# What is Calculations: Definition and 1000 Discussions

A calculation is a deliberate process that transforms one or more inputs into one or more results. The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation of using an algorithm, to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition, or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.
For example, multiplying 7 by 6 is a simple algorithmic calculation. Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black–Scholes model is a more complex algorithmic calculation.
Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but produces ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.
To calculate means to determine mathematically in the case of a number or amount, or in the case of an abstract problem to deduce the answer using logic, reason or common sense. The English word derives from the Latin calculus, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin calx). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus (Latin abacus, Greek abax). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on iron bars.

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1. ### Understanding and Troubleshooting Handlebar Load Calculations

Hey all, I'm either overthinking it or too tired but this problem should be an easy one to figure out but I'm stumped embarrassingly. Say in the photo above is a lever arm. I'm trying to backtrack to calculate the force a user must input (yellow) against a force (red). It can pivot around...
2. ### Calculate the following commutator [[AB,iℏ], A]

I've seen this question in a textbook Calculate the following commutator [[AB,iℏ], A] I'm not to sure how you go about it i know [A,B] = AB-BA
3. ### RC circuit solution to a current pulse input

TL;DR Summary: A current pulse of amplitude I is applied to a parallel RC combination, plot to scale waveforms of the current ic for the cases a.tp < RC b. tp = RC c. tp > RC Are the calculations and waveforms correct?
4. ### Supporting structures used in machines/production lines

I'd like to calculate the whole structure including welded beams and then calculate rails and the beam used for suspend a robotic arm. The problem is I've no idea how could I start. I was trying to find some training materials (mainly books) on this topic (design of supporting structures for...
5. ### Engineering Thermodynamics calculation: Flashing water at 75C

Hello all, For a project I really need to know some number i can't seem to produce myself. we are flashing water @75 degrees Celsius, the water after flash-cooling is 67 degrees constant pressure is 0.27 bar (absolute) flow rate is 15000 KG/per hour. how much water is vaporized? Help is much...
6. ### A Efficiency of Two Carnot Engines Operating in Series

This has been discussed in a previous thread https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/efficiency-of-two-carnot-engines-in-series.173879/ Th conventional answer is that the series efficiency is the same as one engine running between T max and T min but I am skeptical. I have attached my...
7. ### Microscope Optics: questions and calculations

For this problem, Distance from objective to object ##𝑑𝑂 = 10.6cm## Distance between the objective and eyepiece ##𝐷 = 34cm## For (b) I got ##d_I = 26 cm## and ##M_1 = -2.4## which means that firsts image is inverted and real For (c) I got ##dI' = 35 cm## and ##M_2 = -1.3##. However, I...
8. ### I Help Needed: Probability Problem in Risk Management Calculcations

Hello all! I hope I have come to the right place, and I appreciate any help! My first disclaimer is that I am not a math professional of any sort, I am not bad at it but I just wanted to start with that so if I ask a stupid question, it's because I am ignorant mostly. What I work in is risk...
9. ### Electric field amplitude question regarding intensity calculations

My question is specifically with calculating the intensity. The book solution is I=P/(4*pi*r^2) but would this not give me a weaker electrical amplitude in the final calculation after plugging it in to I=(1/2)*√(ε0/μ0)*(E02) ?
10. ### I The missing factor of 2π in reciprocal lattice calculations

##\require{physics}## Recently, I wet my feet in X-ray diffraction a bit more than what is usually covered in standard solid state physics textbooks at the undergrad level, like Kittel. Two good books that I chanced upon included Christopher Hammond, The Basics of Crystallography and Diffraction...
11. ### How do I go about the calculations for an air conveyor?

How do I go about the calculations for an air conveyor that has the same working principle as an air hockey table? The conveyor should not he bulky seeing as it is a prototype. Please help me.
12. ### A Consistency check for Doppler correction calculations

Hello! This should be an easy calculation, but I want to make sure as the result seems a bit weird. Say I have an individual atom, for which I know the energy with a given uncertainty. In my case say I have ##1000 \pm 2.5## eV. Lets say that I perform collinear spectroscopy on this atom (for...
13. ### Engineering EE Design Calcs: Mastery Expected? Textbook Examples?

Looking through the Art of Electronics, I barely see any equations, mostly description. However, checking out this video, we get a whole page of calculations. Are the authors of AoE expecting that practitioners are already fluent in these design calculations? Are there examples of such...
14. ### Easy Physics Calculations with C++: Making it Cross-Platform

Hi. I wrote a little algorithm that calculates some physics equations for education purposes and it's in C++. I'd like to make it avaiable by creating a website and put that code in it so it either interprets the C++ code or preferrably works with an executable (but then how would it be...
15. ### Calculations for a lifting tool for a bar

I'm designing a lifting tool for a bar with a flared head. The bar is say 10m long and 10mm in diameter with a head on the top that is 20mm in diameter and 10mm thick. There is a fillet from the head to the bar of 2mm (for reducing stress concentrations). The bar will be lifted vertically and...
16. ### GTRPy - A python package for General Relativity Related Calculations

Hello, everyone I am now working on this project quite a while now and I just wanted to share it with this forum, which I was a member for a long time. I am working on a python application about GR and I believe I managed to create a very user-friendly layout. It's called GTRPy, and it allows...
17. ### Calculations: Creep of Metals and the Life of a Rod

I'm sorry I'm uploading lots of images because I don't know how to write equations here. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION I have to solve this problem: Figure P3.6: MY SOLUTION I did this: THE CORRECTION I got this as a correction: - Don't use the middle line in figure P3.6 in my calculations. -...
18. ### I Gravity machine force calculations assistance needed

Im prototyping a machine to lower liquid from a height using a chains and sprockets. Essentially liquid will fill at top, be lowered over a distance of 4.8 metres then emptied at bottom. The liquid needs to be lowered at a slow pace due to resistance on the output shaft, I am considering...
19. ### Calculations using the Standard Solar Model & Solar Equations of State

Assuming the Sun’s core has a mass of 0.35 Msolar_mass and taking values for other quantities from a internet background search or from the following figures (i.e.: Radius "solar core" = 0.25 Rsolar_radius ): ------------------------------------------------------------------------...
20. ### Evaluating minimum and maximum values with calculations

Hi! I know this may seem like a silly question but I really just want to make sure I understand this correctly. I've already calculated the minimum and maximum values for time and height: t min = 0.58 s t max = 0.68 s y min = 1.98 m y max = 2.02 m To calculate the minimum average speed, would...
21. ### Rolling mill force calculations

Hi, I'm building a rolling mill for flattening out bits of steel and I'm trying to make sure it's not going to break. I know that with a 1500w motor geared down to 60rpm (2pi rad/s) i end up with 239Nm of torque. 239Nm working at a radius of 0.0375m gives 6369N of force generated at the edge...
22. ### Engineering Looking for calculations I could apply to a vacuum-forming machine

So far I have determined the evacuation time, a basic heat transfer between the heating element and plastic sheet, and a hold down force of the forming bed.
23. ### Stress in a spinning flywheel

I'm wonder how one could calculate the total mega pascals total mega pascals that can be applied to a spinning flywheel before it exceeds its tensile strength example: a cast iron flywheel is spinning at 10,000rpm(Tangential velocity = 104.72) it has a radius of 100mm and a weight of 500g...
24. ### A Which one of the GGA or G0W0 calculations is more accurate?

I want to compare my tight binding results with DFT calculation. Which one GGA or G0W0 is more trustable to compare?
25. ### How Is Cylinder Force Calculated to Rotate a Beam with a Horizontal Load?

I am trying to calculate the force required to lift/move the beam clockwise from the shown position. I have a force (F1) acting at the end of the beam, 5,000lbs pushing to the left, as shown. What is "Fcyl", or the force required by the cylinder to life the beam with the acting load, and rotate...
26. ### I Michelson-Morley: Errors in Calculations?

I would like to know the opinions on the paper that I saw about Michelson-Morley experiment. Michelson-Morley experiment was done in 1887 and had an impact on the future direction of physics. It is taught in schools as an experiment that proves the non-existence of the aether and proves the...
27. D

### Nuclear fusion energy calculations

Me again! For a sci-fi story I'm working on, I've created a sci-fi technology called an Aneutronic Triple Alpha Fusion Reactor. It works via aneutronic fusion, in this case, fusing Deuterium with Helium 3, but it also mimics the triple alpha process found within stars to maximise fuel use...
28. D

### Sci-fi engine thrust calculations

Hi all, I'm writing a technical manual for a starship in a science-fiction series I'm working on, I wanted to check with some folks here to make sure my calculations are correct concerning the ship's engine thrust. The ship has a fully-loaded mass of 5 million metric tons. Using its...
29. ### Calculating Max Tension, Final Angle for Swinging on Rope Over Lake

Please tell me if I need to post my solution for this.., but I just have a question more or less 'conceptual' question about (c). so I know that from Newton's 2nd law for centripetal acceleration --> ##F_{rope} - mgcos(\theta) = ma_n## where ##a_n = \frac {v^2}{R}## such that where the normal...
30. ### Lens Calculations using Refractive Index

Answer: I already found the answer for Sin theta 2 like the pic below But, I am still not sure about how to derive delta here. Can anyone show me they way? thank you
31. ### Find the missing digits in the calculations below

First, consider modulo ## 9 ##. Then ## 9\mid (5+1+8+4+0)\implies 9\mid 18\implies 9\mid 51840 ##. Since ## 51840\cdot 273581=1418243\chi 040 ##, it follows that ## 9\mid 1418243\chi 040 ##. This means ## 9\mid (1+4+1+8+2+4+3+\chi+0+4+0)\implies 9\mid (27+\chi)\implies 9\mid\chi ##. Thus ##...
32. ### Need Help with Heat Exchange Calculations for Cosplay Suit Idea

Hello, I am trying to figure out if the investment into a watercooling system in a Cosplay suit would be worth it. I plan on using a water loop made by taking a "CoolShirt" https://coolshirt.com/product/white-coolwater-shirt/ and running water through it either from an ice bath in a sealed...
33. ### Understanding Back EMF in Electric Motors

Current drawn by motor = ##\frac{120-75}{90}## = 0.5 Amps The answer says the power output of the motor is 37.5 Watts. The only way I can get that answer is if P = IV = 0.5(75) = 37.5. This implies that in an electric motor, the back emf is the voltage of the motor. This confuses me because...
34. ### Is there a program that can run depletion calculations in reverse?

I was having a conversation with a coworker and this question came up: is there a program like ORIGEN (or maybe even ORIGEN) to run decay calculations in reverse? It's a relatively easy process to start with a given quantity of an isotope (e.g. U236), run it through a program such as ORIGEN...
35. ### Engineering calculations as a deliverable: standards and references

My question relates mainly to mechncial engineering but I guess the general principle may apply elsewhere. Up until now I have mainly been an engineer on the customer side (marine and offshore) , reviewing contractor reports, "sense checking" them and general engineering firefighting and...
36. ### VTOL RC Airplane Tricopter COG, Liftoff Weight Calculations

Hello, I am interested in making an RC plane as illustrated. Some questions: 1. Given that the build material of the plane will be 3d printed out of PLA and I want the wingspan to be between 1.2m - 1.35m ideally. How can I calculate the minimum wingspan/wing shape/wing area to carry a payload...
37. ### B CDC International 4 Level Travel Notice System Math Calculations

The 4 level system categorizes international destinations at a level four if the 28 day infection rate per 100,000 > 500. The population of Costa Rica is 5,094,000. The WHO had 5,488 infections for 2/11/2022. How would you calculate the infection rate per 100,000? 5,094,000 ÷ 100,000 = 51...
38. ### Calculations for a Hammer Throw Event

I'm already confused by the terms circular, angular and radial. I've read the definitions but I'm still confused. What is the difference? Is ω the right symbol for frequency that I used? Any tips much appreciated!
39. ### Increasing confidence in theoretical calculations

How can one maximise one's confidence in the results of a theoretical calculation? After long and fiddly calculations I often encounter an uneasy feeling where I find it difficult to confirm whether the fruits of all that labour are actually correct. The first ports of call are always: -...
40. ### Variable pitch spring calculations

Hi, does anyone know how to calculate the current spring constant of a variable pitch spring when under compression. Since some of its coils get inactive when compressed the stiffness is increasing and consequently “k” is changing as well, is there an equation I can use to calculate the new...
41. ### Order of calculations for an air bubble system for dock de-icing

My current project involves constructing an air bubble system to protect stationary docks from ice heave or ice jacking during the winter months. Ice jacking is the vertical lift as ice expands. When this grabs piles supporting stationary docks, it can wreak havoc. I am mainly confused as to...

43. ### Equation calculations about the coefficient of kinetic friction

I need an expert to verify equations about the coefficient of kinetic friction.
44. ### Engineering Induction motor calculation problems

Given the following input parameters: Parameter Value Rs (Resistance through stator) 1.4 Ω Rr (Resistance through stator) 0.7 Ω Ls (stator inductance) = Lr (rotor inductance) 0.002 H xs = xr = 2*π*f*Ls 0.6283i Ω Lm(magnetic inductance) 0.01 H xm = 2*π*f*Lm 3.1415iΩ f (frequency)...
45. ### Help please with power calculations to turn a large flywheel at 1rpm

How did you find PF?: Trying to find answers Hi I’m trying to solve this problem .hope someone can find the answers, I need to find the hp needed to run a flying wheel ring shape. 42 ft in diameter weight 200.000 lbs the wheel is Suport by bearing inside and out of the edge of the rim, the...
46. ### Engineering Calculating Power Losses in an AC Induction Motor

Given the AC Induction (asynchronous motor) in 3 phases: Parameter Value Pn (Nominal Power) = Pmechanical (output power at the shaft) 5 kW = 5000W uls (Voltage through the stator line) 220 V fstator (stator frequency) 50 Hz p (Number of pole pairs) 2 LFe (Iron loss) = Lmechanical...
47. ### I Neglecting higher powers of small quantities in calculations

Hi If x(t) is considered to be small so that higher powers ( greater than 2 ) can be neglected in a calculation does that also imply that the time derivative of x(t) can be considered small and powers greater than 2 be neglected ? Thanks
48. ### How Do You Calculate Deflection and Shear Stress in a Tapered Shaft?

So i need a little bit of help with a problem. I have a tapered shaft connected to a gearbox and i need to caluclate the deflection of the shaft and the max shear stress of the shaft. the total length of the shaft is 500mm the diameter is 35mm and tapers to 28mm with the taper length of 90mm...
49. ### Power calculations for a motor spinning a turntable

Hi, I have a 1 HP motor spinning a turntable (just a wheel) weighing 1kg, diameter 25cm speed 2000rpm. (Arbitrary specs). If I have to spin a turntable with the same weight (1kg) but double the diameter (50cm) at the same speed, would I necessarily need a motor with double the power (2 HP)...
50. ### Help with Mathematical Description & Calculations of Space Charge Density

Guys I have Problems with this task The arrangement consists of a point charge Q at a distance (x0, y0,0) from the origin and two perfectly conductive surfaces in the (x, z) and (y, z) plane a) Mathematical description of the space charge density p of the original and mirror charge using the...