# What is Beta: Definition and 403 Discussions

Beta (UK: , US: ; uppercase Β, lowercase β, or cursive ϐ; Ancient Greek: βῆτα, romanized: bē̂ta or Greek: βήτα, romanized: víta) is the second letter of the Greek alphabet. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 2. In Ancient Greek, beta represented the voiced bilabial plosive /b/. In Modern Greek, it represents the voiced labiodental fricative /v/ (while /b/ in foreign words is instead commonly transcribed as μπ). Letters that arose from beta include the Roman letter ⟨B⟩ and the Cyrillic letters ⟨Б⟩ and ⟨В⟩.

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1. ### I Write probability in terms of shape parameters of beta distribution

Assume that players A and B play a match where the probability that A will win each point is p, for B its 1-p and a player wins when he reach 11 points by a margin of >= 2The outcome of the match is specified by $$P(y|p, A_{wins})$$ If we know that A wins, his score is specified by B's score; he...
2. ### B Beta Plus Decay: What's Left for the Electron?

Specifically, this would be beta plus decay and not electron capture, and assumes an electrically neutral radionuclide. Since beta plus decay is the emission of a positron from the nucleus as a proton transmutes into a neutron, the resulting atom now has 1 less elementary charge than before, but...
3. ### A Beta Decay, why did they have to resort to Neutrinos?

I'm reviewing history of subatomic physics. By 1931AD the nuclear physics community had decided to propose the neutrino because they couldn't explain beta decay without it. Alpha and Gamma decays were more confined wrt the energy they would extract from the nucleus i.e. they had energy bands. By...

14. ### I Energy distribution plot of neutrinos in beta decay

Hello, When you have a beta decay you get the typical continuos spectrum representing counts against the kinetic energy of the electron. But what's the shape and how I get the spectrum of the kinetic energy of the neutrinos? Thanks
15. ### The representation matrix for alpha and beta in Dirac equation

In the 4-dimensional representation of ##\beta##, ## \beta=\begin{pmatrix}\mathbf I & \mathbf 0 \\ \mathbf0 & -\mathbf I\end{pmatrix} ,## and we can suppose ## \alpha_i=\begin{pmatrix}\mathbf A_i & \mathbf B_i \\ \mathbf C_i & \mathbf D_i\end{pmatrix} ##. From the anti-commutation relation...
16. ### I Are the daughter particles Ionized when the parent particle beta decays?

I was wondering if the resulting daughter element is ionized after the parent undergoes beta(or any other kind) of radioactive decay,
17. ### I High energy beta particles (6 to 22 MeV)

We have a question about highly energized beta particles (6 to 22 MeV). Is it possible fore this radiation to affect the nucleus of an isotope and not just ionize it? In our case a copper-65 and copper- 63 isotope become their unstable neighbors Cu-64 and Cu-62 due to the high beta radiation...
18. ### Is Joining an Honors Society (Phi Beta Kappa) Beneficial?

Recently, I received an email from my university notifying me that I have been selected to be a Phi Beta Kappa member. The email, to say the least, had a way to shower an excessive amount of praise and make a lot of promises related to how PBK (Phi Beta Kappa) can propel my chances of success in...
19. ### Alpha, Beta and Gamma Energies

Well, gamma photons are pure energy, so surely a gamma photon would have the most energy since gamma-ray photons generally have energies greater than 100 keV. An alpha particle has the highest ionising power of the three on account of its mass, it roughly has a kinetic energy of 5 MeV, whereas...
20. ### A Integral -- Beta function, Bessel function?

Integral \int^{\pi}_0\sin^3xdx=\int^{\pi}_0\sin x \sin^2xdx=\int^{\pi}_0\sin x (1-\cos^2 x)dx=\frac{4 \pi}{3} Is it possible to write integral ##\int^{\pi}_0\sin^3xdx## in form of Beta function, or even Bessel function?
21. ### Forbidden beta decay form factors

My idea was to consider first the structure of the matrix element and to see if there are any possible constraints that we could use for parametrization. If I am not mistaken, we are dealing with the hadronic decay governed by QCD which conserves parity. Since we have a derivative operator...
22. ### Beta Minus and Beta Plus Decay Disintegration Energies

I am confused about the disintegration energies of beta minus and beta plus decay. Regarding beta minus decay, the textbook says that "the number of electron masses has been accounted for in Equation (12.38)." What does that mean? Usually the disintegration energy is simply the mass of the...
23. ### News Tesla starts "full self-driving" beta test

So far it seems to be limited to very few participants. It is SAE level 2 ("hands off"): The car drives itself but a human needs to watch it and needs to be able to take over at any time. Normally the phrase "self-driving" is only used for SAE levels 4 and 5 (you can sleep in the car, or you...
24. ### Isotope decay via alpha and beta particle emissions

This problem really confused me, since I can't get the link between particles emitted(alpha and beta, but which are the differences between those?) and changes in mass and atomic number of the isotope. For this one, I can't really show you my attempt since there ain't one...
25. ### I How to read this decay sheet (gamma emission after beta decay)

I was looking at the decay scheme (https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html) of ##^{112}Ag## which ##\beta##-decays to ##^{112}Cd##. ##Cd## is most likely left in an excited states, so it decays to its ground state by ##\gamma##-emission. As you can see there are tons of...
26. ### I Understanding crossing symmetry: inverse beta decay

Hi! This is a very very noob question, but I am starting to get into particle physics and I don't understand the application of crossing symmetry in the inverse beta decay. Crossing symmetry says (from Griffiths) that, in a reaction "any of these particles can be 'crossed' over to the other...
27. ### I Beta and gamma rays from radium

Hi: Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radium Question 1: I think that the first statement suggests that it's the emission of alpha particles, beta particles and gamma rays which raises the temperature of radium sample; possibly on their way out from the sample, those particles and gamma...
28. ### A How to solve this integral? (something to do with a beta distribution?)

I have the following integral (in Maple notation): Int(exp(c[0]*ln(y)/a[0]+c[1]*M*ln(M-y)/a[1]), y = 0 .. M); with (in Maple notation): 0<a[0], 0<a[1], 0<c[0], 0<c[1], 0<y, y<M, 0<M. What is the solution of this integral? I suspect that the solution has something to do with a beta distribution.
29. ### Why does an alpha particle curve less in a magnetic field than a beta?

Suppose you are analyzing this image. The question to answer is: Explain why the alpha particle's path has a larger radius than either of the beta particle paths. Justify your answer using either momentum or charge-to-mass ratio. When you are answering this, suppose you know that , in...

31. ### A "Reversal" of Nuclear Decay in Beta Emitters

Hello all, I've got a question on nuclear decay "reversal" in beta emitters. I've been researching the Cowan-Reines experiment, which used neutrinos to convert protons into neutrons. Recently, I found out that the particle which hits the proton need not necessarily be a neutrino in order to...
32. ### Determining # of Beta Decays from Alpha Decay

Alpha particle has two protons and neutrons so mass = 4. 4x = 238 -206. x = 1/4(238-206) = 8 Alpha decays. How would I determine the number of Beta decays? Since the mass doesn't change here.
33. ### I How Do You Find K Beta X-Ray Energy?

I know you can use Moseley's law to calculate K Alpha X-ray energy. Can this law be used to calculate the K Beta energy? $$\Delta E = (-13.6eV)(Z-1)^2\left(\frac{1}{n_{1}^2}-\frac{1}{n_{2}^2}\right)$$ I saw on http://minerva.union.edu/labrakes/PIXE_Physics100_Lecture3_F14.pdf that they use...
34. ### B Absorption of beta particles by lead

Hello everyone, We conducted an experiment with a strontium-90 source and some different thicknesses of lead. With 2.1mm of lead the count rate (corrected for the background) was 0.69 counts per second, 3.0mm 19.7cps 6.8mm 15.4cps 13.8mm 10.0 cps This would...

41. ### Could beta(-) emitters be used to build a compact light-space-drive?

One of the main issues to send orbiters to (light years) faraway locations is the propulsion problem. Conventional chemical fuels cannot provide enough energy by weight to produce that much thrust. Nuclear fission provides a lot of energy by weight, but usually radiation energy doe not produce...
42. ### Beta Decay: 14C6 → 14N7+ e− + νe

Problem Statement: In beta-decay, a gamma ray that is a fast moving electron is emitted due to the conversion of a neutron to a proton and an electron to increase the stability. As a result, the atomic number increases while the mass number remains the same. But when the atomic no. increases as...
43. ### I Gamma and beta radiation in accelerators?

How ,exactly, are gamma and beta radiations produced in electron accelerators? Is the process for gamma almost the same as X-ray in linear accelerators? What about beta?
44. ### A Temperature of beta decay radioisotope (Sr-90)

Hi, I want to develop a Monte Carlo simulation to determine the temperature of a beta radioisotope (Sr-90) of a given mass for my master thesis in Computational Physics. I am rookie to simulations. How much time will take to develop such a code. Thnaks a lot
45. ### I What happens to the rest of the mass in Beta+ decay involving a W+ boson?

In Beta+ decay, a W+ boson is created and it decays into positron and electron neutrino. Mass of W+ boson is ~ 80 GeV/c^2, however, the total mass of positron and electron neutrino is very small compared to it. So, what happens to the rest of the mass? Is it converted into kinetic energy of...
46. ### What Was the Initial Energy of a Positron Entering a Plastic Slab?

Homework Statement Q- a positron emerges normally from a 4-mm thick slab of plastic (density= 1.14g/cm^3) with an energy of 1.62 MeV. What is the energy of the particle when it entered the slab? Homework Equations Range when 0< T <= 2.5 MeV: R= .412+T^[1.27-.0954*ln(T)] where T is kinetic...
47. ### I Where are the Beta Particles in a Muon Detector?

This may be a pretty basic question ,but i'll through it out any way. As a project i built a muon detector from 2 matched PMTs and 2 4x6x1 plastic PVT scintillators. And pulse processing NIM modules. I was getting pretty good coincidence reading,some what less than predicted.ie ( 1...
48. ### A Beta Decay Rates Changing by Ionization?

I recently read about a beta decay isotope (Rhenium-187),whose half life was changed from 42 X 109 years to 33 years, just by stripping the nucleus of all it's electrons. Why does this allow for a faster decay, and does this apply to all beta decay nuclei, or just Rhenium 187?
49. ### B What happens to Fermions during Beta decay radiation?

I recently started learning about quarks and leptons and was wondering what happens to the fermions (specifically the quarks and leptons) during a beta decay. How is the electron/positron created and what causes the up quarks and down quarks to change flavours? If this is a bad question please...
50. ### I Calculating Double Beta Decay Rates: Is It as Simple as Multiplying Two Values?

Hey everyone, I've learned about double beta decay and neutrinoless double beta decay recently. So we have two "conditions" for decay, 2v decay and 0v decay. Now, to the question I have: There have been a lot of experiments measuring 2v decay rates, and there have been many experiments...