What is Nuclear physics: Definition and 292 Discussions

Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions, in addition to the study of other forms of nuclear matter.
Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons.
Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering.
Particle physics evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association. Nuclear astrophysics, the application of nuclear physics to astrophysics, is crucial in explaining the inner workings of stars and the origin of the chemical elements.

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  1. Anisur Rahman

    MCNP -- What is meant by 2M and 20R?

    What is meant by 2M and 20R here?
  2. cemtu

    I Thomson Scattering when low-intensity light meets an orbital electron

    Can you explain to me the reason why Thomson Scattering can not explain what happens when light meets an electron at low intensity, and what does that have to do with light being a wave or particle or relativistic/QM effects? https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compton_scattering
  3. cemtu

    I How does a photon interact with the EM field of a nucleus?

    How does a photon interact with EM field of a nucleus thus exchange momentum and recoil the nucleus when pair production happens?
  4. cemtu

    I Why is bremsstrahlung radiation greater than acceleration radiation?

    Why is breaking radiation stronger than accelerating radiation? Why is it that when an electron comes accelerating toward a nucleus radiate weaker than when it goes decelerating away from the nucleus? Is it because when it decelerates, at the same time it changes direction? Or is it because it...
  5. cemtu

    I Kramer's Equation at max Energy for photons is giving Intensity = 0

    IE = KZ(Em – E) where IE is the intensity of photons with energy E, Z is the atomic number of the target, Em is the maximum photon energy, and K is a constant. As pointed out earlier, the maximum possible energy that a bremsstrahlung photon can have is equal to the energy of the incident...
  6. cemtu

    I Why Bremsstrahlung <20keV for Tungsten?

    https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Bremsstrahlung-and-characteristic-radiation-spectra-are-shown-for-a-tungsten-anode-with_fig4_8365056 Fast electrons produce X-rays in the anode of an X-ray tube through two different methods. The first one is the interaction of electrons with the nuclei of...
  7. G

    Experiment-Simulation comparing count values in MCNP

    I made some measurements using a NaI(Tl). Then I simulated this measurement using MCNP. Now I want to compare the count values. However, when the simulation count values are very low, the ones I get from the detector are high. What steps do I need to follow to set this up?
  8. R

    Show that the minimum in alpha-decay spectrum is caused by interference of peak

    This problem set considers (beta-delayed) alpha decay of ##{}^{20}Na##. I'm currently stuck in the following exercise and was hoping some of you could help me in the right way. Thanks in advance! The problem is: c) The experimental spectrum of ##{}^{20}Na## can be found below. Apart from peaks...
  9. O

    I Half life and radioactivity clarification

    As I understand, half life's are where unstable nuclear isotopes Undergo radioactive decay, where they emmit either aplha beta or gamma during this decay. I'm looking for some clarification on whether when an atom undergoes decay, does it then change into another element/ isotope of an...
  10. patric44

    Definition of angular frequency in nuclear structure

    Hi all I am a little bit confused about the definition of angular frequency in the context of nuclear rotation, some times its defined in the regular way as $$ E=\hbar \omega $$ and other time from the rigid rotor formula $$ E=\frac{\hbar^{2}}{2I} J(J+1) $$ where ##I## is the moment of inertia...
  11. eneacasucci

    I Gamma radiation decay intensity (IAEA nuclide chart)

    I was looking at the gamma radiation data from IAEA's website: (https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html) and was confused by the absolute intensity listed in the page. I Googled it and it seems to be the probability of emission but why it doesn't add up to 100%? For example...
  12. patric44

    Parameters in Bohr-Mottelson Collective Hamiltonian

    Hi all I was reading a certain paper that involves solving the Bohr-Mottelson Hamiltonian for a 5dimential square well potential, the B-M Hamiltoian reads: my question is just how do I calculate the mass parameter "B" for a certain nuclei, and with a 5D infinite potential well how do I get the...
  13. amyy

    A Does 15F Qualify as an sd Shell Nucleus?

    If we call a nucleus a sd shell nucleus, should its last proton and last neutron both lie in the sd shell or just one lies in the sd shell? For example, 15F, whose proton number is 9 and neutron number is 6. Then the last proton lies in the 1d5/2 orbit and the last neutron lies in the 1p3/2...
  14. L

    Looking for Nuclear Physics Research Problems

    Homework Statement:: nuclear/atomic physics research problem Relevant Equations:: research problem please Hi all Anyone who can help me to get a research problems based on advanced nuclear physics please... Thank you all
  15. lee6853

    MCNP and simple nuclear physics

    Hi guys! I'm a master's student majoring in nuclear engineering in graduate school. I have a few questions while doing research, so I'm writing this here. My research is simple. We conduct neutron analysis to convert a research reactor using highly enriched uranium into a low enriched uranium...
  16. Bertin

    I Nuclear Physics: Yearly Time Measurement

    Halves-lives and average lifetimes, when studying nuclear decay, are often expressed in years even though years are not standarized, at least in SI (as far as I know). Borrowing the convention from astronomy and astrophysics, I usually take 1 \mathrm{yr} to be equal to 365.25 days of 86400...
  17. A

    I Energy reduction/deflection of beta particles due to isotope geometry

    Hello all. I'm an undergraduate student looking to conduct an experiment with an isotope that undergoes beta decay. I am curious as to the degree to which the isotope geometry will reduce the energy of/deflect beta particles emitted from the isotope. By geometry, I mean the "shape" of the...
  18. patric44

    Exploring Nuclear Quadrupole Moment and Deformation

    hi guys I have read the other day about how the nuclear quadruple moment descries the deformation of the nucleus, however i can't get my head around how is that!, I am familiar with the multiple expansion in which we can describe the potential of an arbitrary charge distribution by the following...
  19. H

    Electrons and their little role in nuclear physics

    In this thread, @haruspex presented a very deliberate point about the role of electrons in a nuclear fission reaction (he might have said or meant something else but I will present my version of it). The problem that we have before us can be stated, as candidly as my linguistic faculty of mind...
  20. J

    Programming Languages used in Graduate School? (quantum, high energy, and nuclear physics)

    Hello, I have 1 undergrad year left and was wondering what the most used programming languages in grad school are. I still don't know which grad school will accept me so I haven't bothered to ask them directly as my application will be in November when I get my GRE scores. I am Interested in...
  21. debesta

    Job Skills Nuclear physics vs particle physics job prospects

    Which experimental physics branch has better job prospects (both inside and outside academia) - particle physics or nuclear physics? Is the difference very big?
  22. leminn

    Binding energy per nucleon of the nucleus

    How exactly would it then be calculated? Here's what I have tried: proton mass: 1.007276 amu Neutron mass: 1.008665 amu Sulphur-34 mass: 33.9678668 amu Calculation: 1.##(16\cdot1.007276)+(18\cdot1.008665)+(16 \cdot0.000549)=34.28117## 2.##34.28117-33.9678668=0.3133032## 3. 1 atomic mass...
  23. Elon Musk

    Nuclear Physics help please (alpha decay of a Po-216 atom)

    I think that when an atom of polonium (Po-216) is moving slowly enough that it can be considered to be at rest. The Po-216 undergoes alpha decay and becomes lead ( Ph-212 ), via the reaction 깝 Po → Pb + ta. After the decay. the lead atom is moving to the left with speed v. and the alpha particle...
  24. B

    Nuclear physics - solar neutrinos interacting

    For the first part I thought you'd have either, p + anti-v -> n + e+ and n + v -> p + e-, but I thought it'd probably be the latter as it's a 'normal' neutrino not an anti neutrino? But do I need to include the actual elements in the equation? For the second part I have multiplied the density...
  25. A

    Forbidden beta decay form factors

    My idea was to consider first the structure of the matrix element and to see if there are any possible constraints that we could use for parametrization. If I am not mistaken, we are dealing with the hadronic decay governed by QCD which conserves parity. Since we have a derivative operator...
  26. S

    Applying least squares to measurement of nuclei masses and Q-value

    Consider the problem in the attached image. The difference between A and B is 0.0020(20). How does one use the least squares method, particularly in matrix form, to find the best value of the masses of A and B respectively, as well as the Q-value? Aren't more measurements needed for the masses...
  27. Adams2020

    What is the recoil energy of a nucleus produced in its first energy level?

    Table: To solve, using the conservation of energy: E0=(m(deutron)+m(16O)-m(17O)-m(p))c^2 so: E0=(2.014+15.994-16.999-1.008)931.5=0.93 MeV. so using the conservation of energy: 14.95+0.93=16.62+0+E' E'=- 0.74 MeV But the energy sign has become negative. I also calculated for the first excited...
  28. Adams2020

    I The surface area of an oblate ellipsoid

    In "An Introduction to Nuclear Physics by W. N. Cottingham, D. A. Greenwood" for the surface area of an oblate ellipsoid, the following equation is written for small values of ε : The book has said this without proof. I found the following formula for the desired shape: No matter how hard I...
  29. Adams2020

    Mass difference due to electrical potential energy

    I do not really know the relationship between potential energy and mass difference. Isn't the difference in mass of protons and neutrons due to their quarks? (the neutron is made of two down quarks and an up quark and the proton of two up quarks and a down quark.) Please help.
  30. Stephen Bulking

    I The Tritium Puzzle: Unravelling Mass-Energy Equivalence

    I was finding the energy required to separate tritium into it's component parts, the binding energy when it hit me that how could 1amu= 931.2 MeV and 1.66e-27 kg at the same time?
  31. P

    I Necessity of Quantum Gravity given Planck scales for nuclear physics

    In the solutions (page 6, points ii) and iii)), https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-04-quantum-physics-i-spring-2013/assignments/MIT8_04S13_ps1_sol.pdf, it is mentioned that given that the Planck mass is about 20 orders of magnitude larger than a proton and that the Planck length is about 20...
  32. A

    A Energy needed to convert a bound proton to a neutron?

    Hey everyone, I've got a question on converting bound protons into neutrons. a. What are some methods used to achieve the proton-to-neutron conversion in atomic nuclei? I'm familiar with particle scattering off a proton in the nucleus. I'm also aware of (n,p) reactions. Are there any other...
  33. Rifat amin

    Software for nuclear cross-section measurement and Irradiation yield

    I work in research paper on medical isotope production. I need a software where i can measure the cross section and Irradiation Yield like TALYS and EMPIRE. If you ask me why i don't use TALYS then the reply is I can't install it on my PC. so i am looking for alternate software where i can do...
  34. A

    A "Reversal" of Nuclear Decay in Beta Emitters

    Hello all, I've got a question on nuclear decay "reversal" in beta emitters. I've been researching the Cowan-Reines experiment, which used neutrinos to convert protons into neutrons. Recently, I found out that the particle which hits the proton need not necessarily be a neutrino in order to...
  35. E

    Balance these nuclear equations

    I was thinking that these reactions have something to do with the conservation of leptons but I am not certain.
  36. patric44

    The Q factor of the nuclear reaction problem?

    after using the conservation of energy and momentum for a nuclear interaction i arrived to the following equation for the q factor as the book did , but can't get my head around deriving the second equation from the Q equation ? i will appreciate any help . thanks
  37. B

    From MSc Nuclear Physics to PhD medical physics is it possible?

    Hi I need help. I have my masters in Nuclear physics from Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Nigeria but am passionate about studying for medical physics in my PhD specializing in either Nuclear medicine or radiotherapy. Please any University that will admit on fully funded scholarship am open to...
  38. JD_PM

    Finding a method to compute the magnetic moment of an even-odd nucleus

    I am having difficulties computing the magnetic moment for an even-odd (proton-neutron) nucleus. The formula is: $$\mu_J=g_J\times j\times \mu_N$$ I checked this helpful post...
  39. JF001

    What are the benefits of pursuing a BSc in physics as an undergraduate student?

    I am an upcoming undergraduate student for a BSc in physics who can't wait to start university. I've been passionate about the subject for a long time and I want to try and contribute as best as I can to this forum. As an 18 years old student, I am lacking the general knowledge to contribute...
  40. azfell

    B Mistranslation in early nuclear physics?

    I remember reading somewhere about a mistranslation or misinterpretation that occurred in the early days of nuclear physics, probably between 1910 and 1930, in which the metaphorical nature of the wavefunction (rather than the electron's literal presence in multiple locations at once) was lost...
  41. M

    I What fundamental physics insights can we gain from nuclear physics research?

    Hello! I am sorry if this question is silly, but I really don't know much about nuclear physics so I am actually curious. How much physics insight can the nuclear physics research give us? Most of the particle physics experiments aim to search for BSM physics, but as far as I understand (again...
  42. JD_PM

    I Angular momentum of an Odd-Odd nucleus (in its ground state)

    What I know is the following: The total angular momentum of the nucleus is just the total sum of the angular momentum of each nucleon. If the nucleons are even the total angular momentum in the ground state will simply be ##0+##. If the odd number of nucleons is close to one of the magic...
  43. J

    Possible spins and parities of an odd-odd nucleus

    I'm actually not even 100% sure about the formulas, as in my book they explain j, s and l quite unclearly. Could anyone give me a proper explanation as how to see these and if I'm using them correctly. What i tried to do was determine the proton and neutron angular momentum, spin and parity...
  44. M

    I Energy Levels: Why Do Spacings Get Smaller as Excitation Increases?

    Hi All. For the above energy level diagram, why do the energy levels spacings proceed to get smaller and smaller as the excitation energy increases?
  45. C

    Nuclear Reaction - How to determine variables as much as possible

    Hey Guys, exercise: "It is desired to study the first excited state of 16O which is at energy of 6.049 MeV. Using the (alpha, n) reaction on target of 13C, what is the minimum energy of incident alphas which will populate the excited state? So, i suggest to define first the reaction equation...
  46. D

    I Can any element be photodisintegrated

    Can any element be photodisintegrated or are there certain elements that can't be photodisintegrated?
  47. CarterTheSpaceman

    Math needed for graduate theoretical nuclear physics program?

    So, basically I need a roadmap of the math required for nuclear theory. I've completed Calc (1-3) and teaching myself ODE. My roadmap currently is PDE, Complex Analysis, Linear Algebra and Numerical methods. I'm going to work through Arfkens 2nd edition of math methods. Any thing else I should...