microscopy Definition and Topics - 15 Discussions

Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye). There are three well-known branches of microscopy: optical, electron, and scanning probe microscopy, along with the emerging field of X-ray microscopy.
Optical microscopy and electron microscopy involve the diffraction, reflection, or refraction of electromagnetic radiation/electron beams interacting with the specimen, and the collection of the scattered radiation or another signal in order to create an image. This process may be carried out by wide-field irradiation of the sample (for example standard light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy) or by scanning a fine beam over the sample (for example confocal laser scanning microscopy and scanning electron microscopy). Scanning probe microscopy involves the interaction of a scanning probe with the surface of the object of interest. The development of microscopy revolutionized biology, gave rise to the field of histology and so remains an essential technique in the life and physical sciences. X-ray microscopy is three-dimensional and non-destructive, allowing for repeated imaging of the same sample for in situ or 4D studies, and providing the ability to "see inside" the sample being studied before sacrificing it to higher resolution techniques. A 3D X-ray microscope uses the technique of computed tomography (microCT), rotating the sample 360 degrees and reconstructing the images. CT is typically carried out with a flat panel display. A 3D X-ray microscope employs a range of objectives, e.g., from 4X to 40X, and can also include a flat panel.

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  1. JD_PM

    Size resolution limitation on Dynamic Light Scattering

    I have been looking online and it is stated to be 1nm, but these are posts around 6 years old: https://www.azonano.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=3662 https://www.researchgate.net/post/Whats_the_measurement_limit_of_dynamic_light_scattering I am wondering if the limiting resolution has improved...
  2. JD_PM

    I Atomic Force Microscopy in hard and soft matter physics

    I am studying the modes of operation of the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). I know there are three: contact, tapping and non-contact. Are they really used in both hard and soft matter physics? If so, how are the difficulties/limitations that they present overcome?
  3. F

    Microscopy magnification problem

    Hello, I'm having trouble understanding how and why the math is the way that it is to get the answer. The question states: A specimen has a diameter of 1.5 micrometer. What is the minimum magnification that will allow a human to resolve this object? 150 micrometer/1.5 micrometer = 100X <--...
  4. C

    Looking for small ideas -- items which demonstrate interesting/educational things

    Hi. I'm a retired several-sciences guy, a STEM Ambassador encouraging kids to look at science, hopefully fostering interest. I'm also interested in microscopy. I/we are looking for ideas for small items which demonstrate interesting/educational things, for kids to look at through microscopes...
  5. J

    I What are the limits on resolution of STORM/PALM?

    I know localisation microscopy 'beats' the limit on resolution by activating individual sources and rendering a final image, but what are the limits that prevent the resolution of the images of these individual fluorophores? Is it just the number of photons collected? Cheers
  6. C

    I Why is the resolution of TEMs and SEMs not smaller?

    I was wondering if someone could offer an explanation as to why TEMs and SEMs have practical resolutions several orders of magnitude less than what is predicted by the Rayleigh Criterion. This of course comes from my own calculations of the Rayleigh Criterion assuming an electron is accelerated...
  7. C

    How intimately can we observe DNA replication?

    I found this interesting computer animation representing DNA functions in cells. My questions: 1) How precisely can we actually magnify cell functions, and what is preventing us from peering in as closely as depicted in the video (keeping in mind that I know it's probably technologically...
  8. U

    A Resolution in single molecule localisation

    Hi all, If a camera images a fluorescent molecule gaussian function with diameter roughly 300nm and each image pixel represents 160x160nm how could you say with higher precision where the molecule is located within that pixel. For instance if the localisation precision turns out to be 40nm how...
  9. Telemachus

    Transmission Electron Microscopy

    I'm looking for a quick and well synthetized reference to the TEM technique. I'm writing a monography, we used TEM on a sample (just sended it to the lab, I dind't do the work). I don't have any reference, and I wanted to give a kind of introduction in the monography to TEM. I don't want a whole...
  10. patrickbotros

    Explain Different Types of Light Microscopy

    Okay so first I would like someone to add detail to my descriptions of different types of light microscopy. Here's what I know: Brightfield (unstained): standard view of partially opaque, live cells. Brightfield (stained): standard view of colored, dead cells. Phase Contrast: Not sure how it...
  11. remorris44

    Microscope Contrast issues

    https://www.dropbox.com/sc/eo2c8j4kd12pdvn/AACGJ8YZvk35BSX1BsBoKIIsa Please view the above image. I am getting awesome contrast on the periphery of the image but hardly any in the center. The sample is an H and E stained tissue and I just got the microscope in today. I am a rookie with...
  12. S

    SEM Imaging System

    Looking at Ben Krasnow's youtube video on breaking down the parts and general cost for a scanning electron microscope, he lists a raster scan generator, is that able to produce the highest resolution images still? Or is there another more modern technology for this purpose? Otherwise, how has...
  13. G

    Dichroic mirrors that reflect two wavelengths

    In fluorescence microscopy, dichroic mirrors reflect light under a critical wavelength (used to excite the sample) and transmit light over a critical wavelength (emission light from the sample). Are there mirrors that reflect two different wavelengths of light and transmit the rest? Essentially...
  14. J

    Can't find any micrograph for glass

    I can only find micrographs (photographs of microstructure under electron microscope) of non-transparent glasses. Is it impossible top be able to see the internal structure of a transparent material? If anyone can tell me what I'm doing wrong or find me one that would be great! I'm looking...
  15. B

    Bi-directional transport of light

    In several fiber-optic-based probes in medical imaging fields, the light travels towards an object through an optical fiber (or even free space), interacts with the object and then travels back through the same fiber (or the same path in free space) and is captured by a camera or photodetector...