1. For circuit switching, how would you find its end-to-end throughput? I know throughput is defined as dividing the file size by the time. So would I divide the size of the message (M) by the time it took to make the connection setup(S), transmit the message(T), and disconnect the message(D). M/(S + T + D) Also, how do you calculate the header into the message delay in message switching? Would it be included in the transmission delay therefore, adding the size of the message plus the header divided by the bandwidth?