What is Nuclear physics: Definition and 292 Discussions
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions, in addition to the study of other forms of nuclear matter.
Nuclear physics should not be confused with atomic physics, which studies the atom as a whole, including its electrons.
Discoveries in nuclear physics have led to applications in many fields. This includes nuclear power, nuclear weapons, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance imaging, industrial and agricultural isotopes, ion implantation in materials engineering, and radiocarbon dating in geology and archaeology. Such applications are studied in the field of nuclear engineering.
Particle physics evolved out of nuclear physics and the two fields are typically taught in close association. Nuclear astrophysics, the application of nuclear physics to astrophysics, is crucial in explaining the inner workings of stars and the origin of the chemical elements.
Can you explain to me the reason why Thomson Scattering can not explain what happens when light meets an electron at low intensity, and what does that have to do with light being a wave or particle or relativistic/QM effects?
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Compton_scattering
Why is breaking radiation stronger than accelerating radiation? Why is it that when an electron comes accelerating toward a nucleus radiate weaker than when it goes decelerating away from the nucleus?
Is it because when it decelerates, at the same time it changes direction?
Or is it because it...
IE = KZ(Em – E)
where IE is the intensity of photons with energy E, Z is the atomic number of the target, Em is the maximum photon energy, and K is a constant. As pointed out earlier, the maximum possible energy that a bremsstrahlung photon can have is equal to the energy of the incident...
https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Bremsstrahlung-and-characteristic-radiation-spectra-are-shown-for-a-tungsten-anode-with_fig4_8365056
Fast electrons produce X-rays in the anode of an X-ray tube through two different methods. The first one is the interaction of electrons with the nuclei of...
I made some measurements using a NaI(Tl). Then I simulated this measurement using MCNP. Now I want to compare the count values. However, when the simulation count values are very low, the ones I get from the detector are high. What steps do I need to follow to set this up?
This problem set considers (beta-delayed) alpha decay of ##{}^{20}Na##. I'm currently stuck in the following exercise and was hoping some of you could help me in the right way. Thanks in advance!
The problem is:
c)
The experimental spectrum of ##{}^{20}Na## can be found below. Apart from peaks...
As I understand, half life's are where unstable nuclear isotopes Undergo radioactive decay, where they emmit either aplha beta or gamma during this decay.
I'm looking for some clarification on whether when an atom undergoes decay, does it then change into another element/ isotope of an...
Hi all
I am a little bit confused about the definition of angular frequency in the context of nuclear rotation, some times its defined in the regular way as
$$
E=\hbar \omega
$$
and other time from the rigid rotor formula
$$
E=\frac{\hbar^{2}}{2I} J(J+1)
$$
where ##I## is the moment of inertia...
I was looking at the gamma radiation data from IAEA's website:
(https://www-nds.iaea.org/relnsd/vcharthtml/VChartHTML.html)
and was confused by the absolute intensity listed in the page. I Googled it and it seems to be the probability of emission but why it doesn't add up to 100%?
For example...
Hi all
I was reading a certain paper that involves solving the Bohr-Mottelson Hamiltonian for a 5dimential square well potential, the B-M Hamiltoian reads:
my question is just how do I calculate the mass parameter "B" for a certain nuclei, and with a 5D infinite potential well how do I get the...
If we call a nucleus a sd shell nucleus, should its last proton and last neutron both lie in the sd shell or just one lies in the sd shell?
For example, 15F, whose proton number is 9 and neutron number is 6. Then the last proton lies in the 1d5/2 orbit and the last neutron lies in the 1p3/2...
Homework Statement:: nuclear/atomic physics research problem
Relevant Equations:: research problem please
Hi all
Anyone who can help me to get a research problems based on advanced nuclear physics please...
Thank you all
Hi guys!
I'm a master's student majoring in nuclear engineering in graduate school.
I have a few questions while doing research, so I'm writing this here.
My research is simple. We conduct neutron analysis to convert a research reactor using highly enriched uranium into a low enriched uranium...
Halves-lives and average lifetimes, when studying nuclear decay, are often expressed in years even though years are not standarized, at least in SI (as far as I know). Borrowing the convention from astronomy and astrophysics, I usually take 1 \mathrm{yr} to be equal to 365.25 days of 86400...
Hello all. I'm an undergraduate student looking to conduct an experiment with an isotope that undergoes beta decay.
I am curious as to the degree to which the isotope geometry will reduce the energy of/deflect beta particles emitted from the isotope. By geometry, I mean the "shape" of the...
hi guys
I have read the other day about how the nuclear quadruple moment descries the deformation of the nucleus, however i can't get my head around how is that!, I am familiar with the multiple expansion in which we can describe the potential of an arbitrary charge distribution by the following...
In this thread, @haruspex presented a very deliberate point about the role of electrons in a nuclear fission reaction (he might have said or meant something else but I will present my version of it). The problem that we have before us can be stated, as candidly as my linguistic faculty of mind...
Hello,
I have 1 undergrad year left and was wondering what the most used programming languages in grad school are. I still don't know which grad school will accept me so I haven't bothered to ask them directly as my application will be in November when I get my GRE scores.
I am Interested in...
Which experimental physics branch has better job prospects (both inside and outside academia) - particle physics or nuclear physics? Is the difference very big?
How exactly would it then be calculated? Here's what I have tried:
proton mass: 1.007276 amu
Neutron mass: 1.008665 amu
Sulphur-34 mass: 33.9678668 amu
Calculation:
1.##(16\cdot1.007276)+(18\cdot1.008665)+(16 \cdot0.000549)=34.28117##
2.##34.28117-33.9678668=0.3133032##
3. 1 atomic mass...
I think that when an atom of polonium (Po-216) is moving slowly enough that it can be considered to be at rest. The Po-216 undergoes alpha decay and becomes lead ( Ph-212 ), via the reaction 깝 Po → Pb + ta. After the decay. the lead atom is moving to the left with speed v. and the alpha particle...
For the first part I thought you'd have either, p + anti-v -> n + e+ and n + v -> p + e-, but I thought it'd probably be the latter as it's a 'normal' neutrino not an anti neutrino? But do I need to include the actual elements in the equation?
For the second part I have multiplied the density...
My idea was to consider first the structure of the matrix element and to see if there are any possible constraints that we could use for parametrization. If I am not mistaken, we are dealing with the hadronic decay governed by QCD which conserves parity. Since we have a derivative operator...
Consider the problem in the attached image. The difference between A and B is 0.0020(20). How does one use the least squares method, particularly in matrix form, to find the best value of the masses of A and B respectively, as well as the Q-value? Aren't more measurements needed for the masses...
Table:
To solve, using the conservation of energy:
E0=(m(deutron)+m(16O)-m(17O)-m(p))c^2
so:
E0=(2.014+15.994-16.999-1.008)931.5=0.93 MeV.
so using the conservation of energy:
14.95+0.93=16.62+0+E'
E'=- 0.74 MeV
But the energy sign has become negative. I also calculated for the first excited...
In "An Introduction to Nuclear Physics by W. N. Cottingham, D. A. Greenwood" for the surface area of an oblate ellipsoid, the following equation is written for small values of ε :
The book has said this without proof.
I found the following formula for the desired shape:
No matter how hard I...
I do not really know the relationship between potential energy and mass difference.
Isn't the difference in mass of protons and neutrons due to their quarks? (the neutron is made of two down quarks and an up quark and the proton of two up quarks and a down quark.)
Please help.
I was finding the energy required to separate tritium into it's component parts, the binding energy when it hit me that how could 1amu= 931.2 MeV and 1.66e-27 kg at the same time?
In the solutions (page 6, points ii) and iii)), https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/physics/8-04-quantum-physics-i-spring-2013/assignments/MIT8_04S13_ps1_sol.pdf, it is mentioned that given that the Planck mass is about 20 orders of magnitude larger than a proton and that the Planck length is about 20...
Hey everyone,
I've got a question on converting bound protons into neutrons.
a. What are some methods used to achieve the proton-to-neutron conversion in atomic nuclei?
I'm familiar with particle scattering off a proton in the nucleus. I'm also aware of (n,p) reactions. Are there any other...
I work in research paper on medical isotope production. I need a software where i can measure the cross section and Irradiation Yield like TALYS and EMPIRE. If you ask me why i don't use TALYS then the reply is I can't install it on my PC. so i am looking for alternate software where i can do...
Hello all,
I've got a question on nuclear decay "reversal" in beta emitters.
I've been researching the Cowan-Reines experiment, which used neutrinos to convert protons into neutrons. Recently, I found out that the particle which hits the proton need not necessarily be a neutrino in order to...
after using the conservation of energy and momentum for a nuclear interaction i arrived to the following equation for the q factor as the book did
, but can't get my head around deriving the second equation from the Q equation ?
i will appreciate any help .
thanks
Hi I need help. I have my masters in Nuclear physics from Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Nigeria but am passionate about studying for medical physics in my PhD specializing in either Nuclear medicine or radiotherapy. Please any University that will admit on fully funded scholarship am open to...
I am having difficulties computing the magnetic moment for an even-odd (proton-neutron) nucleus.
The formula is:
$$\mu_J=g_J\times j\times \mu_N$$
I checked this helpful post...
I am an upcoming undergraduate student for a BSc in physics who can't wait to start university. I've been passionate about the subject for a long time and I want to try and contribute as best as I can to this forum.
As an 18 years old student, I am lacking the general knowledge to contribute...
I remember reading somewhere about a mistranslation or misinterpretation that occurred in the early days of nuclear physics, probably between 1910 and 1930, in which the metaphorical nature of the wavefunction (rather than the electron's literal presence in multiple locations at once) was lost...
Hello! I am sorry if this question is silly, but I really don't know much about nuclear physics so I am actually curious. How much physics insight can the nuclear physics research give us?
Most of the particle physics experiments aim to search for BSM physics, but as far as I understand (again...
What I know is the following:
The total angular momentum of the nucleus is just the total sum of the angular momentum of each nucleon.
If the nucleons are even the total angular momentum in the ground state will simply be ##0+##.
If the odd number of nucleons is close to one of the magic...
I'm actually not even 100% sure about the formulas, as in my book they explain j, s and l quite unclearly. Could anyone give me a proper explanation as how to see these and if I'm using them correctly.
What i tried to do was determine the proton and neutron angular momentum, spin and parity...
Hey Guys,
exercise: "It is desired to study the first excited state of 16O which is at energy of 6.049 MeV.
Using the (alpha, n) reaction on target of 13C, what is the minimum energy of incident alphas which will populate the excited state?
So, i suggest to define first the reaction equation...
So, basically I need a roadmap of the math required for nuclear theory. I've completed Calc (1-3) and teaching myself ODE. My roadmap currently is PDE, Complex Analysis, Linear Algebra and Numerical methods. I'm going to work through Arfkens 2nd edition of math methods. Any thing else I should...