What is Relativistic collision: Definition and 27 Discussions

High-energy nuclear physics studies the behavior of nuclear matter in energy regimes typical of high-energy physics. The primary focus of this field is the study of heavy-ion collisions, as compared to lighter atoms in other particle accelerators. At sufficient collision energies, these types of collisions are theorized to produce the quark–gluon plasma. In peripheral nuclear collisions at high energies one expects to obtain information on the electromagnetic production of leptons and mesons that are not accessible in electron–positron colliders due to their much smaller luminosities.Previous high-energy nuclear accelerator experiments have studied heavy-ion collisions using projectile energies of 1 GeV/nucleon at JINR and LBNL-Bevalac up to 158 GeV/nucleon at CERN-SPS. Experiments of this type, called "fixed-target" experiments, primarily accelerate a "bunch" of ions (typically around 106 to 108 ions per bunch) to speeds approaching the speed of light (0.999c) and smash them into a target of similar heavy ions. While all collision systems are interesting, great focus was applied in the late 1990s to symmetric collision systems of gold beams on gold targets at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and uranium beams on uranium targets at CERN's Super Proton Synchrotron.
High-energy nuclear physics experiments are continued at the Brookhaven National Laboratory's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. At RHIC the programme began with four experiments— PHENIX, STAR, PHOBOS, and BRAHMS—all dedicated to study collisions of highly relativistic nuclei. Unlike fixed-target experiments, collider experiments steer two accelerated beams of ions toward each other at (in the case of RHIC) six interaction regions. At RHIC, ions can be accelerated (depending on the ion size) from 100 GeV/nucleon to 250 GeV/nucleon. Since each colliding ion possesses this energy moving in opposite directions, the maximal energy of the collisions can achieve a center-of-mass collision energy of 200 GeV/nucleon for gold and 500 GeV/nucleon for protons.
The ALICE (A Large Ion Collider Experiment) detector at the LHC at CERN is specialized in studying Pb–Pb nuclei collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV per nucleon pair. All major LHC detectors—ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb—participate in the heavy-ion programme.

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  1. Lukanol

    Conservation of momentum on relativistic collisions

    1. Homework Statement ( This question is from the textbook of Introduction to Elementary Particle Physics, written by Griffiths, on the problem set of Chapter 3 ) Particle A (energy E) hits particle B (at rest), producing particles C1, C2, ...: A + B → C1 + C2 + ... + CN. Calculate the...
  2. D

    Momentum of W Bosons After Collision in Particle Physics Lab

    Homework Statement In a particle physics lab, an electron e− and a positron e+ collide, annihilate, and produce a W+ boson and a W− boson. Just before the collision, the electron and positron have a total energy of E = 100 GeV each, with velocities pointing along the +x-axis and -x-axis...
  3. E

    Relativistic Collision - Momentum and Energy

    Two chunks of rock, each having a mass of 1.00 kg, collide in space. Just before the collision, an observer at rest in the reference frame of a nearby star determines that rock A is moving toward the star at 0.800 c and rock B is moving away from the star at 0.750 c . If the rocks stick...
  4. Z

    I Is mass conserved in relativistic collision?

    For a particle , E2 = (pc)2 + (moc2)2 and for a system of particle , (ΣE)2 = (Σpc)2 + (Σmoc2)2 so in that way before a collision, (ΣEi)2 = (Σpic)2 + (Σmoic2)2 and after , (ΣEf)2 = (Σpfc)2 + (Σmofc2)2 and as far as i know energy and momentum is conserved . so that means ΣEi=ΣEf and also Σpi=Σpf...
  5. Toby_phys

    Addition of masses in relativistic collision

    Really basic question: a particle, moving at speed u (u is fast enough for relativistic effects) with rest mass m0 collides with a stationary particle with rest mass m0. They coalesce to form a new particle of mass M (observer fame, not rest mass M) and move at speed v. find v in terms of y (y...
  6. F

    Question about relativistic collision between particles

    Homework Statement Good morning-afternoon. I have been tasked with solving the next exercice; but I am unable to spot the error. Please can anyone point me in the right direction?A)Calculate the thresold energy of a photon to disintegrate in an electron and a positron in the presence of an...
  7. carllacan

    Relativistic collision and invariant s

    Homework Statement Write the invariant s = (P1+P2)2 as a function of masses amd energies of the process 1+2 → 3+4 in the center of momentum frame and on the lab frame, in which b is at rest. Interpret the result. Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution For the CoM frame I have: s =...
  8. R

    Relativistic Collision: Calculating Mass, Energy & Momentum

    Homework Statement Two relativistic particles "L" and "R", each of rest mass ##m_0##, are moving at speed ##v## towards each other (in the frame of an observer). They collide squarely and are stationary afterwards. (a) From the perspective of one particle, what is the oncoming speed of the...
  9. D

    Solving Relativistic Collision using Four Momentum Vector

    1. A particle of mass M decays from rest into two particles. One particle has mass m and the other particle is massless. The momentum of the massless particle is... 2. Ei = Ef, Pi= Pf 3. This is a GRE practice problem. I can solve this problem using the old method as listed in the step 2, but I...
  10. W

    Relativistic collision of two protons to produce a proton-antiproton

    Homework Statement What is the minimum proton energy needed in an accelerator to produce antiprotons by the reaction: P+P \rightarrow P+P+P+\bar{P} The mass of both protons and antiprotons is m_p. Assume first that the initial protons have equal energy (the lab frame is the...
  11. H

    Momentum & relativistic collision

    Homework Statement A 3.000 u (1 u = 931.5 MeV/c2) object moving to the right through a laboratory at 0.8c collides with a 4.000 u object moving to the left through the laboratory at 0.6c. Afterward there are two objects, one of which is a 6.000 u object at rest. A) Determine the mass and...
  12. A

    Relativistic collision in CM frame at small angle

    Homework Statement Find CM energy of a mu+ mu- collider, with each beam having an energy E of 500 GeV. The beams cross at a small angle of 250 mrad.Homework Equations E^2 - p^2c^2 = m^2c^4The Attempt at a Solution So I have a diagram for the lab frame which has the mu- coming in at a small...
  13. D

    Help with determining other mass of a relativistic collision

    Homework Statement A 3.000 u (1 u = 931.5 MeV/c2) object moving to the right through a laboratory at 0.8c collides with a 4.000 u object moving to the left through the laboratory at 0.6c. Afterward there are two objects, one of which is a 6.000 u object at rest. Determine the mass of...
  14. SamRoss

    Help with Relativistic Collision

    I'm stuck trying to complete this derivation of relativistic momentum without reverting to relativistic mass (a concept I don't like). Those who have read Richard Feynman's "Six Not So Easy Pieces" will realize that I'm really just taking his setup but instead of introducing relativistic mass to...
  15. B

    Answer: Find Relativistic Collision Momentum & Energy

    Homework Statement A mass m travels at 1.5 x 10^8 m s^-1 and collides with another mass m at rest. The two masses fuse to become M and travel away at v_c. Find an expression for v_c using conservation of relativistic momentum and energy.Homework Equations E_a+E_b=E_c and p_a+p_b=p_c. With b at...
  16. Y

    Relativistic collision and conservation

    Hey, I'm pretty confused by this relativistic collision problem. A particle of mass m moving along the x-axis collides elastically with a 2nd particle of identical mass at rest in the lab frame and scatters. Its final momentum makes an angle theta with the x-axis in the lab. If its initial...
  17. J

    Relativistic collision and then quesion about cerenkov radiation

    Homework Statement a) We have an incident photon beam into a fog chamber, and we observe a compton electron with a moment of 1,5 Mev/c emitted in a 10º angle to the incident beam. ¿Which is the energy of the incident and scattered photons? b) Find the minimum energy that should have the...
  18. G

    Relativistic Collision Effects on Speed, Mass

    To a moderator: this is a theoretical, concept-based question. Say two balls of putty, moving relativistically near the speed of light, collide (although i understand this is not possible theoretically and realistically). They collide at a slight perpendicular displacement, instead of...
  19. B

    Relativistic collision of Au nuclei - why is this wrong?

    Homework Statement The RHIC at Brookhaven is colliding fully ionized gold nuclei accelerated to an energy of 200 GeV per nucleon. Each Au nucleus contains 197 nucleons. a) what is the speed of each Au nucleus just before collision? b) What is the momentum of each at that instant in time...
  20. C

    Relativistic Collision: Find Velocity & Composite Body

    [b]1.To an observer two bodies of equal rest mass collide with velocities of 0.8c in different directions and cohere to produce a stationary composite body, to a second observer body A is at rest before the collision. a. Find the velocity of body B as measured by the second observer before...
  21. I

    Relativistic collision problem

    Homework Statement A collision between two protons can result in the creation of a positive pion and the conversion of one proton to a neutron: p^{}+ + p^{}+ --> p^{}+ + n + \pi ^{}+ (The last one is a positive pion, again sorry about my bad use of latex.) Calculate the minimum...
  22. G

    Relativistic collision and max energy

    a relaticistic particle collide with another rest particle. what is the maximum energy transmitted to the particle after collision?
  23. N

    4 Body Relativistic Collision (2D)

    Homework Statement See Pic. Update: Pic works, take a look Since the pic is not loading correctly yet, I shall try to described the situation. Ball 1 is coming in on the x-axis and impacts two balls (2 & 3) which are arranged vertically, centered at x=0 and the point at which they...
  24. A

    Inelastic relativistic collision

    A particle with rest mass m_{0} moves at a speed of 0,8c. It's going to collide with a particle with rest mass 3m_{0}. If the latter was standing still before impact and if the collision is completely inelastic, what are the conservation laws valid? What is the final single particle rest mass?
  25. M

    Relativistic Collision of Particles

    Homework Statement A particle of mass m whose total energy is twice its rest energy collides with an identical particle at rest. If they stick together, what is the mass of the resulting composite particle? What is its velocity?Homework Equations E = (gamma)mc^2 p = (gamma)mu The Attempt at...
  26. G

    What is the correct calculation for total kinetic energy after the collision?

    Homework Statement ••• A particle of mass 1 MeV/c2 and kinetic energy 2 MeV collides with a stationary particle of mass 2 MeV/c2. After the collision, the particles stick together. Find (a) the speed of the first particle before the collision, (b) the total energy of the first...
  27. I

    A relativistic collision question.

    This is a question on special relativity from Taylor's Classical Mechanics. Consider an elastic head-on collision between a projectile, with mass m1 and velocity v1, and a stationary target of mass m2. So, in the lab frame, the target m2 is at initially at rest and mass m1 moves toward it with...