# Energy reduction/deflection of beta particles due to isotope geometry

• I
• Aakash Sunkari
In summary, an undergraduate student is looking to conduct an experiment with an isotope that undergoes beta decay and is curious about the degree to which the isotope's geometry will reduce the energy of and deflect beta particles emitted from it. They are specifically interested in comparing the energy reduction/deflection between a solid geometry and a hollow geometry. They are also seeking recommendations for simulation software, with Geant4 being a popular option.
Aakash Sunkari
TL;DR Summary
What is the general "degree" to which energy reduction/deflection occurs in a solid geometry vs a hollow geometry? Are there any modelling tools/software that can calculate this?
Hello all. I'm an undergraduate student looking to conduct an experiment with an isotope that undergoes beta decay.

I am curious as to the degree to which the isotope geometry will reduce the energy of/deflect beta particles emitted from the isotope. By geometry, I mean the "shape" of the isotope. For example, a solid disc of an isotope is definitely going to have more electron collisions/deflections than a thin, hollow, spherical geometry. However, I would assume that this would be to a lesser degree than particles emitted through alpha decay or fission.

Let us assume an isotope which decays 100 times in an hour with an average β energy of 2 MeV. Roughly, what percent energy reduction/deflection would we see in a solid geometry vs a hollow geometry?

I know this question is very non-specific, but I guess a general "degree" to which energy reduction/deflection occurs in a solid geometry vs a hollow geometry would be helpful. Additionally, if there are any modelling tools/software I could use to calculate this that you all are aware of, please do share.

It depends on the mass, the decay energy, the absorption of the radiation in the material, the place where you measure the decays, and more. This would typically be put into a simulation software. Geant 4 is very common.

Aakash Sunkari
Thank you! I figured Geant4 would be the best tool to use, but wanted an outside opinion.

## 1. How does the geometry of an isotope affect the energy reduction/deflection of beta particles?

The geometry of an isotope can affect the energy reduction/deflection of beta particles in several ways. First, the shape and size of the isotope can impact the distance the beta particles must travel before being absorbed or deflected, which can affect their energy levels. Additionally, the orientation of the isotope can influence the angle at which the beta particles are emitted, leading to varying degrees of energy reduction or deflection.

## 2. What is the relationship between the energy of beta particles and their ability to penetrate different materials?

The energy of beta particles is directly related to their ability to penetrate different materials. Higher energy beta particles have a greater ability to penetrate materials, while lower energy beta particles are more easily absorbed or deflected. This is why materials with higher atomic numbers, such as lead, are often used as shielding against beta radiation.

## 3. How does the energy of beta particles change as they travel through different materials?

The energy of beta particles can change as they travel through different materials due to interactions with the atoms of those materials. When beta particles collide with atoms, they can transfer some of their energy, causing them to slow down or even stop. This is known as energy loss or energy absorption. The amount of energy lost depends on the type of material and the energy of the beta particles.

## 4. What factors can influence the energy reduction/deflection of beta particles in an isotope?

Several factors can influence the energy reduction/deflection of beta particles in an isotope. These include the shape and size of the isotope, the orientation of the isotope, the energy of the beta particles, and the type of material the beta particles are traveling through. Additionally, the atomic structure and composition of the isotope can also play a role in determining the energy reduction/deflection of beta particles.

## 5. How does the energy reduction/deflection of beta particles affect their ability to cause biological damage?

The energy reduction/deflection of beta particles can greatly impact their ability to cause biological damage. Higher energy beta particles have a greater ability to penetrate tissues and organs, leading to more significant damage. However, lower energy beta particles can still cause harm by depositing their energy in a smaller area, which can lead to localized damage. The amount of energy reduction/deflection can also affect the range of the beta particles, which can determine the extent of their biological effects.

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