What is Tire: Definition and 184 Discussions

A tire (American English) or tyre (British English) is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel's rim to transfer a vehicle's load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface over which the wheel travels. Most tires, such as those for automobiles and bicycles, are pneumatically inflated structures, which also provide a flexible cushion that absorbs shock as the tire rolls over rough features on the surface. Tires provide a footprint, called a contact patch, that is designed to match the weight of the vehicle with the bearing strength of the surface that it rolls over by providing a bearing pressure that will not deform the surface excessively.
The materials of modern pneumatic tires are synthetic rubber, natural rubber, fabric and wire, along with carbon black and other chemical compounds. They consist of a tread and a body. The tread provides traction while the body provides containment for a quantity of compressed air. Before rubber was developed, the first versions of tires were simply bands of metal fitted around wooden wheels to prevent wear and tear. Early rubber tires were solid (not pneumatic). Pneumatic tires are used on many types of vehicles, including cars, bicycles, motorcycles, buses, trucks, heavy equipment, and aircraft. Metal tires are still used on locomotives and railcars, and solid rubber (or other polymer) tires are still used in various non-automotive applications, such as some casters, carts, lawnmowers, and wheelbarrows.

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  1. L

    I Bicycle front tire wobble due to weight on the back of the bike

    I am a bit overwhelmed with your forum site. I was not sure where to post my question...Here goes- Full details…I have an e-bike. It weighs about 55 pounds. I have ridden it for the last year with a canvas bag attached to the rear flat book carrier. The canvas bag measures 19” long, 9” tall and...
  2. T

    How does tire pressure affect distance traveled by a bicycle coasting to a stop?

    Hi, I have been wondering if there is some equation which will allow me to calculate the distance and, or time, necessary for my bike to come to a complete stop knowing only the initial speed and tire pressure, without applying brakes and with negligible air resistance?
  3. E

    I Filling a rigid tire from a pressure regulated compressed air line

    This thought came to me while I was trying to fill my MTB bike tire a while ago as an exercise in laziness to not "check" the tire pressure with a separate gauge! Mostly, my mind just wanders... If I have some very large tank filled with compressed air at gauge pressure Ptank. The hose runs...
  4. N

    B Centrifugal Force on Rotating 4" tire / wheel @ 100mph

    Heya PhysicsForums! Remote Control Car toy tires and wheels. a 4" tire/wheel rotates at 8400rpm at 100mph. Am wondering how many "g's" the tire "experiences" at that rpm; I imagine it being hundreds of times (if below is accurate am WAY off with my guess) Using a centrifugal force...
  5. J

    Impact Torque wrench on tire nut

    A car service center used a hydraulic impact torque (is this the one used?) on the car tire nuts. See video. The car tire nut are rated at 88 ft lbs torque. What is the estimated torque in the hydraulic impact torque? Could it be double or more? I know he should have used a torque wrench but...
  6. J

    Understanding the Chemical Bonding in Tire Plug Repair

    This is one method to fix a tire with hole. I'd like to understand what happens mechanically to the tire belts and plies when plug method was used to fix the hole. This is part of a tire. Now imagine you push a tool into the hole (like in the video), would the belt and ply simply have...
  7. Stonestreecty

    Tire pressure Sensor Troubleshooting

    Good day, all I have a K1600 motorcycle. Will an after market tire pressure sensor work on a 2014 GTL? Dealers are crazy expensive and was told today that they are on back order. After search the TPMS Sensor Guide, I've new tires ready to be mounted, but a little confused. Any help will be...
  8. LucaCaiaffa

    I Motorcycle model and tire force

    I'm having issues in the application of tire forces while deriving a multi-body model of a motorcycle via Lagrange. In particular, I considered several bodies that are: swingarm, main frame, front upper fork, front lower fork and wheels. I suppose the wheels to have zero slippage, then...
  9. jack action

    Automatic Tire Chains - Onspot's Efficient Idea

    Interesting idea. I wonder how efficient it is. It's from a company called Onspot.
  10. T

    B Damage by tire blowing up at 203 mph

    Hi all, We have a discussion among friends after this video: For sure the energy involved in a tire spinning at those speeds is massive enough to create these damage: But what kind of energy is exactly the one which directly produces that body rip? Rotational kinetic energy...
  11. jaumzaum

    Question about car braking and tire friction

    I'm a little confused about this question because I think the braking deceleration probably takes into account the braking system of the vehicle as well as the power of the motor. I don't understand how a car could actually brake without the "friction between the mechanical components of the...
  12. C

    MHB Find the probability of 1 tire with low air pressure P (1)

    1) Let X represent the number of tires with low air pressure on a randomly chosen car. The probability of distribution of X is as follows: X 0 1 2 3 4 P(X) 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0,1 a) Find the probability...
  13. garkoi

    Tire Traction on Sand: Maximize Friction

    i have a question that i can't seem to find the answer to, if you are in an suv and youre going up a sand slope slow like 5miles per hour , up to a point the suv will slow down and the wheels start to slip, you can use momentum to go over i know, but say i was in 2 wheel drive vs 4 wheel drive...
  14. A

    What is the direction of the torque in this scenario?

    I=(1/2)(6kg)(0.4^2 + 0.52^2) = 1.29 kg*m^2 initial: 34 mph= 15.2m/s 15.2m/s = (ω) (0.52m) ω= 29.2 rad/s after: 19 mph = 8.5m/s 8.5m/s = ω(0.52m) ω= 16.3 rad/s acceleration = (16.3 rad/s - 29.2 rad/s) / 5s= -2.58 rad/s^2 torque= |-2.58 rad/s^2 |(1.29 kg*m^2 ) = 3.3 N*m I am confused...
  15. bagasme

    Correlation between Tire Pressure and Acceleration of a Motorbike

    I have asked this question on Stack Exchange: SE question. I often encountered this sticker on most motorbikes (especially matic ones) [credit: cintamobil.com]: There, when the tire pressure was measured from cold condition, the tire pressure are same regardless of loadout (29 psi and 33 psi...
  16. Benjamin_harsh

    How can we pump air into a bicycle tire without opening the valve?

    How can we pump air into bicycle tire without opening the valve? I mean If valve (dunlop bicycle valve)is closed, then how pumped air going into the tire?
  17. vr-marco

    Automotive Tametire tire model by Michelin

    Hi there! Is anyone familiar with the Tametire tire model by Michelin? I understand it is based on the brush model and can take into account thermal and pressure properties of a tire. I was able to find only a very basic article online, but not a full description of how this model is able to...
  18. berkeman

    Is there an AC Mains powered tire inflator? -- Updated

    I used to have a compressor that I used for keeping my vehicle tires inflated to the right pressures, but it was big and bulky (and I had to keep draining it between uses), so I got rid of it a couple of moves back. I'd like to be able to keep our vehicle tires topped off, without the bulk of a...
  19. mec_divi

    Aspect ratio for a motorcycle tire

    can anyone tell me the method by which the aspect ratio for the motorcycle tire can be decided given that load capacity of bike is known.
  20. G

    Tire rubber durometer rating -- stability

    Hello; I import karting tires from Taiwan , while reviewing a sample tire sent for inspection for our order, I noticed a change in spec. of Duro rating . We spec. them at 65-75D ,this sample came in at 60-65D ..here is the factory response= Hi Gus, The tire factory explained that the tire...
  21. F

    Automotive What is the relationship between tire physics and slip angle?

    Hello everyone, Does anyone know what the slip angle is in relation to rubber tires? What is its effect? Is it a positive or negative effect? My basic understanding is that when a tire is cornering, the tire does not point directly along the curved direction of motion but is slightly twisted...
  22. R

    MHB Determining Miles Traveled From Tire Diameter and Rotations.

    I am trying to figure out how to solve this equation. I have a car with tires of diameter 28", and they rotate 10,000 times. How far did I travel? According to my textbook it's 13.9 miles. I can figure it out by finding the circumference of the tire (87.96"), multiplying that by 10,000...
  23. sugarray

    Automotive How to calculate force needed to get a tire spinning

    I am looking for an application to see how much force is needed to start a tire spinning to compare different sizes and weights of different brands of tires. This is to help give an idea of stress on a transmission. I have searched an hour hear as well as Google looking for a formula or...
  24. SmugBug

    How many air molecules are there inside the tire?

    Homework Statement A car tire has a volume of 10 L and is inflated to a gauge pressure of 30 psi (207,000 Pa) at 20°C. How many air molecules are there inside the tire?Homework Equations N = PV/ kbT The Attempt at a Solution (207,000 Pa )x (0.01 m3) / (1.38 x 10^-21 x 293) =5.12 x 10^23...
  25. Evanish

    Misc. DIY - Replacing my bicycle tire with recycled plastic

    So the rubber on one of my bicycle tires has worn out to the point it needs to be replaced, and I was thinking I'd prefer a solid tire this time. Rather then buying one like a normal person I was thinking if I could make my own out of recycled plastic. Here is the plan as it currently...
  26. H

    How to calculate torque on each tire

    So I have a mining dump truck with 6 wheels. Tire is 4022mm diameter and rim is 1600mm diameter. I know all information about the truck. Assume that the truck is standing still on a 10% incline. Do I still need to find coefficient of friction to calculate the torque on each tire ? Thanks
  27. J

    Building a Tire Structure: A Step-by-Step Guide

    Would it be possible to build a small 20' X 20' or 30' X 30' building using car tires using maybe one layer tires then black plastic to keep rain out then another layer of tires? If you just stack them vertical for the wall how would you build roof? Stacking them like great pyramids would look...
  28. M

    How to measure the force generated by a tyre when it fails?

    Hello everyone, I am trying to work out how much force is generated when a tyre fails at a certain pressure. The tyre will be inside an OSHA section 1910.177 compliant tyre cage. What calculation would be used to solve the following?: The tyre size is 35 x 11.5-17 with a rated inflation of...
  29. I

    Help, Ice racing tire - which one will destroy ice faster?

    I have attached four Ice racing tires commonly used on cars and trucks. One of these is my own personal design that I have been racing with for a couple years now and still in the R/D stage but everyone keeps telling me my tire will destroy the ice we race on (think oval track) too fast and I...
  30. A

    Coefficient of friction of a tire: with/without tread and wet/dry

    I'm new to the forum and after some help if anyone can explain. I've read a few articles now, which have stated that the average co-efficient of friction for a tire with tread will be between 0.4 in the wet and 0.7 in the dry. If instead the tire had no tread, the co-efficient of friction will...
  31. X

    Automotive Understanding Tire Forces in Bicycle Simulation: Physics and Code Explained

    I'm creating a game, simple 2d game but that relies on individual tires forces simulation in a bicycle model. There are code out there but I'm not the kind of guy that just copy and paste. I like to understand and i love physics. I started by reading this web page It gave me a good starting...
  32. S

    I How fast do you need to cycle to simulate bicycle tire inflation

    My question comes from a moment when I was riding my bike. I had a flat tire. My question then was how fast do i need to cycle so that i don't ride on my rim's anymore. I tride calculating this with the force that i put on the tire (15kg+70kg= mass of the bike and I)*g= 833,85 N that devided by...
  33. J

    Torque and force on a tire iron

    So I was curious about something. Having a flat tire today and having to change my tire made me wonder. I understand torque and force are 2 different things though related they have separate meanings. So my question is if I have a 2 foot tire iron and I am torquing my nuts. Let's say they...
  34. T

    I Vehicle tire load vs stopping distance

    Forgive me if I have not posted this in the right place but I have a quick question. Say if you have a trailer on a truck, let's say a semi trailer, that has 2 axles on it. You measure the stopping distance from a certain speed. You then add another axle to the trailer that has brakes on it with...
  35. EEristavi

    Automotive Friction force, Coefficient of friction &Traction

    I have few (more or less) general questions: 1. I know that: "The coefficients of friction are nearly independent of the area of contact between the surfaces". I understand this, but I know from everyday life, when car tire tread is worn off, braking distance increases and maximum acceleration...
  36. D

    Bicycle tire width vs. pressure for identical comfort

    Here is what I want to know specifically: if I replace my 5cm wide rear tire with a 6.25cm wide tire, how much can I increase the inflation pressure to obtain the same comfort? I realize "comfort" is not a quantifiable measurement, maybe shock absorption characteristics is better. Perhaps it...
  37. Kevin Shen

    Pressure, surface area and force in tire

    Assuming that the temperature in the tire suddenly rises. My question is that would that cause the contact surface area between the tires and the floor increase, decrease, or stay the same? (given that the volume of air in the tires is a constant and cannot be changed) Also, why?
  38. quickquestion

    Exploring Tire Physics: Seeking an Equation for μK

    Okay so I've been digesting a lot about tire physics, it is a lot to digest. I have read about 50 pages worth of long and complex equations and hours upon hours of videos. But before I get to the complex refinements, I want to make sure I have an understanding of the basic behavoir. In all...
  39. BrainMan

    A Leak in a Bicycle Tire Problem

    Homework Statement Homework Equations pV = nRT The Attempt at a Solution I assumed that volume and temperature would stay constant. I assumed the volume wouldn't change because the volume of the tire doesn't change. This implies that n1/p1 = n2/p2 n1p2 / p1 = n2 I found n1 by using the...
  40. N

    Force exerted by air in an inflated unloaded tire

    Hello, Im asking myself how to calculate the force exerted by air in a inflated unloaded tire. We now that a tire can be modeled as a spring and a damper, with vertical deflection used as spring compression and deflection velocity as damper velocity. But how about a tire with no deflection...
  41. H

    I Filling a Tractor Tire Up With Two Tanks

    My dad and I were going to fill up a tractor tire that was very flat. We had two air tanks, a small (~5 gallons) and a large air tank (~10 gallons) which were both filled to the same pressure (~100 PSI). We wanted to pressurize the tractor tire as much as possible with the two tanks, and so my...
  42. Aashish sarode

    Tire Torque & Traction Force: Sprocket Attached to Rear Axel

    my sprocket is rigidly attached to rear axel ,is there any difference in torque at sprocket and tire?
  43. Revengeance

    Calculating Tire Pressure Change with Temperature Increase

    An automobile tire has a pressure of 210kPa at 20.0 degrees celsius. What will be the tire pressure after driving for some time if the temperature rises to 35.0 degrees celsius. The equations we have are P1*V1/T1 = P2V2/T2 V1/T1=V2/T2
  44. P

    What is the driving resistance force?

    Hi, I'm doing a study about tire dynamics and have some question that I can't get answers to. The first images shows the forces balances. Since we have no turqe the force has to balance ant the extensence of the T_r is obvious...
  45. anubodh

    Different tread design v/s performance

    How significant is the effect of tire tread pattern/design on the performance.I searched a lot but could not get any satisfactory answer. I know some designs favour better grip over speed (high rolling resistance), some are better for wet conditions but is the difference in tread design very...
  46. newjerseyrunner

    Why does the mind tire during intense mental work?

    I've been doing math all day, and I've noticed in the past hour or so, my abilities have started being extremely limited. I had to ask for help here for a problem than at 9am probably wouldn't challenge me much. Why after several hours of intense work does intelligence temporarily drop so...
  47. R

    Why overall tire diameter shrank over the decades?

    Automobile tires has been gotten smaller, diameter wise over the years. Below were based on Cadillac of different era. 1915 - 51-Eight with 36x4.5 tires with overall dia 36.8" and 4.75" wide 1925 - V63-Eight with 33x5 tires with overall dia 34.88", and 5.88" wide 1936 - V16 with 750x16...
  48. E

    Pumping Bicycle tire: Find volume, work done, temperature

    Homework Statement Daniel Schroeder, introduction to thermal physics problem 1.36 (page 26): "In the course of pumping up a bicycle tire, a liter of air at atmospheric pressure is compressed adiabatically to a pressure of 7 atm. (Air is mostly diatomic nitrogen and oxygen.) a) What is the...
  49. doctorwho55

    Relationship Between Bicycle Tire Pressure and Speed

    Hi, I have been tasked with finding a way to relate a bicycle tire's inflation pressure to its speed in traveling 160 meters. Data was given showing that as the pressure increased from 70 to 90 psi, the speed increased marginally. No equations were given. I think that it may have to do with...
  50. T

    Tire Placement for Aerodynamic Drag Reduction: Inside vs. Outside Designs

    What helps reduce aerodynamic drag better wheels inside or outside in reference to the above designs? please help.