What is Nitrogen: Definition and 220 Discussions

Nitrogen is the chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7. It was first discovered and isolated by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Although Carl Wilhelm Scheele and Henry Cavendish had independently done so at about the same time, Rutherford is generally accorded the credit because his work was published first. The name nitrogène was suggested by French chemist Jean-Antoine-Claude Chaptal in 1790 when it was found that nitrogen was present in nitric acid and nitrates. Antoine Lavoisier suggested instead the name azote, from the Ancient Greek: ἀζωτικός "no life", as it is an asphyxiant gas; this name is used instead in many languages, such as French, Italian, Russian, Romanian, Portuguese and Turkish, and appears in the English names of some nitrogen compounds such as hydrazine, azides and azo compounds.
Nitrogen is the lightest member of group 15 of the periodic table, often called the pnictogens. It is a common element in the universe, estimated at about seventh in total abundance in the Milky Way and the Solar System. At standard temperature and pressure, two atoms of the element bind to form dinitrogen, a colourless and odorless diatomic gas with the formula N2. Dinitrogen forms about 78% of Earth's atmosphere, making it the most abundant uncombined element. Nitrogen occurs in all organisms, primarily in amino acids (and thus proteins), in the nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and in the energy transfer molecule adenosine triphosphate. The human body contains about 3% nitrogen by mass, the fourth most abundant element in the body after oxygen, carbon, and hydrogen. The nitrogen cycle describes movement of the element from the air, into the biosphere and organic compounds, then back into the atmosphere.
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry. This causes difficulty for both organisms and industry in converting N2 into useful compounds, but at the same time means that burning, exploding, or decomposing nitrogen compounds to form nitrogen gas releases large amounts of often useful energy. Synthetically produced ammonia and nitrates are key industrial fertilisers, and fertiliser nitrates are key pollutants in the eutrophication of water systems.
Apart from its use in fertilisers and energy-stores, nitrogen is a constituent of organic compounds as diverse as Kevlar used in high-strength fabric and cyanoacrylate used in superglue. Nitrogen is a constituent of every major pharmacological drug class, including antibiotics. Many drugs are mimics or prodrugs of natural nitrogen-containing signal molecules: for example, the organic nitrates nitroglycerin and nitroprusside control blood pressure by metabolizing into nitric oxide. Many notable nitrogen-containing drugs, such as the natural caffeine and morphine or the synthetic amphetamines, act on receptors of animal neurotransmitters.

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  1. K

    General Formulas for Nitrogen Dioxide

    Nitrogen Dioxide has 17 valence electrons, therefore it has a single bond between one oxygen and a double bond between the other, creating a general formula of AX2, however I do not understand how to incorporate the lone electron on nitrogen into the general formula. Does adding another...
  2. J

    I Some questions about this vintage periodic table

    I was recently in an art supply store and saw a print of a vintage periodic table that I thought had real aesthetic value. I bought it and like any enthusiast I hung it in my bathroom. For the past month I have been studying it as I brush my teeth and feel comfortable with 80% of the...
  3. Engineer_Kosyakova

    COMSOL: Simulation of liquid nitrogen cooling (Help please)

    The InSb sample (parameters 10x10x0.5 mm) is glued with silver glue to a cooled copper table. Liquid nitrogen passes through the table. While the model is at a temperature of 300 K and at a normal pressure of 1 bar. The sample is affected by a beam of electrons, which causes the surface to heat...
  4. C

    Question about flow from a nitrogen bottle

    I need to know how long a nitrogen bottle will flow for. It is 2.2 Litres 110Bar. I want it to flow at around 1 litre per minute to do an experiment. How long will it last? Sorry if this is a really dumb question.
  5. JD_PM

    A Non-isothermal conditions in liquid-gas nitrogen homogeneous mixture

    I am studying the cavitation theory proposed by...
  6. C

    Fire protection -- Water in a cylinder pressurized with Nitrogen

    I wondered if anyone could help, I work in the fire protection industry. We currently have a project using a pressurised cylinder. The cylinder hold 200 lites of water plus 40 litres of nitrogen gas as a propellant at 10.0 bar. I’m trying to work out once the 200 litre water volume has been...
  7. T

    Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): Why Increases with Age & How to Decrease It?

    Why do blood urea nitrogen (BUN) increases with age ? Can it be decreased?
  8. Mayhem

    Why does nitrogen sp3 hybridize?

    We know that carbon sp3 hybridizes to be able to form three ##\sigma##-bonds; in its non-hybridized state, carbon only allows two bonds. A quick review of its electron configuration confirms this. However, nitrogen has a a non-hybridized electron configuration of three half-filled 2p orbitals...
  9. G

    Volumetric flow rate of nitrogen through relieving pressure regulator

    Hello all, I'm having trouble figuring out the volumetric flow rate upstream of a relieving pressure regulator used on a 1/4" OD nitrogen line. Upstream of the regulator P=100 PSIG and T=70F, while downstream P=80 PSIG and T=70F with downstream consumption at q=4 L/min or 0.91 SCFM (at std...
  10. P

    Problem related to the Ideal Gas equation -- Nitrogen under pressure

    Solution from the textbook: My work: I constantly get 1.55kg. I also tried dividing the first and the second equation (pxV=m/M x R x T with different values). How did they come up with the equation in the solution? Also, I am sorry if I posted it in the wrong place and didn't follow the rules...
  11. J

    A Is this evidence that Venus originally had a nitrogen atmosphere?

    Has MESSENGER found evidence that Venus originally had a nitrogen atmosphere, and might have been more habitable, and the present amount of CO2 was released by some cataclysm afterwards? https://phys.org/news/2020-04-lucky-messenger-upends-long-held-idea.html
  12. H

    Is the Nitrogen in NH3 sp3 or sp2 + 2p ?

    In the reaction between NH3 and BF3, the boron will bond with the extra lone pair in NH3. This is only possible if we let Nitrogen stay unhybridized. However, the molecular structure for NH3 is tetrahedral (and is therefore hybridized as sp3) due to distancing the e- pairs. If we go by this...
  13. rachelmaddiee

    Chemistry Nitrogen: Atomic Number 7 & Electron Configuration

    Nitrogen has an atomic number of 7. Thus, A nitrogen atom has 7 electrons. Nitrogen’s electron configuration is: [He] 2s2 2p3 The nitrogen element has five valence electrons present in 2s and 2p orbitals. So it would have five dots placed around the symbol for nitrogen. Is this correct? I need...
  14. TonkaTon

    A gas stream (1) contains 18 mol% hexane and remainder nitrogen flows

    Summary: Hello, I need some help with this problem since my professor is bad at explaining (he reads a book and repeats everything), there's a problem online similar, but values and what is asked is different. A gas stream (1) contains 18 mol% (40.2 mass%) hexane and remainder nitrogen flows...
  15. JL3110

    7.2 cubic metres of Nitrogen compressed, will last 30mins-1hr of usage

    So I am currently looking to work on some projects with my brother. I have some questions regarding the usage of nitrogen. We are looking at a 7.2 cubic metre cylinder of Nitrogen Pure compressed and wondering at what rate of pressure will equal roughly 30-60mins of use? Nitrogen Bottle here...
  16. rikku95

    Heat Transfer of a Dewar Nitrogen Container

    Hello guys, :smile: So like the Titels says I am Trying to get an Approximation of the Heat Transfer which ocours in a Deware container. Unfortunately all my calculations so far seem to suggest way to low Boil off rates for my Container its just to efficient, here is a summary of my Attempts...
  17. H

    I Preferred orientation of a nitrogen molecule in space?

    Consider an ##N_2## molecule. Chemists say that the triple bond is due to one ##p_x - p_x## overlap, one ##p_y - p_y## overlap and one ##p_z - p_z## overlap. The x-axis (the label is not important; I’m sure you know what I mean) is clear because it’s the longitudinal axis of the molecule. But...
  18. C

    How Does Oxygen Transform into Nitrogen in ITER's Fusion Reactor?

    I don't understand this line in iter website. How is this reaction possible? "When exposed to the intense flux of neutrons from the fusion reaction, the oxygen present in the water generates short-lived radioactive isotopes of nitrogen—one (isotope 16) emitting a highly energetic gamma ray, the...
  19. bbbl67

    I Nitrogen production in stellar nucleosynthesis?

    So once a star enters the helium fusion stage, it uses the Triple-alpha process to create Carbon from Helium. It then uses the Alpha Ladder process to create Oxygen from Carbon. So my question is, how is Nitrogen, in between Carbon and Oxygen, produced? All I can think of is that either Oxygen...
  20. DracoMalfoy

    Finding the Kinetic Energy of a particle in 2mol of nitrogen

    Homework Statement What is the kinetic energy of a particle in 2mol of nitrogen gas at atmospheric pressure that is within a volume of 100m^3?a. 1.27X10^-17J b. 3X10^5J c. 6.8X10^-16J d. 2.97X10^7 e. 9.9X10^-14J Homework Equations PV=nRT n=Numberof particles/Na Na=6.02x10^23 R=8.13 J/Mol The...
  21. N

    What would happen if ozone, nitrogen and oxygen disappear?

    Hi everyone! I have some trouble figuring out the following question: If oxygen, nitrogen and ozone did not absorb UV radiation, what would you expect the temperature profile in the atmosphere to look like between the surface and top of the atmosphere? Specify the temperatures at Tropopause...
  22. Sebastiaan

    Nitrogen Oxidizing properties at high temperature

    DiNitrogen is very unreactive due to the tripple bond it has, but what happens if it heated to very high temperature and bonds are broken? does it start behaving as a strong oxidiser. I could not find iinformation on at which temperature this happens but let's assume 3500K in a Tunston reactor...
  23. T

    Nitrogen pneumatic gas ram -- force to compress the piston in a cylinder

    Hi, Can some one point me to where I can workout the amount of force required to compress a niitrogen filled ram. Ram has an 80 mm bore and 172 mm stroke. We have filled it with nitrogen to both 1 and 1.5 bar. thanks Brett
  24. A

    How to calculate change in pressure from LN2 phase change

    I am trying to calculate the increase in pressure caused by liquid nitrogen when it changes from liquid to vapor within a closed, constant volume at atmospheric pressure. How can this be done? Do I need to include the heat of vaporization?
  25. baldbrain

    How Do You Determine the Basicity of Nitrogen Heterocycles?

    Homework Statement Select the correct order of basicity of the following compounds: The Attempt at a Solution Obviously, (i) is more basic than (iv) because of the 2 acidic phenyl rings in (iv). Also, I know that amides are much less basic than amines. So, that leaves me with either (B) or (C)...
  26. S

    CO2 vs Nitrogen in LPG Systems

    Hi In a new LPG-cylinder it helps 1. time lighting of gas if the cylinder is charged with CO2 instead of air prefilling of LPG. Will Nitrogen have same effect?
  27. J

    Entropy and the partition function for nitrogen

    Homework Statement I'm attempting to calculate the translational entropy for N2 and I get a value of 207.8 J/Kmol. The tabulated value is given as 150.4 and I am stumped as to why the decrepancy. T = 298.15 K and P = 0.99 atm and V = 24.8 L R = 8.314 J/Kmol[/B] Homework Equations Strans =...
  28. atim

    Finding nitrogen weight in air

    Homework Statement Air consists of approximately 78% Nitrogen in volume, 21% Oxygen and 1% Argon. The atomic weight of Nitrogen is approximately 14, that of Oxygen 16, and that of Argon 40. Nitrogen occupies air in weight by (1) (a) 76% (b) 77% (c)78% (d)79% Homework EquationsThe...
  29. thevinciz

    Finding the weight of Nitrogen in Air

    Homework Statement Air consists of a approximately 78% Nitrogen in volume,21% Oxygen and 1% Argon. The atomic weight of Nitrogen is 14, that of Oxygen 16 and that of Argon 40 (1) Nitrogen occupies air in weight by (a) 76% (b) 77% (c) 78% (d) 79% Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I...
  30. M

    Gas mix of helium and nitrogen

    Homework Statement A vessel contains a mix of helium and nitrogen (ideal gases). The ratio of the partial pressures is known: ##\frac{p_{N2}}{pHe} = 5##. The partial pressure is the pressure that a single component alone would exert. Homework Equations What is the value of ##\kappa = c_p/c_V##...
  31. C

    B What warms atmospheric nitrogen?

    Is there a particular narrow band of EM frequencies that nitrogen absorbs to increase its temperature?
  32. N

    I Compressed Nitrogen: Calculating Pipe Flow Time

    Hello, first time on this site and wondered if anyone could help me on what the proper equation or equations would be to answer this question. I have a 300 cubic foot tank of nitrogen air that will provide nitrogen to a rectangular pipe at 5 psi with a flow rate of 10 CFM to atmosphere at the...
  33. R

    I Amount of nitrogen needed to flush a pipe

    Hello, I am trying to solve a problem where I want to know how many cylinders of N2 (50L, 200 bar) are needed to flush a pipe filled with oil. The pipe diameter is 0.5", so the volume of the pipe is 0.133 m3 (with a length of 1050m) which is filled with oil. Behind the N2 cylinders is a...
  34. K

    Some kind of nitrogen from chicken manure?

    I think a lot about the collapse of the economic systems we are used to having. It's not like I'm going to stop living to prepare for that. Anyway when there's no FAA then Amazon and Google, etc, can get serious about drones. But I've sort of been wondering about chemistry with plants and...
  35. Frankenstein19

    Convert nitrate standard of 50 ppm to its nitrogen content

    Homework Statement Convert the nitrate standard of 50 ppm to its nitrogen content Homework Equations Since NO3 contains one nitrogen, molar mass 14.01, in a total molar mass of 14.01 + (3 *16.00) = 62.01, the maximum concentration permitted expressed as nitrate ion itself is (62.01/14.01) *10=...
  36. H

    Method Of Loading Carbon Molecular Sieve To Psa Tank

    Dear all I want to loading about 14 ton of CMS (Carbon Molecular Sieve) into a PSA Nitrogen Producer tank. The tank is 5 meter tall with 2 m in diameter. What is the best, simplest and fastest method to load the pellet of CMS into that big tank? I consider this mortar screw pump and connect it...
  37. yudhi_chen

    A Force generate by compressed nitrogen at different volume

    Dear All, I have a question regarding compressed gas. I'm doing some experiment for testing some seal (see hatch area on sketch below) at 10,000PSI by using nitrogen gas. in this experiment, i accidentally got some different result based on two different situation. you can see my experiment...
  38. OrangeYogi

    Heat convection in liquid nitrogen

    Hello, I am trying to achieve a range of temperature (below 0 degC) by heating up liquid nitrogen (77K) with an electric heater (100W) inserted into a copper block. How do I calculate the time taken (t) for the nitrogen vapour to reach temperature T (say 100K). The liquid nitrogen is poured into...
  39. A

    Heat energy and liquid nitrogen boil-off rate

    Homework Statement Kindly refer to part (c). The woking should be power/0.35 (what I think according to the graph). But the answer is power (that is the answer of part b) divided by 0.02 Homework Equations I have used the ratio method simply The Attempt at a Solution According to part (b)...
  40. Metals

    Boost Your Engine's Performance: Answers to Common Nitrous Oxide Questions

    Now I'm aware of how at around 300 degrees C N2O breaks apart, resulting in more oxygen in the cylinders. I'm also aware that N2O cools down the air fuel mixture when it evaporates, increasing density and resulting in more volumetric efficiency. What I don't get, is why not just take in more...
  41. C

    Where can you buy a cheap liquid nitrogen dewar?

    I want to find a Dewar or vacuum flask for liquid nitrogen under $50. Does anyone have any recommendations where to buy one?
  42. Thales Costa

    Change in Enthelpy for Nitrogen at constant temp

    Homework Statement Calculate ΔH for 2 mols of Nitrogen for the following transformation: 1 bar, 21°C → 200 bar, 21°C Given that molar Cp = 4R 2. The attempt at a solution How am I supposed to find the ΔH? From what I learned, there can only be a change in enthalpy when there's a change in...
  43. M

    I What equations can help me understand Convectron gauges?

    Hello, I am currently trying to understand the physics behind the vastly different pressures read from a Convectron gauge depending on the type of gas. At the moment I am looking at Nitrogen gas (which the gauge is calibrated to read) and Argon which requires a significant correction once...
  44. D

    Maintaining -320°F Liquid Nitrogen for Injection Molding

    I have a plastic injection mold, the part I am running has hot spots in the part when it is being shot in the mold. Would like to try to incorporate a closed loop plumbing system to carry liquid nitrogen past the back side of the cavity in hopes to pull the trapped heat from the hot spot area...
  45. UseAsDirected

    Nitrogen transmutation to carbon-14 (radiocarbon) via gamma

    Hello, I am trying to fully grasp the transmutation of nitrogen into radiocarbon (radiocarbon or carbon-14) via gamma collision high in the atmosphere But, I don't because I cannot whether something also happens to the electron. The canonical description is thus. High energy gamma particles...
  46. K

    Calculate the rms speed of one nitrogen molecule at 27 Celcius

    Homework Statement Calculate the rms speed of one nitrogen molecule at 27 Celcius Homework Equations sqrt(v^2) = sqrt((3kT)/(m)) The Attempt at a Solution sqrt(v^2) = sqrt((3kT)/(m)) k = 8.62*10^-5 eV/K T = 300 K 3kT = 0.078 eV m = 14 g/mol m = 0.014 kg/mol 3kT/m = 0.078 eV/0.014 kg/mol =...
  47. Karan Punjabi

    Nitrogen Bond Formation: 2 Electrons in 2p Orbital

    Guys, I'm just thinking about how Nitrogen makes two bonds if it has 3 electrons in 2p orbital. I made a judgement that one electron from 2s orbital will transfer to one of 2p orbitals then there are two 2p orbitals which can make a bond? Is this correct or there is other mechanism?
  48. P

    Nitrogen Ground State: 2s^2 2p^3 ^4 S_{3/2}

    I am looking over my notes for quantum mechanics, particularly for electronic state classification for nitrogen. At ground state, nitrogen atom's 1s and 2s shells are fully filled and the 2p shell is half filled, thus the configuration is: ##2s^2 2p^3## There are 3 different angular momentum...
  49. L

    Van der Waals and nitrogen gas

    1. For a van der Waals gas πT=a/Vm2. Calculate ΔUm for the isothermal expansion of nitrogen gas from an initial volume of 1.00 dm3 to 24.8 dm3at 298K. What are values for q and w?Homework Equations I looked up a for N2 gas to be 1.352 atm*dm6/mol2 dU(V,T)=(∂U/∂V)TdV+(∂U/∂T)VdT (∂U/∂V)T=πT...
  50. Y

    Does N+ Naturally Occur in Nature?

    Does N+ naturally exist in nature? Trying to come up with a lame ass excuse because I accidentally lost one electron ball for our atomic model project.