What is Turbine: Definition and 544 Discussions

A turbine ( or ) (from the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, or Latin turbo, meaning vortex) is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. The work produced by a turbine can be used for generating electrical power when combined with a generator. A turbine is a turbomachine with at least one moving part called a rotor assembly, which is a shaft or drum with blades attached. Moving fluid acts on the blades so that they move and impart rotational energy to the rotor. Early turbine examples are windmills and waterwheels.
Gas, steam, and water turbines have a casing around the blades that contains and controls the working fluid. Credit for invention of the steam turbine is given both to Anglo-Irish engineer Sir Charles Parsons (1854–1931) for invention of the reaction turbine, and to Swedish engineer Gustaf de Laval (1845–1913) for invention of the impulse turbine. Modern steam turbines frequently employ both reaction and impulse in the same unit, typically varying the degree of reaction and impulse from the blade root to its periphery. Hero of Alexandria demonstrated the turbine principle in an aeolipile in the first century AD and Vitruvius mentioned them around 70 BC.
The word "turbine" was coined in 1822 by the French mining engineer Claude Burdin from the Greek τύρβη, tyrbē, meaning "vortex" or "whirling", in a memo, "Des turbines hydrauliques ou machines rotatoires à grande vitesse", which he submitted to the Académie royale des sciences in Paris. Benoit Fourneyron, a former student of Claude Burdin, built the first practical water turbine.

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  1. H

    Unusual design of a free-flow hydropower station

    I wanted to discuss the unusual design of a high-power hydraulic turbine. I'll start with this excerpt from the article. The article is in Serbian, so only an autotranslation. Has anyone seen formula #6 in any hydrodynamics textbooks? [Full image copy of journal article deleted by the Mentors...
  2. D

    B Could solar sails be used as turbines for power generation?

    It seems as though two advantages to using a solar sail turbine system instead of solar panels would be (1) the sails may not degrade as quickly as the solar panels, and (2) a sail turbine system may be lighter than a solar panel (and therefore less expensive to launch into orbit). The drawback...
  3. O

    Why Does My Rewound Alternator with Copper Wire Not Generate Power?

    Hi, I am trying to rewind an existing Chinese alternator, it comprises of rotor with 12 magnets and 18 poles (stator), the original design produced virtually no power , aluminium windings have been removed and I have replaced with copper 20 gauge wire, 7 turns per pole, I spin it and nothing...
  4. AhmedAB

    I am trying to design an axial turbine for my project

    TL;DR Summary: I have a problem designing an axial turbine, there is a lot I don't understand hey, how are you all doing, I am a chemical engineering student working on designing a geothermal power plant, weirdly I have been told that I must design an n-pentane turbine for our Plant, it's so...
  5. M

    Calculating turbine RPM in a pipe with known air velocity and diameter

    Hello, I am trying to calculate the turbine RPM for a turbine in a closed pipe. I know the air velocity and pipe diameter. Can this be done?
  6. N

    B Calculating Wind Turbine Torque - Get the Right Result!

    Hello everyone, I am reading a book about wind power turbines and found a calculation. I tried it myself and the numbers doesn't match. Here is an image of the data and result. I don't get to the same torque. And also what do you think about the moment of inertia value? Before the data...
  7. W

    Open Gas Turbine - calculate T2, T3, T4, efficiency

    Hello, I am trying to solve a problem about an open Gas Turbine. The given information would be: - An open gas turbine draws in air from the surroundings having the m, cp, T1 and constant kL with the next values: , - The air flow is heat over natural gas supplied: - The pressure ratio is 𝜋...
  8. H

    Why do we need stators in compressors or turbines?

    Hey Everybody! I was wondering why do we need Stators in compressors and turbine, for instance the goal of compressor is to increase the outlet pressure, so that the combustion is effective, but why we don't put just Rotors and no stators in the compressor (or Turbine).
  9. jonagad

    Engineering Trying to design Wind Turbine Blades

    Hello, I'm trying to follow the instructions from the book "Aerodynamics of Wind Turbines"-Martin O.L. Hansen, to design a blade, the method it's the BEM accounting for the tip loss (Prandtl) and Glauert corrections, but I can't get it right, for the Cl (lift coefficient) and Cd (drag...
  10. PaxFinnica96

    Engineering Thermodynamics: Pass-out Turbine Question

    Hello Physics Forums, I have been struggling with this question for some time now and I'm not sure my method is correct - please see attached. Any help you can give to check I'm on the right lines would be very much appreciated! Cheers, C
  11. Pim_Verwoerd

    Engineering Pressure after a water turbine

    For an engineering project we have to make an energy storage system. We thought of something like a hydro dam. We were having a discussion about the pressure after the turbine in the hydro dam. The water immediately flows into the atmosphere ( so it falls down into a lake ). Can we then safely...
  12. E

    Here is a 3D model I made of a large industrial steam turbine

    This is a 3D model I made of a large industrial steam turbine. It was modeled after one of the turbines at the Port Richmond generating station in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. I plan on modeling the entire turbine hall of that power plant, but that will take several months, at least. The program...
  13. PaxFinnica96

    Engineering Steam Turbine with Open Regenerative Feed Heater

    I would very much appreciate anyone to cast their eye over my attempt at solving this problem which I've been struggling with the past few days. Many thanks in advance. Assuming that: energy input from open-type regenerative feed heater pump is negligible no energy is lost the heater pressure...
  14. jack action

    International Harvester HT340 Turbine Tractor

    Why am I so jaded with today's technology and when I see the stuff they made in the past, I feel like a kid in a candy store? This is a replica of an experimental turbine tractor from 1960. Got more flaws than advantages, but boy, does it look cool! source...
  15. A

    Blown diffusior electric turbine wing....thing

    https://defense-update.com/20160303_vtol_x_plane.html you take the exhaust and pump it at the lip of the curve of a wing and try to aim it to maximize the coanda effect. it should look like a blown diffusior laid flat along the wing tucked in the square holes that the electric turbines are located.
  16. M

    Engineering Gas turbine (mean line) analysis question

    Hi, I was attempting another turbomachinery question and am struggling with a few concepts. The question is: "A single stage gas turbine for power generation is designed for the following overall duty: - Power output is 4.2 MW, and mass flow rate is 70 kg/s - Inlet stagnation pressure = 3 bar...
  17. M

    Engineering Axial Flow Turbine Design Question

    Hi, I was attempting the following turbo machinery problem and am getting quite stuck on the first part of the question. The question is: A design of an axial flow gas turbine stage is conducted for the following parameters at the mean radius: Stage inlet stagnation conditions: ## p_{01} ##...
  18. Y

    System design for charging battery from turbine alternator

    I am designing a hydro power system that will tie into an off grid solar system. I will be using a 48v carbon AGM battery bank. Will be using the Sol-Ark 12kw inverter/charger, which has 2 built in MPPT charge controllers for solar. Assume the hydro power will be around 5 kw potential, and...
  19. T

    Fluid flow around a wind turbine blade -- help please

    I have to estimate the Reynolds number of the fluid flowing around a blade but I only have one detail: the length of the blade is 0.66m. I have no idea how to do it and I got to submit the assignment in a week, I am desperate for help here.
  20. K

    High-Pressure Turbine - efficiency

    Hi Guys, Why increasing the pressure ratio in a High-Pressure Turbine ( in a Gas Engine) , will increase the temperature of exhaust gas? Why is the amount of heat added per kg of the gas is higher? Is there any good material where I can read about this? Thank you in advance..
  21. A

    Angular velocity and angular acceleration of a turbine

    Okay so what I've done; I've put the diammter d = 1m as r = 1m The time interval of 4s is t = 4s and the angular velocitys as; ω1 = 20 rad/s ω2 = 40 rad/s Now to get the accelaration. Angular acceleration can be split into two parts tangetial acceleration and radial acceleration What I...
  22. A

    How to determine Wind turbine RPM

    How to determine rpm of rotational body such as wind turbine blades. Is there any relation of input wind velocity with the blade rpm? If the rpm formula in relation to input wind velocity is known then I can choose exact matching rpm for electrical generator for a given power output. As per...
  23. rufusbufus

    Calculating the energy created by a bike pump that feeds a turbine

    Summary:: I have an assignment that is looking at how a bicycle pump is used to push air through a turbine to generate energy. I need to determine the energy input and energy created. I'm hoping I can get some direction on where to start. The concept is straightforward. A bicycle pump of...
  24. T

    I to design this turbine blade

    Given above is a rough model of what I want to make. This is in fact a turbine that will be placed in airlfow of 65-70 m/s velocity. I want to make it by using a 3D printer. But I want to use the best design of the blades that will give me highest output out of this airflow. Can anybody tell me...
  25. T

    Design of Hydropowered Turbine Propeller for Mobile Charger

    I am currently working on a project for an undergraduate course in university. My team and I have decided to make a hydropowered mobile device charger, and I am responsible for the design and modeling of the turbine propeller. This turbine will need to be able to function in low velocity streams...
  26. C

    Thermodynamics help please -- Air passing through a gas turbine system

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  27. Storm_Eagle

    What is the problem with Tesla turbine Nozzles?

    Hi. I have read about Tesla turbines. What i have found is that it is actually weary little research published on the subject. And as i understand it the main problem with them is the inefficiency in the nozzles used. While the turbine rotor efficiency in it self is really good. But what...
  28. Osvaldo

    Inserting Stainless steel blades into a Nodular Iron turbine diaphragm

    Would need some advise on how to prevent the blades from melting when pouring the nodular iron into the piece mold. If somebody has experience on the matter or can recommend literature that could help in developing a successful .
  29. A

    How exactly does a turbine convert mechanical energy into electrical?

    I understand that the turbine drives rotational motion of a low and high speed shaft which rotates within the generator, but how exactly, and with what components/materials does this create electrical energy? Is there a minimum required rotational speed or torque required to generate...
  30. Jess1980

    Pitch axis location of aerodynamic profiles of wind turbine blades

    Summary:: How is the pitch axis location of an aerodynamic profile decided? Hi, I drew a wind turbine blade in a CAD software. I used information on the pitch axis location I had on the various aerodynamic profiles I used to draw the blade. I understand that it allowed me to align the various...
  31. T

    Automotive What Are the Benefits and Challenges of Using a Turbine Engine in Cars?

    For me, and what I understand the main problem with turbine engines in cars is MPG because they required to run constantly at same rpm. Why no some kind of hybrid combo? With the way transmission have changed in last 5 year's how difficult would it be to transfer energy? As far as I understand...
  32. B

    Function for the Thrust of a Ducted Fan

    I'd like to design a ducted fan capable of generating 800 N of thrust. Though I can do fairly high level math, I just really don't even know where to start in calculating (or at least relatively accurately estimating the thrust generated by a propeller, particularly a ducted one (as I understand...
  33. Izazo

    Calculating Steam Turbine output power

    So I know the formula " W_turbine = m_flow rate * (H_in - H_out) " BUT is there any formula that utilizes the turbine volumetric flow rate (m^3/sec) at the outlet? The following data is available, I just need the formula... P_in= 2.36 Mpa P_out= 0.95 MPa m_flow rate= 0.02 kg/sec eff_turbine= 70...
  34. Izazo

    Outlet Volume flow rate from a steam turbine

    I am working Organic Rankine Cycle. I studied a number of research papers and in most of them, they have calculated outlet volume flow rate from the turbine or expander, but have not mentioned the calculations. So here are the available data; Pin = Turbine Inlet Pressure, 2.5 MPa Pout = Turbine...
  35. Chandrakanth_balusa

    How is the turbine speed controlled by Grid but not by itself?

    Hello People, Greetings! i am back again with a confusing question for which I thought I could get a correct answer from here. so my question is regarding the speed of the turbine. I learned that the speed of a turbine has to be maintained constant in order to maintain generating frequency...
  36. R

    Can I store electricity from a wind turbine directly into a battery?

    Hello, This is an enquiry about the wind turbine electricity and battery storage. I am framing it based on my limited understanding. Please advise me. I intend to install and capture the wind energy through a small wind turbine at my home. The turbine shaft will be directly connected to the...
  37. Hassan Elkady

    Calculate Braking Torque in Wind Turbine Design

    How can I calculate the braking torque in wind turbine?
  38. S

    Automotive Design of a Valve stem cross section in a Steam turbine emergency valve

    I want to design cross section area required for valve stem when valve is closed under spring force. Valve stem should be designed for buckling load but I am unable to calculate buckling load coming due to impact force coming when valve bangs on valve seat. Valve is having concentric spring. Is...
  39. D

    Electrical Enclosed water turbine power generation

    In theory or at least in my head, it seems simple enough to me. A simple water pump, such as a pool pump pushes water through a pipe into a water turbine and recycles the water directly back to the pump. With some of the hydrogenerators I've seen out there, they produce far more power than the...
  40. T

    Vertical wind turbine with two concentric rotors

    Hello. For a long time, I wanted to build a wind turbine prototype that would have two concentric rotors. The design was inspired by an automotive torque converter, used with automatic transmissions. This device would have an external rotor that would be coupled to one generator and an internal...
  41. Chandrakanth_balusa

    Estimation of the Power Output of a steam turbine

    Hoow can one estimate the amount of steam required to generate certain amount of electical power mathematicaly?
  42. Jeviah

    CFD analysis of a turbine, interpreting torque values

    Hello, I am using CFD to analyse a Kaplan turbine and am unsure on how to interpret the torque values as they come as x, y and z components. My understanding is that the z component in this case will determine the rotation direction depending on whether it is positive or negative however I am...
  43. A

    Electrical generation from used water in my home

    Hi everyone. I was just out in my back garden and was watching the water from someone's shower pour down the pipe and out into a drain. I was thinking if all of the used water from my house just goes down a drain then why not try make use of it. If the water system continues after use and takes...
  44. QuarkDecay

    Flow (liquid or gas) across a rotating surface's face

    << Mentor Note -- Two threads on the same question merged into one thread >> How does the maximum Power equation change if there's an angle to the way the wind falls into the wind turbine's blades? Example, when it falls vertically to the blades, it's Pmax= 8/27Sρu13 But if there's for...
  45. A

    Misc.  Develop Water Pressure Powered Motor | Tesla, Terry, Vane or Pelton

    Hi I need to develop a water pressure powered motor. .5 hr / 375 watt at aprox. 1000 rpm. The water temp would be at 180 f / 82 c . The water flow 20 GPM / 75 LPM Can please get direction on the best type. Tesla, Terry , vane or Pelton . This is my first post, i appreciate the help thank you
  46. Clay2

    Turbine Design for fire-hose driven shaft

    I am working on a design for a water powered drive shaft. The water source would be from a 2.5 inch diameter hose, at approx 75-100 psi. The goal would be to get 55-115 RPM from the shaft and max torque in the smallest possible handheld device. That being said, it seems my best options for...
  47. J

    Steam turbine start-up degree of superheat

    Trying to find more information on steam quality requirements on a start up of a 70's vintage GE turbine ( impulse type 2 casings compound double flows reheat condensing turbine). I've read in detail manufacturers recommendations regarding rate of metal temperature change in the 1st stage and...
  48. K

    Question about a Windmill / Turbine

    Homework Statement Consider a turbine which actuates the windmills by blowing air into it. (If we use beat steady windmills (which is called reverse windmills) instead of movable windmills, deliberate the following conditions by parametric view. (Ignore the friction power (force)) A. Compare...