large hadron collider Definition and Topics - 87 Discussions

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and highest-energy particle collider. It was built by the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) between 1998 and 2008 in collaboration with over 10,000 scientists and hundreds of universities and laboratories, as well as more than 100 countries. It lies in a tunnel 27 kilometres (17 mi) in circumference and as deep as 175 metres (574 ft) beneath the France–Switzerland border near Geneva.
The first collisions were achieved in 2010 at an energy of 3.5 teraelectronvolts (TeV) per beam, about four times the previous world record. After upgrades it reached 6.5 TeV per beam (13 TeV total collision energy, the present world record). At the end of 2018, it entered a two-year shutdown period for further upgrades.
The collider has four crossing points, around which are positioned seven detectors, each designed for certain kinds of research. The LHC primarily collides proton beams, but it can also use beams of heavy ions: lead–lead collisions and proton–lead collisions are typically done for one month per year. The aim of the LHC's detectors is to allow physicists to test the predictions of different theories of particle physics, including measuring the properties of the Higgs boson and searching for the large family of new particles predicted by supersymmetric theories, as well as other unsolved questions of physics.

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  1. B

    Why does the LHC need to be more powerful?

    I am doing a piece of A-2 coursework concerning the LHC and its restart and cannot understand why the increase in energy of run 2 would allow us to detect heavier particles such as those proposed by SUSY.
  2. K

    Small Space Hadron Collider?

    It's to my understanding that the Large Hadron Collider is so 'large' due to the fact E=MC^2 and that when the accelerated particles approach the speed of light their mass increases logarithmic to a near infinite mass, meaning the magnetic force applied to the particle, to stop it from touching...
  3. C

    Looking For (Academic) References About How the LHC Works

    I'm currently writing a paper for a small class called "Contemporary Physics" and I am writing about particle accelerators and the search for the Higgs Boson. I have a fairly good idea about how the Large Hadron Collider works, but I cannot use my own explanation alone as I need references to...
  4. stevebd1

    Energies in the LHC

    Due to the blogs being removed, I thought it might be worthwhile posting a few in the forums- The Large Hadron Collider has produced collisions at 7 TeV. For collisions at 7 TeV, protons need to be ‘ramped’ to 3.5 TeV, the proton has a mass of 1.6726e−27 kg which, according to mass–energy...
  5. T

    Why are time dilatation & length contraction infinite at light speed?

    Considering that speed of light is constant and finite, then why are the time dilatation and length contraction infinite to a frame of reference moving at the speed of light? We know that a moving frame of reference experiments time dilatation and length contraction from the point of view of a...
  6. T

    Differences between Engineering and Physics?

    It seems like once you get to the upper levels engineering and physics start to blend together. For example, think of the Large Hadron Collider. The people that worked on the Higgs Boson theory were definitely physicists but what about everything else? Were the people who actually designed...
  7. V

    Database of theories beyond the standard model?

    I am a programmer and physics fan. A speaker (Lawrence Krauss?) at (not on youtube yet) said physics theories beyond the standard model are an under-determined problem. There are 7,000 theories that fit...
  8. dheeraj

    X-ray question

    i everybody i've studied in my 9th standard that x rays are produced when cathode rays(electrons) hit solid targets such as molybdenum,titanium,etc.. now we'll observe the physics going out there so what's happening there? an electron is coming with some speed say v and hitting the valence...
  9. A

    Particle collider imaging process

    How do particle colliders read the trajectories of particles in the collider? Are EM waves emitted from each of the particles? If some particles do not emit EM waves, does the "sensor" only read particles that emit EM waves? .........In other words, what bridges the gap between our pictorial...
  10. N

    One quick question about Higgs boson and supersymmetry

    Peter Higgs is going to get a Nobel prize for physics, since Higgs boson's existence was confirmed in the experiments in CERN. But I do have some questions: I read the following, but I'm not qualified to say if this is true or not, so I'm asking you for help, and if the following statement is...
  11. E

    Econ: Budget cuts and expensive laboratory science projections for 10s

    (I am going to attempt a 2nd, little thread before I finish my earlier thread. I want to see if I can practice using PF Rules & Guidelines and FAQ before I wrap up my thread on Autism in Medical Sciences.) In my humble opinion, the current budget crisis in the news likely augurs deep cuts -...
  12. J

    Large Hadron Collider

    I was on the LHC simulator and the collisions of the Hydrogen atoms were confusing. Why were some uniform in direction while some spinning erratically in a cork screw pattern? Does that behavior have anything to do with the positive or negative charges of the Quarks in the nucleus?
  13. J

    W/Z production cross sections

    I had a look at the production cross sections for W/Z at hadron colliders. These differ as a function of energy with the W x-sec being consistently ~10 times larger than the Z cross sections. Why is the W cross section so much larger? I think the coupling strength is similar and the mass...
  14. A

    New Physics Complications Lend Support to Multiverse Hypothesis

    "New Physics Complications Lend Support to Multiverse Hypothesis" From Scientific American: Bolded by me. While certainly not enough to definitively prove the existence of a multiverse, from the way the article reads it does sound like the Standard Model has some holes in it. I...
  15. howabout1337

    Do the Large Hadron Collider take earth's rotational speed?

    so according to wiki: protons have a Lorentz factor of about 7,500 and move at about 0.999999991 c, or about 3 metres per second slower than the speed of light (c) If we consider speed of earth's rotation or speed at which two galaxies approach each other (collision or otherwise)?
  16. C

    Parton model and quark interaction in DIS.

    I'm currently reading about the parton model and deep inelastic scattering. As I've understood it was observed that when protons collided at high energy very little transverse momentum transfer was observed, while when electrons were collided with protons transverse momentum transfer was...
  17. Drakkith

    New results indicate that new particle is a Higgs boson

    This was released today so I'm not sure if most have seen it yet. It appears that "a" Higgs Boson is confirmed.
  18. krash661

    Hangout With Cern: Lhc And The Grid

    Hangout With CERN: LHC and the Grid - Big data, big questions Public · By CERN usually every thursday 5:00pm in UTC+01 Last week we showed you how global computing helps CERN store, distribute and analysis around 25 Petabytes...
  19. D

    Anti Science friends and trying to enlighten them. (possibly funny)

    Anti Science "friends" and trying to enlighten them. (possibly funny) I know its pointless to even argue with people like this (even more pointless when its on Facebook), but do you guys ever give in and try to school people like this? Sadly a few of my friends decided to stop their education...
  20. D

    Cern: First evidence for the decay Bs → μ+μ−

    BBC News reported this Here's the actual paper [Broken] What does this actually mean for Susy etc?
  21. M

    Reason for dipole and quadrupole magnets in the Large Hadron Collider

    According to Wikipedia, the source of all knowledge, the LHC contains some 1,232 dipole magnets with an additional 392 quadrupole magnets. What is the difference in function between the two types of magnets? How might the effects of magnetic field gradients contribute to the differences...
  22. C

    Mass Observed to Increase as Velocity Increases?

    With CERN's Large Hadron Collider being in the news recently, I began to think of a question that bothered me for years about particle accelerators. It is well known in physics that mass increases as velocity does (Special Relativity if I'm not mistaken), so if these particles in the LHC are...
  23. T

    Explain why x-rays source are protons which are accelerated

    In a large hadron collider at CERN, protos follow a circular path with speeds close to the speed of light. X-rays can be produced by free protons which are accelerating. Explain why this providesa source of x-rays even though the speeds of the protons are constant. Provided answer: must...
  24. B

    New Beauty Baryon discovered

    New "Beauty Baryon" discovered “A never-before-seen subatomic particle has popped into existence inside the world's largest atom smasher, bringing physicists a step closer to unraveling the mystery of how matter is put together in the universe.” “After crashing particles together about 530...
  25. H

    The question of circular motion in future

    i want to know some applications(idear) about circular motion in future. Is Large Hadron Collider, LHC about circular motion? PLZ,HELP
  26. rhody

    In the future, an Exobyte of astronomical data per day

    Wow, what a Project: Square Kilometer Array This thread is unique, last one was written in 2007 concerning the "Square Kilometer Array". It looks like requirements will push new developments in hardware and software technologies to handle an exobyte of data per day. One half an exobyte of...
  27. Greg Bernhardt

    LHC finds new Chi-b (3P) particle
  28. rhody

    Important reason for squashing software bugs accuracy of scientific discoveries"]CERN's[/PLAIN] [Broken] boson hunters tackle big data bug infestation It's the software or the science that's been wrong One's analysis when processing experimental data must account for possible errors in the tools used to identify and...
  29. A

    Observing the physics of Black Hole interiors‏

    I am writing to propose an experiment to observe the physical affect on matter within the interior of Black Holes. The approach requires combining the phenomena of Quantum Entanglement with the manufacture of mini Black Holes in the CERN’s LHC (Large Hadron Collider): A paper by Choptuik and...
  30. V

    Experiments in quantum entanglement

    Two or three years ago there was an interview in a science journal with a physicist who had worked on the large hadron collider. The interviewer asked what he wanted to do next,and he replied that he'd like to do some experiments in quantum entanglement but had no funding. Apparently donations...