Is pressure distinct from temperature in gas laws?

In summary, pressure is distinct from temperature in gas laws. The relationship of kinetic energy, mass, and velocity is given by the formula Ek = 1⁄2 m v2. Accordingly, particles with one unit of mass moving at one unit of velocity have precisely the same kinetic energy—and precisely the same temperature—as those with four times the mass but half the velocity.
  • #1
johndb
24
0
Is pressure distinct from temperature in gas laws? How do we separate these attributes?

Take Charles law for example, now unless I've read this example from a textbook (textbook Silberberg Chemistry 3rd edition ) incorrect, it describes an experiment to determine the relationship between the volume and temperature. It says for this experiment pressure is constant so I assume it should be unchanging. But then in my textbook it shows a graph alongside this experiment showing the pressure changing / rising with the temperature and volume, which makes sense to me but not to their pre-condition of a constant pressure.

It makes sense to me because a rising temperature is going to cause increased kinetic energy and movement of the molecules, which means faster more powerful collisions with the container walls so more pressure.

So the question remains can one keep the pressure constant, and change the temperature? Has anyone observed that; one can change whilst the other remains unchanged. e.g. That the pressure can change whilst the temperature remains the same etc...

What are the forum's thoughts?
 
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  • #2
The overall gas law is
PV = nR T ( n is the amount of gas and R is a constant)
So this means.
You can increase pressure, decrease volume and keep the same temperature
or increase pressure, increase temperature and keep the same volume
or increase volume, increase temperature and keep the same pressure

(assuming you keep the same amount of gas)
 
  • #3
johndb said:
It makes sense to me because a rising temperature is going to cause increased kinetic energy and movement of the molecules,
OK.
which means faster more powerful collisions with the container walls
OK.
so more pressure.
Maybe... if the volume stays the same. Pressure depends on how many collisions per area per time, not just the kinetic energy of the molecules.

So the question remains can one keep the pressure constant, and change the temperature?
Sure. Consider the ideal gas law.
 
  • #4
I am still unsure but you do insure yourself there, (post contains irony...). I appreciate quick responses, but I have read reliable material and am familar with the basic theories as presented by textbooks and don't need them restated unless they sufficiently show where I'm going wrong.
I reckon you were too hasty to overlook my reasoning on a molecular level,
1/ Take another look at the contadiction I've highlighted, quote; "It makes sense to me because a rising temperature is going to cause increased kinetic energy and movement of the molecules, which means faster more powerful collisions with the container walls so more pressure".
2/ The conflict is also in the experiment, how is this resolved?
I'm challenging that your definitions may be incorrect and that reasoning on a molecular level, suggests that increasing pressure, increases temperature, increases volume no?
 
  • #5
Oh I was forgetting that these are the Ideal Gas Laws, but I'm pretty sure having read the refined ones that they don't address these conflicts. However I may have to re-search...
 
  • #6
johndb said:
1/ Take another look at the contadiction I've highlighted, quote; "It makes sense to me because a rising temperature is going to cause increased kinetic energy and movement of the molecules, which means faster more powerful collisions with the container walls so more pressure".
2/ The conflict is also in the experiment, how is this resolved?

The pressure depends not only on the kinetic energy of the molecules (actually it's more closely related to the momentum of the molecules), but also on the number of wall-molecule collisions per second.

If the volume is bigger, each individual gas molecule has to travel further between collisions with the walls, so each molecule collides less often with the walls.
 
  • #7
johndb said:
Is pressure distinct from temperature in gas laws?
From wiki: The relationship of kinetic energy, mass, and velocity is given by the formula Ek = 1⁄2 m v2. Accordingly, particles with one unit of mass moving at one unit of velocity have precisely the same kinetic energy—and precisely the same temperature—as those with four times the mass but half the velocity.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thermodynamic_temperature

Also from wiki, pressure ... temperature .. kinetic energy
Pressure = 1/3 ρ vrms2

where ρ is the density of the gas.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kinetic_theory#Pressure
 

Related to Is pressure distinct from temperature in gas laws?

1. Is pressure and temperature the same thing in gas laws?

No, pressure and temperature are not the same thing in gas laws. They are two distinct variables that affect the behavior of gases.

2. How are pressure and temperature related in gas laws?

Pressure and temperature are directly related in gas laws. As temperature increases, pressure also increases, and vice versa.

3. Can pressure and temperature be changed independently in gas laws?

Yes, pressure and temperature can be changed independently in gas laws. This is because they are two separate variables that affect the behavior of gases.

4. What happens to gas molecules when pressure and temperature change in gas laws?

When pressure and temperature change in gas laws, the gas molecules will either move closer together or farther apart. This will ultimately affect the volume and pressure of the gas.

5. How do pressure and temperature affect the volume of a gas in gas laws?

According to Boyle's Law, pressure and volume are inversely related in gas laws. This means that as pressure increases, volume decreases, and vice versa. As for temperature, according to Charles's Law, temperature and volume are directly related in gas laws. This means that as temperature increases, volume also increases, and vice versa.

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