Steam is water in the gas phase. This may occur due to evaporation or due to boiling, where heat is applied until water reaches the enthalpy of vaporization. Steam that is saturated or superheated is invisible; however, "steam" often refers to wet steam, the visible mist or aerosol of water droplets formed as water vapour condenses.
Water increases in volume by 1,700 times at standard temperature and pressure; this change in volume can be converted into mechanical work by steam engines such as reciprocating piston type engines and steam turbines, which are a sub-group of steam engines. Piston type steam engines played a central role in the Industrial Revolution and modern steam turbines are used to generate more than 80% of the world's electricity. If liquid water comes in contact with a very hot surface or depressurizes quickly below its vapor pressure, it can create a steam explosion.
So basically if I have a closed container with a valve, and inside the container there is water. Now i heat the container and boil the water. The valve is open so steam escapes form there. I now close the valve and cool the container causing the steam to condense inside. Inside the container is...
I am currently trying to simulate a boiler using the IAPWS-IF97 model of water states. I have looked into the equations but I always seem to run into a condition where I need 2 states at once that depend on one another. I was wondering if anyone had some good learning resources on simulating a 2...
Hi all,
The idea is to generate as much as possible water steam from heat of internal combustion engine exhaust gas. The so called steam generation device is a simple sloped engine exhaust pipe where water from engine cooling and hot gas is fed at the top and all the mix is exiting at the...
hey, I was searching for a steam table for a long time but I wasn't lucky, I don't know why an n-pentane, iso-pentane or even pentane table is hard to find , so I am here today asking for a steam table for n-pentane or pentane table, forgive me if I was asking too much, Thank you very much you all.
How long does it take for 500 degree F - 1000 psi steam to move through 24" of 3/16 ID pipe and fill a 1 cubic inch volume cylinder to 1000 psi? Can it be modeled mathematically or with the help of Steam Tables?
Hello everybody, would somebody please put me on the right track to answering this question?
'Consider water undergoes a heat transfer
at constant pressure of 10 MPa and
changes from liquid to steam. Find the
entropy of the system (sfg) as well as the
heat transfer per unit mass in this...
I am currently doing an assignment on nuclear power and in the turbine, the steam is moving from pressure of 6Mpa to 0.008 Mpa. is there any way to work out the velocity of the steam when moving between these pressure differences?
Our system of interest has a duct on the left and a piston chamber on the right that make the shape of the letter T rotated 90º clockwise. The smaller tube on the left is abbreviated as P1 has an unspecified length while the piston chamber is P2. The air in P2 heats up and expands while the...
This is a 3D model I made of a large industrial steam turbine.
It was modeled after one of the turbines at the Port Richmond generating station in Philadelphia Pennsylvania. I plan on modeling the entire turbine hall of that power plant, but that will take several months, at least. The program...
I would very much appreciate anyone to cast their eye over my attempt at solving this problem which I've been struggling with the past few days. Many thanks in advance.
Assuming that:
energy input from open-type regenerative feed heater pump is negligible
no energy is lost
the heater pressure...
Please could someone point me in the direction of an equation/ book I can use to obtain the convection coefficient for steam in a heating jacket. Steam is at 1 bar pressure. I think I need to use a dimensionless number. Thanks
Good afternoon,
I am trying to calculate the massflow of steam required in a cylinder used for paper drying but I think there is a bug in my calculation and I would love to get your help to find where the issue is!
Saturated steam is continuously supplied to a cylinder. The steam condenses in...
I'm trying to complete this past exam paper Q.
Water volume = 200hl = 20000L
1L=10^-3 m^3
20000L = 200 m^3
Density of water at 15 deg C = 999 kg m^3
Density = Mass/Volume
999 kg m^3 = Mass/(200 m^3)
Mass of water = (200)(999) = 199800 kg
Heat required to to heat 199800 kg water:
Q =m C dT
=...
PROBLEM: A 120 gallon tank (26" diameter, 60" height) containing 40 Gallons of water is heated up until the tank ruptures from overpressure at 125 PSI (maximum tank rating). How to calculate the initial escaped steam velocity at the ruptured tank, assuming the gash is 2 feet long in the...
Summary:: I'm going through my homework. I am confident I have everything correct except for my boiler efficiency. It seems too high at 99%. I would like to think my logic is sound but it can't be right.
A boiler is designed to generate steam at 5 MPa and 400oC. A fuel is selected with a...
So I found this steam engine on the youtubes:
Consider the system not including the candles, only including the can that makes up the boiler shell and the piston, flywheel, etc. The boiler can acts as a hot reservoir; however, the Kelvin-Planck statement of the 2nd law says you can't have an...
Disclaimer first: Though the question is around cooking, IMO it certainly is to with physics / engineering. Yet, if the admins find this post inappropriate, pl. delete it.
I am planning to make some rice cakes which is prepared by steaming a mix of rice powder and water. Because I don't have...
The term "Steam plant" can refer to a place that distributes steam for heating buildings - as opposed to a plant that generates electricity. I have the impression that there are few, if any, such steam plants in operation in the USA. When was their heyday? Were there accidents from broken...
I need help solving this please. Its a past exam paper.
requires wort to undergo 5% by mass evaporation in one hour
does this mean starting vol is 500hl and after one hour vol should be 475hl
Wort volume = 500 hl = 50,000 L / hr
1 L = 10^-3 m^3
50,000 L = 50 m^3 /hr
= 0.833 m^3 / min
= 0.01388...
What will be mass flow rate of dry saturated steam through holes on a pipe. Pipe ID: 25mm, Steam Pressure 3 kg/cm^2, Holes' Dia: 3mm, Number of Holes: 5.
I was wondering if electric could be use to boil the water to power a steam car for modern use ?? Also why haven't steam cars being developed more for the 2020's?
Hello, everyone. Does anyone know how much steam is produced by an electric arc furnace in a set amount of time? I have not been able to find any information on this despite how much water is no doubt used to cool the electric arc furnace. Can anyone help?
I've worked out that half of the steam must condense (since the pressure of the steam needs to remain constant for the forces on the massless piston to balance). Also, if the total volume of the container is ##V##, the work done on the system equals ##\frac{P_{atm}V}{4}##. When half of the steam...
I) Area = 3.14 x L xD
3.14 x 60 x 0.11
= 20.72m2
Q=UADT
= (1.0Wm2k-1)(20.72m2)(150-20)
= 2693.6 W
Changed flow rate from 0.1kgs-1 to 360kghr-1
II) Enthalpic Capacity in dry steam = steam flow rate x latent heat vaporisation
Q=mDh
= 360 x 2114 (formula looks for lat heat vap but we have latent...
Here is a 3D model (blender 2.8) I created of the Chesapeake And Ohio Allegheny 1601 steam locomotive, which remains today the largest locomotive ever built.
Currently there is an operation scenario at one of our plant which directly injecting steam into cooling water line at pump suction in order to generate hot water at 60 deg C for circulation, by doing this its generate vapor at pump suction and lead to cavitation which ultimately damage pump and...
So I know the formula " W_turbine = m_flow rate * (H_in - H_out) " BUT is there any formula that utilizes the turbine volumetric flow rate (m^3/sec) at the outlet? The following data is available, I just need the formula...
P_in= 2.36 Mpa
P_out= 0.95 MPa
m_flow rate= 0.02 kg/sec
eff_turbine= 70...
I am working Organic Rankine Cycle. I studied a number of research papers and in most of them, they have calculated outlet volume flow rate from the turbine or expander, but have not mentioned the calculations. So here are the available data;
Pin = Turbine Inlet Pressure, 2.5 MPa
Pout = Turbine...
Problem Statement: A locomotive is running at a constant speed of 100 km / h. The diameter of driving wheels is 1.8 m. The
stroke of the piston of the steam engine cylinder of the locomotive is 600 mm. Find the centripetal acceleration of the crank pin relative to the engine frame.
Relevant...
Hello Experts,
I have a question regarding the operation of a steam boiler.
if the load is increased on the turbine generator set of a steam power plant, i learned that the fuel injection to the boiler has to be increased to serve the additional load. so my question is, do we also have to...
I want to design cross section area required for valve stem when valve is closed under spring force. Valve stem should be designed for buckling load but I am unable to calculate buckling load coming due to impact force coming when valve bangs on valve seat. Valve is having concentric spring.
Is...
Were steam pressure gauges used in 1860?
Was a vessel reversed by reversing the engine or within the gearing?
For a small steam powered launch, how long from a dead stop would it take to get a boiler up to operating steam?
This is for my study of Confederate torpedo boats.
Thank you for your...
Hello People,
I have querry regarding the pressure variation in the steam header in the steam power plant.
if there is a sudden change in the load and the mass flow through the turbine has to be increased, i would like to know how it effects the pressure value? if yes how does this change...
Hello people,
I have a question regarding the time calculation.
could you please let me know if there are any equations with which I can find the time to generate steam in the header for certain pressure level.
lets say I am supplying fuel and mass flow of water to the boiler at certain...
My inital assumption was to just take T1 = 5600 and T2= 300K, find the maximum efficiency and then divide it by two and three but I don't believe this question to be that simple. I'm confused as to where the 750K fits in as I thought no matter what occurred in between the heat reservoir and heat...
Trying to find more information on steam quality requirements on a start up of a 70's vintage GE turbine ( impulse type 2 casings compound double flows reheat condensing turbine). I've read in detail manufacturers recommendations regarding rate of metal temperature change in the 1st stage and...
Hello!
new here. recently I've developed an interest in the way electricity is produced, I've seen some mechanisms, most of them are steam turbine based.
i have a few questions about the topic, mainly about thermodynamics.
if i want to create enough energy to move a steam turbine that requires...
Obviously expanding the gas cools it down. I'm interested if you could boil water and then expand the high pressure steam to cool it down to 0°C. Or are there subtler thermodynamics that would prevent this?
Homework Statement
An insulated piston-cylinder device contains 5 L of saturated liquid water at a constant pressure of 150 kPa. An electric resistance heater inside the cylinder is now turned on, and 2200 kJ of energy is transferred to the steam. Determine the entropy change of the water...
Hello
I must do a report on Chernobyl: before, during and after.
I have all I need except for a clear and simple explanation of how steam explosions work in this regard.
All the online sites I've been on provide information that is too advanced, and as a non native English speaker, the...
Homework Statement
Homework Statement [/B]
A steam turbine developed 2372.20 Hp when its inlet condition is 1300 Btu/lb enthalpy and 400 ft/s velocity and steam flow of 200 Btu/min :The exit enthalpy is 800 Btu/min. Find the exit velocity.
That is the original problem statement but i think the...
Homework Statement
Shown in the figure
Homework Equations
W= (p2v2-p1v1) / (1-n)
The Attempt at a Solution
I am not sure where to start and where to use all the data given in the table. Please help.
It would be nice if someone could explain the basic nature of the steam turbine, how it...
We all here (I presume that members here have better understanding of physical processes than average person) know that it isn't a fact that water began to boil at 100°C but much before that. When being heated in an open pot, as the temperature rises, water began to boil and more and more water...