# Waves in air in a tube that is closed

• the-pal
In summary, the shortest length that will cause a loud note is 0.32m or 32.2cm. If the pipe is 1.5m long, you will hear four loud notes as the plunger is withdrawn.
the-pal
1. The air in a closed pipe with an adjustable plunger in is made to vibrate at a frequency 256 Hz over its open end. As the length of the pipe is increased, loud notes are heard as the standing wave in the pipe resonates with the tuning fork.

(a) What is the shortest length that will cause a loud note?
(b) If the pipe is 1.5 m long, how many loud notes will you hear as the plunger is withdrawn?

2. Relevant formulae are

For closed pipe, first harmonic λ = 4L , f¹ = v/4L f³ = 3v/4L = 3 * f¹

(a) Rearranging the formula to get:
L = v/4f¹
L = 330/4*256
L = 330/1024
L = 0.32m or 32.2cm

(b) i thinking that i need to look for the 3rd and 5th harmonics to see how the length I'd affected but i calculate this to be smaller and therefore not really affected by a longer tube! Help?

the-pal said:
(b) i thinking that i need to look for the 3rd and 5th harmonics to see how the length I'd affected but i calculate this to be smaller and therefore not really affected by a longer tube! Help?

Hello the-pal. Welcome to PF!

Can you show your work for the "3rd and 5th harmonics". You should be getting longer lengths. Note that the frequency of the tuning fork is fixed, so the frequency at each resonance will be the same. What does that mean for the wavelength of the sound for each resonance? For these types of problems, it can be very helpful to draw a picture which shows the resonant standing waves inside the columns of different length. By noting the number of nodes and antinodes, you can easily figure out the length of the resonating column of air.

Thanks,

So is it that as I've drawn that only one more full wave will fit in the tube therefore the answer is 2? The third wave would overlap the end and they're not produce the standing wave? Right?

So actually it is not about the other harmonics?

Remember that you must have an antinode at the open end and a node at the water surface. So, if you think about it, how far should the water be lowered to go from one resonance to the next?

Yes. I know that is what my diagram shows but I didn't seem to upload from the physics forum app?

The wave will look like this ><> right?

the-pal said:
The wave will look like this ><> right?

Right:

>

><>

><><>

Cool

So my answer of 2 is right as ><><> would be 1.61 so will not fit in the 1.5m pipe.

Boom.

Thanks

Looks good!

## 1. What are waves in air in a closed tube?

Waves in air in a closed tube are a type of standing wave that is created when sound waves travel through a tube that is sealed at both ends. These standing waves are characterized by nodes, or points of no movement, and antinodes, or points of maximum movement.

## 2. How are these waves created?

These waves are created when sound waves reflect off the closed ends of a tube and interfere with each other. This interference results in the formation of standing waves with specific frequencies, known as the resonant frequencies.

## 3. What factors affect the resonant frequencies of these waves?

The resonant frequencies of waves in a closed tube are affected by the length of the tube, the speed of sound in the tube, and the temperature of the air inside the tube. As these factors change, the resonant frequencies also change, resulting in different standing wave patterns.

## 4. What is the relationship between the length of the tube and the resonant frequencies?

The length of the tube is directly related to the resonant frequencies of the waves. As the length of the tube increases, the resonant frequencies decrease, and vice versa. This is because longer tubes allow for more nodes and antinodes to form, resulting in lower frequencies.

## 5. How are these waves used in practical applications?

Waves in air in a closed tube have various practical applications, such as in musical instruments like flutes and organ pipes, where the length of the tube can be adjusted to produce different notes. They are also used in acoustic resonators, such as in exhaust systems of vehicles, to reduce noise levels by canceling out certain frequencies.

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