Improving Transistor Switching for High Voltage Protection Circuits

In summary: Davehei davenn I did as per ur circuit. but u can see in the simulation circuit runs for 3volt and also for 5volts. i checked it for 8volts also. if my DC voltage is varying from 8-14 volts as per AC mains changes from 180-250Volts this switch is continuously ON. but i want this to ON only After 7-9volts. den i can operate relay. otherwise it is not of any...
  • #1
seemasdawange
22
1
Hello friends I'm new here and want some answers from u. please help me to sort out the problem related to my circuit of high voltage protection. in this circuit i regulate the dc voltage using zener diode and then output of zener is given to the base of npn transistor. please check the circuit diagram for detail.
now coming to my problem that at second stage where i used transistor as a switch, actually transistor is not working as a switch. the led shown there must be ON/OFF but its nor happen here. when i changed pot value thn intensity of the LED changes only it not goes ON/OFF.
can anyone help me regarding this?
DSC_0071.JPG
 
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  • #2
Hi there
welcome to PF

seemasdawange said:
Hello friends I'm new here and want some answers from u. please help me to sort out the problem related to my circuit of high voltage protection. in this circuit i regulate the dc voltage using zener diode and then output of zener is given to the base of npn transistor. please check the circuit diagram for detail.
now coming to my problem that at second stage where i used transistor as a switch, actually transistor is not working as a switch. the led shown there must be ON/OFF but its nor happen here. when i changed pot value thn intensity of the LED changes only it not goes ON/OFF.
it would have been easier to read if you had posted the image the right way up
here I will do it for you...

upload_2016-9-20_19-28-47.png


What is the zener type ... I cannot read the full part number
there's no need for the first 10uF 63V when you already have a 4700uF there

so what are you really trying to achieve in the second stage ?

now coming to my problem that at second stage where i used transistor as a switch, actually transistor is not working as a switch. the led shown there must be ON/OFF but its nor happen here. when i changed pot value thn intensity of the LED changes only it not goes ON/OFF

OK after a little figuring out ... the reason that the LED isn't switching off is because you have a continuous bias on the base of the transistor that the LED is in the collector cct.
That bias voltage(current) is coming from the positive rail down through the 1k resistor and on to the base
To make the BC547 a pure on/off switch then get rig of the second transistor and trimpot and other assoc components. Keep a single 1k resistor in the base and take that via a switch to the positive rail

Dave
 
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  • #3
Do you want a simple on/off circuit or do you want to be able to change the brightness?
 
  • #4
OK revising your stage 2 circuit

upload_2016-9-20_19-45-31.png


just a quick circuit I had drawn for some one else in days gone bye, but it will give you the understanding of how to use the transistor as a switch
You can still take the positive and negative rails from your PSU in your stage 1 circuitDave
 
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  • #5
CWatters said:
Do you want a simple on/off circuit or do you want to be able to change the brightness?

an on /off switch by his comments
 
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  • #6
davenn said:
so what are you really trying to achieve in the second stage ?
Thanks Dave for ur reply..I'm using 1N4744 zener. and in the second stage i want a transistor to work as a switch only by using which i can operate relay. another modified diagram I/m attaching here. please check it

Circuit.JPG
 
  • #7
CWatters said:
Do you want a simple on/off circuit or do you want to be able to change the brightness?
Yes i want simple ON/OFF circuit using transistor which may operate relay at the output side of transistor so i can cut off the mains from further circuit. as i ll put relay between mains and further circuit.
 
  • #8
Why u use switch here.? i don't want anything which will work manually. i want this circuit to use in remote place. Thanks for ur kind help.
 
  • #9
davenn said:
an on /off switch by his comments

davenn said:
an on /off switch by his comments
Yes simple ON/OFF circuit
 
  • #10
davenn said:
OK revising your stage 2 circuit

View attachment 106260

just a quick circuit I had drawn for some one else in days gone bye, but it will give you the understanding of how to use the transistor as a switch
You can still take the positive and negative rails from your PSU in your stage 1 circuitDave
hei davenn I did as per ur circuit. but u can see in the simulation circuit runs for 3volt and also for 5volts. i checked it for 8volts also. if my DC voltage is varying from 8-14 volts as per AC mains changes from 180-250Volts this switch is continuously ON. but i want this to ON only After 7-9volts. den i can operate relay. otherwise it is not of any use.
 

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  • switching circuit.JPG
    switching circuit.JPG
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  • #11
seemasdawange said:
Why u use switch here.? i don't want anything which will work manually. i want this circuit to use in remote place. Thanks for ur kind help.

so what is the point of the trimpot ? it cannot be operated manually any easier than a physical switch

what do you intend to use to turn the transistor on and off ?
 
  • #12
seemasdawange said:
hei davenn I did as per ur circuit. but u can see in the simulation circuit runs for 3volt and also for 5volts. i checked it for 8volts also. if my DC voltage is varying from 8-14 volts as per AC mains changes from 180-250Volts this switch is continuously ON. but i want this to ON only After 7-9volts. den i can operate relay. otherwise it is not of any use.

that isn't really clear
 
  • #13
davenn said:
so what is the point of the trimpot ? it cannot be operated manually any easier than a physical switch

what do you intend to use to turn the transistor on and off ?
I have further circuit which i need to operate. I'm designing this circuit for high voltage protection. here at the output of transistor i want to connect relay which then further operate to protect my circuit by cutting it OFF from main source.

i'm using trimpot and fixing it to some value at which transistor ON. as voltage increases or decreases our resistance of trimpot is fixed and so current varries. which causes our transistor to ON or OFF as resistance is constant in this case. Getting my point?:sorry:
 
  • #14
davenn said:
that isn't really clear
switching circuit.JPG
 
  • #15
OK so let me see if I have this...
you are wanting to monitor the mains voltage and then be able to switch off some other piece of gear that is on that mains voltage
IF the mains voltage rises too high
Is that correct ?D
 
  • #16
davenn said:
OK so let me see if I have this...
you are wanting to monitor the mains voltage and then be able to switch off some other piece of gear that is on that mains voltage
IF the mains voltage rises too high
Is that correct ?D
:biggrin:yes correct
 
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  • #17
seemasdawange said:
:biggrin:yes correct

OK ... tis bed time here for me ... if some one else doesn't chime in with some circuitry, I will see what I can organise in the new day

final Q for the nite ... what is the gear that needs to be switched ? ...
what is it's recommended supply voltage and current ( or watts) ?Dave
 
  • #18
davenn said:
OK ... tis bed time here for me ... if some one else doesn't chime in with some circuitry, I will see what I can organise in the new day

final Q for the nite ... what is the gear that needs to be switched ? ...
what is it's recommended supply voltage and current ( or watts) ?Dave
Okay.. 12Volts relay I'm using. answer it tomorrow. no problem. gd nyt.actually I have no of ques related to it.. can we discuss it ?
 
  • #19
One usually incorporates a little bit of positive feedback to give snap-action on/off transitions with a little bit of hysteresis so it doesn't 'chatter' right at the trip point..
 
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Related to Improving Transistor Switching for High Voltage Protection Circuits

What is the purpose of using a BC547 transistor as a switch?

The BC547 transistor can be used as a switch to control the flow of current in an electronic circuit. It allows for the amplification and switching of electrical signals, making it a versatile component in many electronic devices.

How does a BC547 transistor function as a switch?

When a small current is applied to the base of the transistor, it allows a larger current to flow from the collector to the emitter. This is known as the "switching" function of the transistor and can be used to turn a circuit on or off.

What are the advantages of using a BC547 transistor as a switch?

One of the main advantages of using a BC547 transistor as a switch is its low cost and availability. It also has a high current gain, allowing for efficient switching. Additionally, it can handle high frequencies and can be used in a wide range of electronic devices.

What are the limitations of using a BC547 transistor as a switch?

One limitation of using a BC547 transistor as a switch is its low power handling capacity. It is not suitable for high voltage or high power applications. Additionally, it may not be suitable for use in circuits with high temperature or high frequency requirements.

How can a BC547 transistor be used as a switch in a circuit?

To use a BC547 transistor as a switch in a circuit, it can be connected in either a common emitter or common collector configuration. The base of the transistor is connected to a control signal, and the collector and emitter are connected to the circuit being controlled. When the control signal is applied, the transistor will either allow or block the flow of current in the circuit.

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