actually should emerge as its macroscopic limit. All experiences with quantum objects have to be analyzed through classical "glasses". Naturally, then the question arises: where...
  3. D

    A Possible Ways to reduce Electron field Emission threshold

    Hello there, i wanted to ask if anyone knows a process or mechanism, that reduces the electric field that is requiered to tunnel an electron. When i use the work function of 4 eV (Aluminum) i get with Schottky-Nordheim approach a field of 870 kV/mm to tunnel an electron. Measurements tho just...
  4. neilparker62

    I NIF Reaches Threshold of Fusion Ignition

    Is this a 'big deal' ? https://www.llnl.gov/news/national-ignition-facility-experiment-puts-researchers-threshold-fusion-ignition
  5. Andrei0408

    How to find the voltage threshold at which diode switches states?

    I've attached pictures with the circuit and part of the attempted solution. I've replaced the diode with its offset model and obtained the equivalent circuit in the 2nd picture. After applying KVL, I've obtained that u_l=−u_D−i_D*R. Since U_D0 is greater than 0, I've deduced that the diode must...
  6. Homestar1

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) threshold

    What is the threshold energy (or frequency) required for an electromagnetic field to transition from a near field to become self propagating (EMR), far field? (If I'm using the right definitions to ask the question correctly). Is this constant or are there other details needed to calculate this?
  7. M

    I Photon behaviour across EH threshold

    Physics is not my area of expertise. That being said, philosophy of science is, but I'm not here to discuss philosophy. I recently found myself trying to imagine how light behaves once it crosses the event horizon of a black hole. Presumably, between the event horizon and the singularity...
  8. aspodkfpo

    What Defines the Transition from Static to Kinetic Friction in Physics?

    Just wondering, what is the general consensus on the undifferentiable point in a graph of static friction and kinetic friction values regarding whether the object moves or doesn't move? Also wondering what the space between that point and where kinetic friction straightens out is called?
  9. F

    I Damage threshold of short pulses....

    Hello, A femtosecond optical pulse is characterized by a maximum peak intensity ##I(W/m^2)##, a pulse duration ##\Delta {t}## and a repetition rate ##R (Hz)##. The damage threshold of an optical material is often expressed using either the maximum fluence ##(J/cm^2)## or the maximum intensity...
  10. Z

    Threshold voltage shift vs temperature

    In a field effect transistor, does the threshold voltage decrease with increasing temperature? Imagine that there would be an increase in thermally generated carriers and thus the device would reach saturation faster? I realize the mobility would decrease, but the increase of thermal carriers...
  11. S

    Chemistry Need help with this threshold limit value (TLV) chemistry problem

    I'm getting 2119.36 for the concentration of mg/cubic meter of this substance...it just feels wrong though. Steps I followed: First, I figured out how many grams of the substance there were using the density formula, then saw how many were present per cubic meter after calculating the volume...
  12. G

    A Frequency threshold in the photoelectric effect

    The existence of a frequency threshold in the photoelectric effect is often regarded as the strongest objection to the wave theory. Because?
  13. R

    B Threshold of gravitational pull over dark energy

    I’m only an interested layman and my math is pretty basic so please excuse my lack expertise in this subject but I was wondering how to calculate the threshold distance an object of mass m would have to be to a system of mass M to overcome the effects of dark energy and not be receding?
  14. X

    Laser pumping: further increasing injection above threshold?

    Above the threshold, the stimulation emission becomes dominant for lasing. If increasing the pumping, what will be the change of spontaneous emission and its contribution to the output power and FWHM of the signal, based on the threshold carrier density clamping and the threshold gain clamping...
  15. mktsgm

    Medical Is the Renal Threshold for Glucose Exceeded in Diabetic Patients?

    Hi, Wikipedia in its article on 'Glycosuria' says that the renal threshold for glucose (RTG) reabsorption in the kidney is around 160-180 mg/dL. Beyond which the glucose starts to excrete in the urine. But in diabetic people blood glucose exceeds in range of 300-400 mg/dL is prevalent. How this...
  16. A

    What is the Threshold Energy of a Neutrino in the Centre of Mass Frame?

    Homework Statement Mass of neutrino = 0 Mass of proton/neutron = 1 GeV Mass of tau = 2 GeV Homework Equations Energy of neutrino in lab = e Energy of neutrino in CM = e0 The Attempt at a Solution In the centre of mass frame, we will take the momentum of the neutron to be e0/c, c = speed of...
  17. lawlieto

    I Are any electrons ejected below the threshold frequency?

    I've been reading about the photoelectric effect, and something got me thinking. If the frequency of light shone onto the metal is below the threshold frequency, no electrons are liberated from the surface of the metal, since electrons absorb quanta of energy, so if that light is shone for a...
  18. O

    Threshold voltage calculation of a CMOS gate

    Hello all, I want to know a suitable way to calculate VTL and VTH of a gate having the gate schematic and constituent transistors SPICE model (NMOS/PMOS models). Is there an easier than doing hand calculations ?
  19. O

    I Reaction Q value and threshold energy

    In order to calculate the energy of a reaction's ejectile, we make use of the concepts of the conservation of energy and momentum along with the reaction Q energy. However, if there is a threshold energy with above zero, meaning Q value is negative, do we have to consider the threshold energy as...
  20. R

    Math Become a good mathematician without the "threshold" IQ?

    So I've read this "article"[ http://afiodorov.github.io/2015/12/04/terry-replies/ ] that really depressed me especially because I'm young. Apparently the threshold IQ is around 150, so does that mean someone has no chance?
  21. Clara Chung

    What actually is threshold frequency?

    For example a metal atom have 3 electrons which occupies 2 energy level. Is the threshold frequency = the energy needed to bring an electron in E2 to E(infinity) / h?
  22. K

    Threshold Wavelength for Photoelectric Effect - 6.476103179e-19J

    Homework Statement The binding energy of an electron to a metal surface is (3.90x10^2) kJ/mol. What is the threshold wavelength (in nm)for the onset of the photoelectric effect? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution work function= 3.9*10^2 kj/mol=6.476103179*10^-19j I know I have to...
  23. M

    Endothermic and Threshold reactions - Are they Equivalent?

    Hi, up to this day I thought that endothermic and threshold reactions are equivalent. I mean each endothermic reaction must be threshold and each threshold reactions must be endothermic. But I think I was wrong. Here is example (from this source Q-value): 10B(n,2*alpha)T This threshold...
  24. Enochfoul

    Calculating Threshold Voltage for an Op-Amp Circuit

    Hi, I need to calculate the threshold voltage for an op amp circuit. I am given "The maximum output voltage swing of the op-amp is ± 3 V for when the supply is ± 5 V." Would this mean that I should calculate the upper threshold voltage as 8V and the lower threshold at 2V? I have added an...
  25. B

    Help with voltage threshold calculations

    Please can someone tell me if this calculation is correct? Please see attached question. I have used the +/-3V as the saturation voltage and multiplied it by R2/R2+R3 to give me +/-1.5V.
  26. D

    A How to calculate the threshold energy of (n,n') reactions?

    Let us take the example of 89Y(n,n')89mY reaction. In the calculation of Q value we require mass of reactants and products. Both are same here. Then how to calculate the Q value of this reaction or how to calculate the threshold energy of this type of reactions?
  27. Polly812

    I Does photoelectric effect include light with threshold freq?

    I know the definition of photoelectric effect : the release of electrons from a metal when it is in contact with electromagnetic waves.. However, my question is.. If a light wave hits a metal and that photon has freq = threshold frequency of that metal, does this mean that the energy of the...
  28. Flyx

    Understanding Pain Threshold: Measuring Pain and its Units

    What is pain threshold? Can pain be measured? If so, how? What are the units? Thx :-p
  29. fargoth

    Viscosity -- capillary radius, and permeability threshold

    In a demonstration of the qualities of liquid Helium in type 1, and type 2 the fact that a super-fluid can permeate through capillaries which are too small for type 1 Helium to pass through. I was wondering about the equation which determines the capillary radius threshold under which the...
  30. P

    Help in laser simulation in COMSOL

    hi im supposed to simulate a vcsel laser for my thesis i got problem in selecting physics.. i should check its heat transfer and threshold current but i don't know which physics should i choose ! does anyone know about vcsel's physical structure in Comsol ? by the way does anyone know that how...
  31. F

    Low-cost low threshold optical beam limiter?

    Do you guys know a low-cost low-threshold optical beam limiter, with cost somewhere ~$100. Or if you know certain method to fabricate such. I would be greatful if you could include links and/or references. I am still noob in photonics so I am only familiar with a beam limiter that blocks the...
  32. Shivam Saluja

    Quantum Threshold Scheme , no cloning theorem

    A (k,n) quantum threshold scheme (QTS) as a method to split up an unknown secret quantum state | S > into n pieces (shares) with the restriction that k > n / 2 (for if this inequality were violated, two disjoint sets of players can reconstruct the secret, in violation of the quantum no-cloning...
  33. F

    Nonrelativistic de Broglie energy Threshold of 1%

    Homework Statement Determine at what energy, in electron volts, the Nonrelativistic expression for the de Broglie wavelength will be in error of 1% for an electron. 2. The attempt at a solution For the error to be 1%, that means that the classical wavelength/relativistic wavelength will be...
  34. A

    Sensitivity threshold development

    I am trying to develop a sensitivity analysis tool and I would appreciate it if anyone had any information on how does the error in the semimajor axis and/or other orbital elements of the orbit of a LEO satellite influence the error in pitch, yaw and roll angles?
  35. U

    Laser output below, just above and way above threshold?

    I've been reading up on lasers recently and learned that within the cavity while the laser light is amplified by the gain coefficient, it loses power due to transmission and absorption. Suppose the pumping radiation comes from a monochromatic source whose energy is not exactly equal to the...
  36. Z

    Why the photoelectric absorption section finite at threshold

    I mean the photoelectric effect of the hydrogen atom. It is weird. By the Fermi golden rule, the transition or absorption rate is proportional to the density of the final states. At threshold, the electron has zero momentum and thus zero density of state. Therefore, the absorption coefficient...
  37. G

    Collision and energy threshold

    Homework Statement A thin target of lithium is bombarded by helium nuclei of energy E0. The lithium nuclei are initially at rest in the target but are essentially unbound. When a Helium nucleus enters a lithium nucleus, a nuclear reaction can occur in which the compound nucleus splits apart...
  38. M

    What exactly is a threshold frequency?

    For example, when you have a photon interacting with a bound electron, there is a work function relating the minimum energy photon capable of interaction (given by hf). My question is, what exactly is going on in this situation if the work function is exactly equivalent or less than the energy...
  39. C

    Heat disipation required to keep below a temp threshold

    This question is easier to explain with an example. A silicon microprocessor consumes 100W of real power. If the surrounding air has a temperature of 22°C, and the temperature of the microprocessor must stay below 60°C, how much heat must the microprocessor dissipate? This isn’t a homework or...
  40. R

    Body effect for NMOS transistor

    I would like to know why the threshold voltage increases for an NMOS transistor when the voltage difference between the source and the body terminals is greater than 0. If, for example, the body terminal is connected to -1V and the source to 0V, holes from the p-substrate are attracted to this...
  41. D

    Quantum Well Lasing: Solve the Problem Now!

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  42. D

    Systems simulated by a simple percolation model using python

    I'm a first year physics student, and one of my assignment for my programming class is about percolation. I need to create some disks randomly distributed in an area (this is a 2-D), and then by varying the density of the disk, I need to figure out the percolation threshold such that the two...
  43. N

    Photoelectric effect threshold

    When a cm thick surface is illuminated with light of wavelength lambda,the stopping potential is V. When the same surface is illuminated by light of wavelength 2lambda , the stopping potential is V/3.The threshold wavelength for the surface is ? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution
  44. J

    Why do big neurons have lower threshold potentials than small neurons?

    Why is that large neurons have smaller threshold potentials than small neurons during external stimulation? My confusion is because the time constant should be larger, right? tau = (r_m) * (c_m). where r_m is membrane resistance and c_m is membrane capacitance Capacitance increases...
  45. T

    Attaining Threshold Velocity V for Accelerating Object Mass M

    Can we define a threshold velocity V for an object with mass(rest) M which the object at motion need to attain so that its center of mass accelerates faster than the Dimensional object?
  46. L

    How Can I Estimate the Cutoff Voltage of a MOSFET From a Graph?

    Hi, I recently conducted a lab experiment involving several mosfets of varying channel length and width and have plotted Ids against Vds for different values of Vgs (below is one of the graphs). I am now trying to find the threshold voltage of each mosfet using their graphs although I am...
  47. V

    The threshold of general relativity gravity

    In Padmanabhan's Theoretical Astrophysics by defining a ratio for comparing gravitational potential energy with rest-mass energy it is shown that if massive objects with M=10^33 gm are confined to small regions with R= 1km then we cannot use Newtonian gravity because the system has general...
  48. A

    Temporary threshold shift - is my example correct?

    Hi there, When it sounds like I am hearing the world from underwater for a few hours/few days after a very loud music concert, is that what is called temporary threshold shift? Or is TTS something that occurs only during the exposure to high dB? (Eg. at the loud concert itself). Thank...
  49. F

    Threshold energy,cross section of incident proton on oxygen-18

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  50. K

    Threshold energy of proton beam?

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