What is Energy released: Definition and 75 Discussions

In fracture mechanics, the energy release rate,


{\displaystyle G}
, is the rate at which energy is transformed as a material undergoes fracture. Mathematically, the energy release rate is expressed as the decrease in total potential energy per increase in fracture surface area, and is thus expressed in terms of energy per unit area. Various energy balances can be constructed relating the energy released during fracture to the energy of the resulting new surface, as well as other dissipative processes such as plasticity and heat generation. The energy release rate is central to the field of fracture mechanics when solving problems and estimating material properties related to fracture and fatigue.

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  1. P

    I Energy released calculation using Binding energy and mass defect

    Consider the equation X (200, 50) + n (1, 0) -> Y (120, 30) + Z (70, 20) + 11 n(1, 0) Let p be the mass of a proton, n be the mass of a neutron. BE(X) = [50p + 150n - M(X)] c^2 BE(Y) = [30p + 90n - M(Y)] c^2 BE(Z) = [20p + 50n - M(Z)]c^2 The energy released when using BE (products) - BE...
  2. A

    I How is combustion energy released?

    Is it possible that in combustion, the chemical energy of reaction is released wholly through photon emission. Say as in simple burning of wood.
  3. xpell

    Calculating Energy Released by Sodium Reacting with Water

    Hi! After watching a couple videos about the explosive reaction of sodium in freshwater and seawater, I felt curious and wanted to calculate how much energy is released. However, my Chemistry is super rusty and I think that my result is way too high (equivalent to almost 2 g of TNT per gram of...
  4. T

    Nuclear fission calculation of energy released

    Summary:: Calculate the amount of energy in joules generated from 2 kg of uranium fuel if the uranium 235 represents 0.7% of the metal and every fission releases 200 MeV. Hi! I am stuck in this question from my exercise book : Q. Calculate the amount of energy in joules generated from 2 kg...
  5. B

    I Questions about the energy released by nuclear fission

    as far as i understand nuclear fission is the splitting of a heavy nucleus cause of a added neutron the energy you get is cause of the lost mass from binding energy. but i also read that the nuclear fission products undergo beta decay which emits beta particles gamma rays and antineutrinos so...
  6. K

    B How to calculate the energy released?

    Would Earth's moon also collapse into the Sun? In that case, how much energy will be released with that collision too? How will it compare it with the earth-sun collision? Is there a possibility of this situation arising in the lifetime of earth?Thanks in advance.
  7. SebastianRM

    What is the energy released by Tritium when it decays?

    Summary: The problem states Tritium decay into Helium, an electron and an electron neutrino. Questions of the problem: a) To write an expression for the single particle transformation that occurs at the nucleus. to which i wrote: n -> p + e + v b) Is to calculate the energy released by the...
  8. Vamsi9955

    I The energy released from antimatter annihilation -- New uses?

    The pure energy released from antimatter annihilation can there be any use of this clean energy for research purposes like the use of light in LIGWO for gravitational waves study can we use it efficiently like light in LIGWO I think we can and it could lead us to reveal mysteries of universe
  9. T

    Energy released upon ionization of different gases

    Hi, I am interested in plasma physics. I understand that once a gas (say Argon) is ionized, light (electromagnetic radiation) is emitted. This is clearly observable from the coloured glow of the gas when it is in a plasma state. Where does the energy for these electromagnetic rays come from? Is...
  10. A

    MCNPX - How calculate Kerma (kinetic energy released per unit mass) in Air?

    Hi, my name is alexander, i am student from Institute of radioprotection and dosimetry (IRD). My project is calculate MGD (mean glandular dose) from womans with augmented breast. i am having dificulties to calculate Kerma in air with mcnpx. I drew a block of air above the breast, i am using the...
  11. J

    B Mechanism for Energy Released via the Strong Force in Fusion

    Hi, I was wondering if there is a mechanism to explain how the strong force leads to an energy release when two light nuclei such as hydrogen fuse together. I get that the products of fusion have less mass than the reactants and that this "missing" mass is converted into energy in accordance...
  12. S

    Energy released through alpha decay

    Homework Statement The radioactive isotope radon-222 may decay spontaneously by emitting an alpha particle. The daughter nucleus is an isotope of polonium. The atomic masses of these isotopes are: Rn-222 : 222.0157 u Po : 218.00896 u He : 4.00260 u A sample of radon-222 contains 3.0 x 107...
  13. U

    I Energy released when 238U is divided into two 119Pd.

    Hi! I have a question about nuclear fission. Here is the problem: 238_U (B/A = 7.6 MeV/n) is divided into two 119_Pd ( B/A = 8.5 MeV/n). How much energy will be released? I was thinking since the 119_Pd has larger B/A (binding energy per nucleus), energy is needed for this reaction to happen...
  14. A

    I Determining the total energy released by a compost pile

    The heat source for this experiment is a compost pile (1 cubic meter), I know that the inside of the pile will reach approximately 50C for 2 weeks or so. Right now it's winter so the temperature will stay around 0C (average). The thermal conductivity of compost can vary greatly but in this case...
  15. A

    I Determining the energy released by a flame

    I've found a lot about using water to find the amount of heat released by something but the experiment I want to run would take about two weeks to complete so that's probably not a viable solution for me. I know what the temperature will be and that it will remain mostly constant, is there...
  16. moenste

    KE of alpha particle using integer values of nuclear masses

    Homework Statement (a) Cobalt has only one stable isotope, 59Co. What form of radioactive decay would you expect the isotope 60Co to undergo? Give a reason for your answer. (b) The radioactive nuclei 21084Po emit alpha particles of a single energy, the product nuclei being 20682Pb. (b) (i)...
  17. P

    B Difference in binding energy is equal to the energy released

    Can someone please explain why is the difference in binding energy is equal to the energy released in a nuclear fission/fusion. From my understanding of binding energy, it is the energy needed to break bond between neutron and proton or energy released when forming into a nucleus. However, what...
  18. Nitheesh

    B Energy released in electron transition

    When an electron moves from higher energy level to lower energy level the energy doesn't released. But actually it should release. What happened to the in released energy?
  19. Amrator

    I Energy Released in Stellar Nucleosynthesis

    This is taken from page 226 in Essential Astrophysics by Lang: "The mass defect, ##ΔM##, for a nucleus containing ##A## nucleons, ##Z## protons, and ##A-Z## neutrons is $$ΔM = Z m_p + (A - Z) m_n - m_{nuc}$$ where ##A## is the mass number of the nucleus, ##Z## is the atomic number, ##m_p## is...
  20. victorhugo

    I Q: Binding energy per nucleon & energy released in reaction

    EDIT: I figured out what I'm stuck on is WHY do nuclear reactions favor the a reaction such that the product has a HIGHER binding energy per nucleon? Also how is energy released in a fusion reaction if the product requires more binding energy per nucleon? I need an explanation... "The graph...
  21. C

    Gravitational Energy Released from Sphere

    Homework Statement "How much energy is released when a sphere of constant density (p) with mass (M) and radius (R) is put together gravitationally? What you should do is to think of the energy released when a shell is brought in from infinite distance (where potential energy of zero) to the...
  22. T

    B Exploring the Mystery of Energy Released in Nuclear Explosions

    I'm reading about the interesting data that suggests a new heavy particle about 750 GeV. It talks about the energy being the mass times the velocity of light squared and is indicated by the two photons as the particles decay. I guess it's the same with this and a nuclear explosion which...
  23. Einstein's Cat

    Energy released from annihilation

    Hypothetically, say there were two bodies, both with a mass of 1kg, and these bodies were to anhilliate as one body was an anti-version of the other body then would the energy released equal the speed of light (due to E= mc squared; the bodies are stationary) or twice the speed of light? In...
  24. N

    Calculating energy released by fission.

    hey guys. i have answered my question but i am not quite sure about it. Four hydrogen atoms fuse to produce one helium nucleus.calculate how many MeV of energy is released in this process. You are calculating how much energy is released by the fusion of four hydrogen atoms. what i have done...
  25. S

    How to work out the impact force of a colision

    Hi :) Here is a true story... I was in my car which weighs 820 Kgs, I for arguments sake weighs 80Kgs and the vehicle has an acceleration of 0-100 Kph in 15sec I was at a stop and went to go around a stationary vehicle in front of me.. I locked the wheel and attempted the pass but instead made...
  26. D

    Energy released in fusion

    Homework Statement Two 2_1 H atoms undergo fusion to form 3_1 H and 1_1 H atom calculate the energy released by 1.0kg of deuterium.. the amu is given as :2_1 H : 2.01402u 3_1 H : 3.016049u 1_1 H : 1.007825 u P/s : i am...
  27. S

    Calculating energy released due to fission of heavy nucleus into equal nuclei.,,

    Homework Statement There is this university exam question: Draw the nuclear binding energy curve and and show that energy is released when a heavy nucleus of A> 200 breaks up into two nearly equal fragments. Homework Equations See below. The Attempt at a Solution I found in an example in...
  28. C

    Energy released by condensing steam back to liquid water

    Homework Statement vaporized 19 kg of water and did not capture and condense it. It took 42.9 MJ to vaporize the water, how much energy did I lose from not condensing the steam? Homework Equations Latent Heat of Water = 2260kJ/kg The Attempt at a Solution Would the energy lost to not...
  29. K

    The energy released for white dwarf collapsing into neutron star

    The question is attached. I'm not sure how to approach to part (b). The energy released could be in 3 forms, the rest mass energy for those matter ejected during supernova explosion, the binding energy released as the atomic structure changed, the ejected matter carries off some kinetic...
  30. mishima

    Electron Affinity, Type of energy released?

    This might be a dumb question, but for instance when oxygen gains an electron to become an anion, energy is released equal to its electron affinity. What exactly is the form of this energy? Is there a photon of a certain wavelength emitted? Does the anion slow/cool down because of the small...
  31. K

    Energy Released by fission

    Homework Statement Estimate the energy released, in Joules, by the fission of 1g of U-235 according to the equation: ^{235}_{92}{U} + ^{1}_{0}{n} → ^{144}_{56}{Ba} + ^{90}_{36}{Kr} + 2^{1}_{0}{n} + Q atomic masses: ^{235}_{92}{U} = 235.04438u ^{144}_{56}{Ba} = 143.92279u...
  32. B

    Four Protons Are Fused Into An Alpha Particle, Energy Released

    (answered)Four Protons Are Fused Into Alpha Particle, Energy Released Answered: I wasn't supposed to multiply by c2. Thank you ehild I apologize in advance if I posted this in an incorrect format or in the wrong section. I read the rules and I believe this is the correct format/place...
  33. U

    Energy released in nuclear fission problem

    Homework Statement Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution (a) Shown. (b) W = 975 MeV (c) Initially nucleus has volume V. Splits into two smaller particles each with charge Q/2, and volume V/2. So for each particle, Q/2 and R*(1/2)1/3 So, W' ~ 2 *...
  34. M

    Calculating energy released during fusion reactions

    Homework Statement A Sun-like star may convert some carbon 12C (nuclear mass 1.998 ×10-26 kg) to oxygen 16O (nuclear mass 2.657 ×10-26 kg) towards the end of its life. Approximately how much energy is released per fusion reaction? Homework Equations e=mc2 c+he = o + energy The...
  35. T

    Calculating thermal energy released when aluminum cools an solidifies

    Homework Statement While forming a 1.5kg aluminum statue, a metal smith heats the aluminum to 2700 degrees C, pours it into a mould, and then cools it to a room temperature of 23.0 degrees C. Calculate the thermal energy released by the aluminum during the process. Homework Equations Q =...
  36. H

    Energy released from heavy atoms?

    Hallo! Now I've noticed something about nuclear fission and fusion. They both are small atoms that release megawatts of energy that could destroy most of big cities. Now I wonder how is that possibile? Splitting an atom create MAJOR amounts of heat and energy combined what is the reason for...
  37. M

    Energy released in the fission of one uranium-235 nucleus? (extra neutron)

    1. How much energy is released during the fission of one uranium-235 nucleus? 2. e=mc2 lol :smile: 3. I thought of putting them together but then how to separate them? 1.67495×10-27+3.903 05×10–25×c2=1.7539207313048996244767495×10-7 By the way, the answer is 4.73×10-11
  38. R

    Calculating Heat Energy Released in Ozone Decomposition Reaction

    I have been doing some research on ozone recently, and I have a question that none of my resources have answered... The following reaction is an exothermic reaction, but how would I calculate the amount of heat energy is released? O_{3} \underbrace{\rightarrow}_{uv\ light} O_{2} + O...
  39. B

    Show that in this fusion cycle, the energy released is about 30 MeV.

    Homework Statement http://pds24.egloos.com/pds/201201/22/94/f0095594_4f1af1d126bf3.png [Broken] [Fusion cycle of the SUN] Show that in the fusion cycle, the energy released is about 30 MeV. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Can you do this without any relevant information!? If you...
  40. F

    Estimating the energy released in fission

    Hi I have been asked in a past exam paper to estimate the energy released by the fission of one 235U nucleus. I am given the mass of a 235U nucleus and also 141Cs nucleus and 93Rb nucleus in the 'Useful constants and formula' section of the exam so I wondered if I had to use these, although...
  41. P

    How To Measure Amoung Of Energy Released

    To start with, I have never been in a physics class, nor am I an engineer. I am a computer programmer, and I love the science channel, so at best I am a bad amateur in this field of study. That being said... I was thinking about calculations that could be used in games like Angry Birds, and I...
  42. B

    Why energy released when bonds formed

    In chemistry its often said that energy must be added to system to break atomic bonds and conversely when atoms bond energy is released. I can picture why it takes energy to break a bond, for instance to ionize a hydrogen atom you have to exert a force on the electron to overcome the...
  43. jaketodd

    Energy released when splitting H2

    I would greatly appreciate anyone who can tell me reliably how much energy is released from splitting a single H2 molecule's nucleus. Thanks, Jake
  44. N

    Energy released each decay

    Homework Statement In a nuclear fusion reaciton 4 protons fuse together. The final result is a helium nucleus and a release of energy. The net reaction is 4p→⁴He+ energy. The mass of a helium nucleus is 6.64×10-27kg. How much energy is released each decay? Homework Equations Mass lost...
  45. K

    Energy released, capacitor power output

    Homework Statement a) An electrical device stores energy in a 1.25 x 10^-4 F capacitor at 220 V. How much energy can be stored in this device? b) If 1.25 J were released from capacitor in 0.25 second, what would be its power output? I believe I solved (a), but I cannot find out how to...
  46. C

    Gravitational potential energy released in core collapse

    Homework Statement Estimate the gravitational potential energy released in the collapse of a 1.2 solar-mass core from an initial density of 10^9 g/cm^3 to a final 10^15 g/cm^3. Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution The book doesn't provide much guidance on this. I was thinking of...
  47. H

    Energy released in a gunshot explosion

    Hey, I have a quick question about the energy released when a gun is fired. When a gun is fired, energy is released in the explosion and is transferred to the gun, bullet and is also used to heat up the surroundings. My question is: how/why is energy released in the explosion? What is the...
  48. P

    Calculating Energy Released in Fusion: 21H + 31H -> 42He + 10n

    Homework Statement A nuclear reaction being studied for its potential as a source of fusion power is: 21H + 31H -> 42He + 10n 1) calculate energy in MeV released when two atoms fuse according to the reaction above. 2) calculate the energy in joules released per mole of reactants. (ie...
  49. S

    What is the amount of energy released from an exploding firecracker?

    Let's say the standard size firecracker if there is a standard.
  50. L

    Energy released in an explosion

    Hi All, I'm working on a problem about describing the energy released when a bomb explodes, assuming it releases energy, E, I'm trying to describe the rate at which the radius of the bomb blast wave is expanding. I'm having some difficulty conceiving where to start in connecting the energy...