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- TL;DR Summary
- Is there an example, definition, explanation of time that is not derivative of a physical system like a clock, e.g., that's based on the rotation of the earth? If not. If time is not a stand-alone definable entity how can it qualify as a fourth dimension?

I tweeted this on a Sabine Hossenfelder’s Twitter thread:

Is there an example, definition, explanation of time that is not derivative of a physical system like a clock, e.g., that's based on the rotation of the earth? If not. If time is not a stand-alone definable entity how can it qualify as a fourth dimension?

There was no response.

But I can expand on that tweet here.

The formula for calculating the speed of an object is - Distance/Time = Speed

So, if D = 60 miles and T = 1 hr then S = 60 mph 60/1 = 60 mph

69 miles = 1 degree of the earth’s circumference at the equator. And 60 miles = 0.87 degrees.

15 degrees of rotation = 1 hr - So, 0.87/1 hr = 0.87 degrees per hr which = 60 mph

Now, clocks are slower at sea level than they are at mile high elevations like Denver, Colorado. But time with respect to the rotation of the Earth is always the same. 15 degrees = 1 hour. A clock’s movement can slow down or speed up and, therefore, does not accurately reflect the system from which it derives its seconds, minutes and hours. So, does time slow down at lower altitudes or at high speeds? Or is it merely the timepiece that does so? How ever long or short a clock’s hour might be it is geared to the regularity of the earth’s rotation which it cannot faithfully represent.

The earth’s rotation about its axis and revolution around the sun are its motions and movements through space. Through space only. Not through time. Our notion of time is imposed on the earth. All that is going on is 365 1/4 rotations for one revolution. That’s it. That is all that is happening. We extrapolate from that our notion of time. Time then is a derivative of changes in a physical system. It is not a stand-alone definable entity in its own right.

When time is part of an equation “time x to time y”, for instance, it must refer to a certain arc of Earth's rotation from point x to point y to be an accurate notation with respect to our concept of time.

If we age slower at extremely high speeds it’s not because “time” slows down. It’s because the changes in our bodies that contribute to aging slow down. One’s heart rate, for example, that is normally beat-beat would be beat——beat.

Is there an example, definition, explanation of time that is not derivative of a physical system like a clock, e.g., that's based on the rotation of the earth? If not. If time is not a stand-alone definable entity how can it qualify as a fourth dimension?

There was no response.

But I can expand on that tweet here.

The formula for calculating the speed of an object is - Distance/Time = Speed

So, if D = 60 miles and T = 1 hr then S = 60 mph 60/1 = 60 mph

69 miles = 1 degree of the earth’s circumference at the equator. And 60 miles = 0.87 degrees.

15 degrees of rotation = 1 hr - So, 0.87/1 hr = 0.87 degrees per hr which = 60 mph

Now, clocks are slower at sea level than they are at mile high elevations like Denver, Colorado. But time with respect to the rotation of the Earth is always the same. 15 degrees = 1 hour. A clock’s movement can slow down or speed up and, therefore, does not accurately reflect the system from which it derives its seconds, minutes and hours. So, does time slow down at lower altitudes or at high speeds? Or is it merely the timepiece that does so? How ever long or short a clock’s hour might be it is geared to the regularity of the earth’s rotation which it cannot faithfully represent.

The earth’s rotation about its axis and revolution around the sun are its motions and movements through space. Through space only. Not through time. Our notion of time is imposed on the earth. All that is going on is 365 1/4 rotations for one revolution. That’s it. That is all that is happening. We extrapolate from that our notion of time. Time then is a derivative of changes in a physical system. It is not a stand-alone definable entity in its own right.

When time is part of an equation “time x to time y”, for instance, it must refer to a certain arc of Earth's rotation from point x to point y to be an accurate notation with respect to our concept of time.

If we age slower at extremely high speeds it’s not because “time” slows down. It’s because the changes in our bodies that contribute to aging slow down. One’s heart rate, for example, that is normally beat-beat would be beat——beat.