# Coordination of Electrons in Covalent Bonds

• nothing123
In summary, coordinate covalent bonds involve the sharing of a single electron, rather than a pair, and XeF4 has square planar geometry with four covalent bonds and two lone pairs, exceeding the octet rule. The octet rule is only valid for elements in the second row.
nothing123
Do coordinate covalent bonds have to involve the sharing of a PAIR of electrons or can it just be a single electron?

Example: XeF4

Now, since Xe already has a full octet, it would seem correct that the F basically shares electrons to Xe without donating any as well. This would only be true if F only "took" one from Xe since it only needs one e- to fullfill octet. Or are there simply 4 normal covalent bonds formed so that Xe has 12 electrons in outer shell (and violates octet rule).

nothing123 said:
Do coordinate covalent bonds have to involve the sharing of a PAIR of electrons or can it just be a single electron?

Example: XeF4

Now, since Xe already has a full octet, it would seem correct that the F basically shares electrons to Xe without donating any as well. This would only be true if F only "took" one from Xe since it only needs one e- to fullfill octet. Or are there simply 4 normal covalent bonds formed so that Xe has 12 electrons in outer shell (and violates octet rule).
$XeF_{4}$ has square planar geometry (each bond to fluorine is in plane, with a lone pair perpendicular to the plane above and below). Each bond is $d^{2}sp^{3}$ hybridized, meaning there are six bonding orbitals in total. Therefore, each fluorine does in fact donate an electron (as does xenon) to each bond (although the electronegativity of fluorine will attract the electrons to a greater extent).

In other words, your last sentence is generally correct (there are four covalent bonds, there are two lone pairs on xenon, and xenon exceeds the octet rule).

the octet rule is only valid when speaking about the second row. Otherwise, it is junk.

## What is a coordinate covalent bond?

A coordinate covalent bond is a type of chemical bond in which two atoms share a pair of electrons, with both electrons coming from the same atom. This type of bond is also known as a dative bond or a coordinate bond.

## How is a coordinate covalent bond different from a regular covalent bond?

In a regular covalent bond, both atoms contribute one electron to form a shared pair. In a coordinate covalent bond, one atom donates both electrons to the shared pair, while the other atom accepts them. This results in a stronger bond compared to a regular covalent bond.

## What are some examples of molecules with coordinate covalent bonds?

Some common examples include carbon monoxide (CO), ammonia (NH3), and water (H2O). In these molecules, the central atom (C, N, and O respectively) donates both electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the other atom.

## How are coordinate covalent bonds formed?

Coordinate covalent bonds are formed when one atom has a lone pair of electrons and another atom has an empty orbital. The atom with the lone pair donates its electrons to the empty orbital of the other atom, creating a shared pair and forming a coordinate covalent bond.

## What are the properties of a coordinate covalent bond?

Coordinate covalent bonds are typically stronger than regular covalent bonds. They also tend to be more directional, meaning that they have a specific orientation in space. Additionally, the bond length and strength can be affected by the size and charge of the atoms involved.

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