Derive the entropy of an ideal gas

T and setting the entropy at 0 K to 0. In summary, the entropy of an ideal gas can be calculated by integrating from 0 to T and setting the entropy at 0 K to 0.
  • #1
Lee
56
0
THe Question asks 'Derive the entropy of an ideal gas when its molar specific heat at constant volume is constant.'

So I've taken

[tex] \Delta S = \int_{S_0}^{S} dS = \int_{T_0}^{T} \frac{\partial_S} {\partial_V} dT + \int_{V_0}^{V} \frac{\partial_S}{\partial_V} dV [/tex]

in this context what would be the next best step?
 
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  • #2
Lee said:
THe Question asks 'Derive the entropy of an ideal gas when its molar specific heat at constant volume is constant.'

So I've taken

[tex] \Delta S = \int_{S_0}^{S} dS = \int_{T_0}^{T} \frac{\partial_S} {\partial_V} dT + \int_{V_0}^{V} \frac{\partial_S}{\partial_V} dV [/tex]

in this context what would be the next best step?
If the specific heat remains constant at all temperatures, then it is possible to integrate from temperature 0 to T.

Since [itex]dQ = TdS = dU + PdV = nC_vdT + PdV[/itex] at constant volume [itex]nC_vdT = TdS[/itex]

so:

[tex]\int_0^T dS = \int_0^T nC_v dT/T = S_T - S_0[/tex]

If you let the entropy of the gas at 0 K be 0: [itex]S_0 = 0[/itex], then ST represents the entropy of the gas at temperature T.

AM
 
  • #3


The next step would be to use the definition of entropy, which is given by:

S = \frac{Q}{T}

Where Q is the heat added to the system and T is the temperature. In this case, since the molar specific heat at constant volume is constant, we can use the relation:

C_v = \frac{\partial_Q}{\partial_T}

where C_v is the molar specific heat at constant volume.

We can then rearrange the above equation to get:

dQ = C_v dT

Substituting this into the equation for entropy, we get:

dS = \frac{C_v}{T}dT

We can then integrate both sides from the initial state (S_0) to the final state (S) to get:

\Delta S = \int_{S_0}^{S} dS = \int_{T_0}^{T} \frac{C_v}{T}dT

This gives us the entropy change for an ideal gas when its molar specific heat at constant volume is constant.
 

Related to Derive the entropy of an ideal gas

1. What is entropy?

Entropy is a measure of the disorder or randomness in a system. It is a fundamental concept in thermodynamics that describes the energy dispersal and the direction of energy flow in a system.

2. How is entropy related to an ideal gas?

In an ideal gas, the particles are considered to be point masses that do not interact with each other. This means that the particles are free to move in any direction and their positions and velocities are completely random. As a result, an ideal gas has the maximum possible entropy for a given energy.

3. What is the formula for calculating the entropy of an ideal gas?

The entropy of an ideal gas can be calculated using the formula S = kBlnW, where S is the entropy, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and W is the number of microstates or possible arrangements of the gas particles.

4. How does the entropy of an ideal gas change with temperature?

As the temperature of an ideal gas increases, the particles move faster and occupy a larger volume, resulting in an increase in the number of microstates. This leads to an increase in the entropy of the gas.

5. What is the significance of the entropy of an ideal gas?

The entropy of an ideal gas is a fundamental property that helps us understand the behavior of gases and their interactions with their surroundings. It is also a key factor in the second law of thermodynamics, which states that the total entropy of an isolated system always increases over time.

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