What is Camera: Definition and 305 Discussions

A camera is an optical instrument that captures a visual image. At their most basic, cameras are sealed boxes (the camera body) with a small hole (the aperture) that allows light in to capture an image on a light-sensitive surface (usually photographic film or a digital sensor). Cameras have various mechanisms to control how the light falls onto the light-sensitive surface. Lenses focus the light entering the camera, the size of the aperture can be widened or narrowed to let more or less light into the camera, and a shutter mechanism determines the amount of time the photo-sensitive surface is exposed to the light.
The still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced later as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing. The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film, videography, and cinematography.
The word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura. The functioning of the camera is very similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first permanent photograph was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce.

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  1. billtodd

    Something weird has happened to the camera in my PC

    I entered a CD to my Blu-Ray and the camera's light (signaling if it's on or off) was sent on, and it seems I can't turn it off with the on/off button. Unless of course I disconnect it from the PC. It's a simple GPlus camera, I guess made from china.... :oldbiggrin:
  2. collinsmark

    Stargazing Documenting the setup of my new telescope

    This thread is for documenting the setup of my new telescope. It's not completely new, I'll be using some peripherals from the old telescope, such as the camera, filter wheel, off-axis guider (OAG), mini PC, focuser, etc. But the optical tube assembly (OTA), mount and tripod are new. Also new...
  3. G

    An optics question concerning pictures taken by camera

    Answer from the book: We need to draw two diagrams, one assuming the photo on p. 644 is right side up, and another assuming it is upside down. Figure 23–9 is drawn assuming the photo is upside down. In this case, the Sun blocked by the tree would be the direct view, and the full view of the Sun...
  4. W

    Apps having access to Android Camera

    Should any Android apps be given access to its( Android) camera? Re a blackmailing email I recently received, I want to cover as many security angles as possible. So I recently checked the list of apps in my Android that have access to my camera. There were a few, WhatsApp and Google being...
  5. makamo66

    More than one camera necessary for movement analysis?

    I found two martial arts papers that used just one camera to analyze movements and the rest of the papers that I viewed either used MOVEN sensors plus software or more than one camera plus triangularization. I would like to use just one camera in conjunction with Kinovea software but I don't...
  6. L

    B Prism Camera Lens: Expanding Visible Light Spectrum?

    Is it possible to create a lens that expands a narrow range within the visible light spectrum to represent it using full visible spectrum?
  7. Nikkie

    Electronics Stationary 3d scanner using a standard camera

    I know there are some stationary 3d scanners like this, but they are really expensive. When I saw, well an addition to handheld 3d scanner - a robotic hand, I came up with an Idea that same can be done with a simple camera, and photogrammetry. Found a nice article about photogrammetry on the...
  8. N

    I Lens angle of coverage/image circle

    Hello, I was wondering what parameters determine the angle of coverage/size of the image circle of a lens. For example, for a fixed focal length, aperture and flange focal distance of a camera, what can a lens designer do to change the size of the image circle. I'd also like to know how the...
  9. G

    A COG calculation of diffracted spots on a camera

    Hi all, I will like to simulate diffracted spots at least two spots, on a camera. I will be glad if someone can help out with a code. below are the details required: camera pixel size = 4um (each pixel can be sub divided for better calculation), gap size = 100nm, camera length = 4000 x 4000...
  10. G

    A Obtaining the noise level of a camera

    How can I subtract the camera noise from my real image? Basically, I want to calculate the center of gravity of a diffracted spot without the influence of my camera noise. I will be glad to know how this can be done.
  11. N

    The best way to find a modern hidden camera?

    Considering that all the tips of youtube does not working for a modern camera... because no visible light, very very small size, the camera of other phone to does not work... what its the best form for this case? I am very intrigued, it would be like finding a needle in a haystack (sorry my...
  12. O

    Force an app to use the selfie camera?

    I have a pixel 3xl. The normal camera broke this weekend, but the selfie camera still works. I have an app that I need to scan a qr code once a day for work that only attempts to use the now broken camera. If I could get it to use the selfie camera getting it to line up would be a little...
  13. yourheartandsoul

    Finding the force on a camera window underwater

    I figured out that the pressure is 8.0442x10^7 Pa and I’m not sure how to approach the second half of the question. I’m thinking I use the formula F=PA but I’m realizing it’s not saying that .15m is a diameter or a radius.
  14. Citronnier

    Film Advance system research for DIY Camera

    Dear All, I'm a french professional photographer working on Still Life and Architecture. As a long time and personnal project I'm working on a 3D printed/Laser cut analog camera that will shoot 6x4.5 frames. In the end it will be some kind of rangefinder with integrated electronic light...
  15. DaveC426913

    Stargazing Is this USB eyepiece camera a lemon?

    Looking for input on whether I've bought a lemon or if I just need some finesse. For a lark, I bought this 1.25" eyepiece compatible webcam for my scope. I had low expectations but knew I could only find out by trying it. https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B08DP1YZP8/?tag=pfamazon01-20 First...
  16. J

    B Is a Quantum Entanglement Camera the Key to Seeing Into the Future of Earth?

    I do not have the education to grasp the math of quantum mechanics but I am very interested in it and understand some of the concepts. I often find myself pondering those concepts. One thing I began to wonder about was the possibility of using quantum entanglement to observe distant objects so...
  17. Libor

    I Video camera in a moving rocket

    Lets imagine that I will put the recording camera and ticking clock into a box and so that camera can record this clock all the time ticking. I will put then this box to the speed of 1/2 speed of the light, after a minute of mine I would stop this box and take the camera from it. As it was at...
  18. brainpushups

    Measuring Reflectance with a Digital Camera

    Background: This fall our initial plan will have high school students on campus 1 day per week and working remotely for the remainder of the week. I'm trying to plan for some at-home labs and projects. I came across http://albedodreams.info/how_to/how-to-calculate-albedo-yourself/ site which...
  19. Mark44

    Need suggestions for a new camera

    I have a small point-and-shoot camera, Canon Powershot A560, that's getting a bit long in the tooth. It doesn't seem to want to store the date and time any longer, despite taking the batteries out and putting them back in (I use the NiCad batteries designed for cameras, which last longer), and...
  20. E

    Radiation shielded Go-Pro camera sent through electron beam irradiator

    A radiation-shielded go-pro camera was sent through an electron beam irradiator. You can see the effects that the radiation has on the camera in the video. I wonder how many rads it was exposed to.
  21. Wrichik Basu

    How to prepare my camera for a solar eclipse

    There will be a solar eclipse on 26th December that can be viewed from my city. In addition to buying safety glasses, I also want to prepare my camera, if possible. The camera is a Panasonic FZ-70. I have a UV protector and four ND filters - 2, 4, 8, 16. I am also buying a circular polarizer...
  22. E

    Can Math Model Real-World Camera Focusing Dynamics?

    This problem arose in modeling camera focusing movement, such as a control system might do. It assumes a simple (thin) lens, rays close to the optical axis, and monochromatic light. While most camera lenses are not simple, this is a first approximation. Camera lenses project an image of a...
  23. S

    Radiation interference with camera at Chernobyl?

    Hi all, My first post on this forum. I couldn’t think of anywhere better to come than to here with a question I’ve had since a recent trip to Chernobyl! Whilst visiting Pripyat I took several videos. Great care was taken to stay away from any contamination hot spots and we had an experienced...
  24. saroj34

    What is your opinion about using the ELB-REV4 camera module with Simpl

    I have no previous experience using this tool. My question is if some of you have any comment about this tool or any option for image processing using similar cards such as arduino, etc.
  25. Robin04

    Probability - Camera in a parallelogram shaped room

    I tried to mess around with some equations in Mathematica with more or less success. Let's call ##a,b## the two sides and ##\delta## the angle between them. I contructed vectors that point to the corners of the room. ##\vec{a} = (0, 0)## ##\vec{b} =(a, 0)## ##\vec{c}=(a+b \cos{\delta}, b...
  26. S

    A What is the relationship between focal length and focus point in convex lenses?

    First of all, Let me present some of the things I found from research. (considering convex lens) Interpretation 1 => Focal length is the distance from the center of the lens to the point where all rays converge. Interpretation2 => Focal length is the distance from the point of convergence to...
  27. E

    How do motors on gimbals work? (2-axis camera mount application)

    Hello everyone, I am trying to build a 2-axis camera gimbal, which will control yaw and pitch. I have bought sensorless BLDC motors (GB280870KV) which I drive using SPWM. For knowing the camera orientation, I am using IMU sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer) integrated on the...
  28. E

    Slowly Rotating Device For a Camera Pan Timelapse

    Hello all! I just discovered PF as I have been searching about a project I have been pondering for a day. The idea is to have a device that I can set my 3lb camera and have the device rotate left-to-right && || right-to-left over the duration of 2 hours for use in a sunset/cloud timelapse...
  29. StillLearningToronto

    Using a CCD camera to solve physics problems

    (Sorry for Length) 1. Homework Statement You have decided to use a CCD camera to check if a 16th magnitude quasar is variable. You can presume that all of the light of your quasar falls on one pixel. You know that a star with a magnitude of 0 would deliver 1 × 10^9 photons/second to one pixel...
  30. B

    IR camera 1550 nm IR light source

    I am looking for an IR camera that can pick up 1550 nm IR light source on the pix level. I have silicon wafers and I am going to hit the pixels with a 1550 NM IR light source and I want to be able to see the pix with a IR cam. I want to connect it computer and use a C# application to view the...
  31. A

    Simulate other lenses with Time of Flight (ToF) camera

    Hello, I have a small project in which I try to use a Time of Flight camera to detect movement in the Field of View. Now the current Field of View is really narrow (about 25° diagonal FoV), which is we I will have to simulate a bigger one. My professor did try to explain to me what changes...
  32. T

    What can I do with an infrared camera?

    I just inherited an infrared camera (https://www.flir.com/products/c2/). Other than taking entertaining thermographs (cold ice cube in a warm hand, etc.), can you recommend some clever demonstrations I could show to my fellow calc-based physics students? The best I came up with is taking a...
  33. M

    Camera Lens works as a Polarizer or not?

    I read maxwell says electric field polarizes the dielectrics. Does it mean above effect used at photographic camera lens design to make that lens sometimes works like polarizer filter ? Mustafa Umut Sarac Istanbul
  34. pairofstrings

    Digital Transparent Glass; what's its name?

    Hi. I need to know the name of the transparent glass which can display objects like Line, Circle, Numbers, or maybe my name. Thanks!
  35. C

    I What causes disturbance on my phone camera?

    Hi I have a cheap smart phone with a low quality camera when I go to take a picture there is what I would describe as like old television static appearing in front of the image as it appears on the phone screen (although what is beyond it can still be seen). I am wondering if this is just dust...
  36. V

    Optical geometry of smartphone camera.

    I posted the following on a phone forum and got no replies, as expected. It's a bit out-of-the-way and technical. Thought this might be a better place since the question still interests me. I'm using my phone to take photos of assembly procedures on my electronics workbench. However, the focus...
  37. A

    Unknown light-based Phenomenon

    Can you help me figure out how this light-based phenomenon works? Please explain with an intuitive answer using the simplest principles possible. Note how the location and width of the dark horizontal bands is constant with respect to the edge of the video frame. The LED light looks normal...
  38. T

    I Quantum entangled image sensor for space camera-telescope

    Could this be a possibility at some point? Since entanglement is not affected by distance, could we send cameras out to extremely distant places and get instantaneous signals? Only the image sensor would have to be entangled. It would still take the same amount of time as usual to get the camera...
  39. G

    Lens engineering for virtual reality

    What type of lens/prism would be needed to allow a image sensor to see 180 degrees, so the sensor could see a hemisphere. It doesn't matter if the input is distorted. I thought that a glass pyramid with a square base might work.
  40. J

    How to determine the range of sensitivity for a camera sensor?

    I am not sure if this is the best place to ask and I will change locations if need be, but I need some guidance on how to choose a proper sensor for my project. I am currently working as part of a team on a polarimetric camera for ocean imaging. The basic premise is that images, from above the...
  41. Sneaky6666

    How to create a camera mount with basic materials?

    I have a project which requires me to get 5 very specific images of an object from various angles. The user can't use their hands because it would be too shakey and introduce error. These images have to be precise and steady. So that's why I need to build a helper camera mounting device to help...
  42. O

    I How is the order of events reversed in 1 trillion frames per second videos?

    First I am not sure if this is the correct place to post this thread, but the thread will be about optics, quantum physics and special relativity, so it is a mixed subject. Please watch this video first: This technology allows capturing videos at mind blowing 1 trillion fps, which allows us...
  43. Angela Ituriaga

    Space Camera Project: Ideas for STEM & Space Exploration

    Hey everyone, So, my school club was approached by a local entrepreneur that sends up cubesats as well as ping-pong ball sized "satellites." The original intent of these (what he likes to call) Pongsats was to get kids excited about STEM and space. He send them up for free via weather balloon...
  44. R

    Stargazing Formulas for camera obscura (correct sub forum?)

    Experiment / demonstration: Set up military surplus command tent as camera obscura / pinhole projector for observation of full soar eclipse. Problem: lacking in personal knowledge of the formula needed to determine correct focal length to hole diameter Solution: Request assistance from actual...
  45. Aero_Arnendu

    Live Feed Drone Camera: Infrared/Night Vision & Clarity

    please refer some live feed drone camera with infrared and night vision and good picture clarity in minimum price . thank you
  46. BL4CKB0X97

    Stargazing What sort of camera would you use?

    Hi. I am doing a project concerning getting a picture of the milky way, in a similar manner of the artists impressions artwork( I don't actually intend to try it obviously). As I don't have a clue what camera to use as an example becuase I need the FOV to work out how far it needs to travel...
  47. hackhard

    Tweeting Images with Arduino: Libraries and Limitations

    i ve got an Arduino Uno R3 and the OV7670 camera module SD Module and a Wifi shield . ive done tweeting with arduino using twitter library http://playground.arduino.cc/Code/TwitterLibrary i was wondering Is there any library to post images in a tweet? or some other hack?
  48. Andy Resnick

    Saving my pennies for Chronos 1.4 High-speed Camera

    Wasn't sure where to post this, but since I'd likely use it for classroom videos: https://www.kickstarter.com/projects/1714585446/chronos-14-high-speed-camera/description http://www.krontech.ca/uploads/9/3/8/3/93836312/chronos_1.4_datasheet.pdf Let's hear some ideas (besides the tried-n-true...
  49. Andy Resnick

    Insights Digital Camera Buyer's Guide: Tripods - Comments

    Andy Resnick submitted a new PF Insights post Digital Camera Buyer's Guide: Tripods Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.