I am a watchmaker and need some help with the formula and correct units to derive the Frequency of the Balance wheel. I'm am trying to prove the formula with a known Balance Wheel/Spring and Frequency but using all known values still cannot get the formula to work. When I have a working formula then I can make changes to the wheel and spring and predict what the result will be. Formula given: T(Hz)= 2∏√[12.M.r.sup.2.l/E.h.e.sup.3] Issue 1. in the text M is described as Mass 'r.sup.2' is described as Radius of Gyration (Rg) however M.r.sup.2 is the formula for 2nd Moment of Inertia (Mass x radius).....so I'm not sure if I should be finding Rg or 2nd Moment of Inertia then multiply by the Mass again (M.Rg.sup.2). Issue 2. E(Modulus of Elasticity) should be in the units Nmm.sup.2/rad but I can only find E in Gpa ....is there a difference? Issue 3. The (Hair)spring is a flat spiral spring (example: 0.30mm high x 0.12mm thick x 260mm long)but when comparing 2 formula for Elasticity 'e' and 'h' are confused so that it is not clear which dimension should be 'e' or 'h' (height and thickness) 0.30 x 0.12.sup.3 = 0.0005184 0.12 x 0.30.sup3 = 0.00324 Issue 4. The first formula seems to ignore phi θ for some reason (because we are not exceeding the elastic limit of the spring?) Modulus of Elasticity= 2∏√[12.l.θ/E.h.e.sup.3] Issue 5. The Frequency (F) in Hz is also derived from this formula: F= 1/2∏√(K/I) Where K is the spring Constant (Nm/rad) I is the Mass (Kgm.sup.2) K is derived from the formula: K= M/.phi. Where M = Modulus of Elasticity (back to my problem of working out M) Where phi θ is described as the 'unit angle of twist' (of the spring) but I've no idea what value this should be (Oscillation of the balance wheel is 270°) and in what units (degrees or radians). Finally here are the known dimensions of my Balance Wheel and Hairspring: F(Frequency) = 2.5Hz Balance Wheel Wheel Diameter = 17.4mm R1 (Outside rim radius) = 8.6mm r2 (Inside rim radius) = 6.8mm Mass = 0.56gms Rim Height = 0.75mm Rim Thickness = 1.8mm Density = 0.00825 (approx) Hairspring E (Modulus of Elasticity) = 221Gpa (this value is a guess based on a range of materials used within the industry for Hairsprings) l (Length) = 260mm h (height) = 0.30mm e (thickness) = 0.12mm θ (oscillation?) = 270° I hope this doesn't give anyone a head ache! Any assistance would be appreciated.