# What is Initial: Definition and 1000 Discussions

In a written or published work, an initial or drop cap is a letter at the beginning of a word, a chapter, or a paragraph that is larger than the rest of the text. The word is derived from the Latin initialis, which means standing at the beginning. An initial is often several lines in height and in older boscene are known as "inhabited" initials. Certain important initials, such as the Beatus initial or "B" of Beatus vir... at the opening of Psalm 1 at the start of a vulgate Latin. These specific initials, in an illuminated manuscript, were also called initiumsIn the present, the word initial commonly refers to the first letter of any word or name, the latter normally capitalized in English usage and is generally that of a first given name or a middle one or ones.

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1. ### Projectile Motion Problem Involving Initial Velocity and Gravity Only

Ok, so to start, the easy part, the velocity in the horizontal x direction (vx): vx = 20m/(2.5s) = 8m/s So far so good, but then for the vertical y velocity (vy), my answer is different than the book. I use the equation for position in the y direction, set the y value to 0 (the 2.5s it takes...
2. ### Find the initial velocity ##U##

Now in determining the initial velocity; in my understanding, if ##s=1.8## then we consider the stone's motion from the top to the ground. Why not consider ##s=3.6##, the total distance traveled by stone from start point ##t=0##? Is it possible to model equations from this point? The stone...
3. ### Find the value of ##T## and distance of particle in the first ##4## seconds

solution is here; I just need to understand this part ##14.7 = -14.7 =9.8T##... why initial velocity upwards is a negative value? or i am interpreting it wrongly. ........... In my reasoning, ##v=u+at## ##0=14.7 + (-9.8)t## ## t_1=1.5## in reverse direction, from top to start point ##T##...
4. ### Initial speed of an object launched from Mars

U1 = -GMm/r K1 = (1/2)mvi^2 U2 = as r approaches infinity, U2 approaches zero K2 = (1/2)mvf^2 (1/2)mvi^2 - GMm/r = (1/2)mvf^2 + 0 vi = √(vf^2 + (2GMm)/r) = √(250,000 + 2(6.7 E-11)(6 E23)/3400) = 153776.815 But that is not the correct answer, can anybody see my mistake/misunderstanding?
5. ### Find Initial Velocity of a projectile given flight time and angle

Vix=Vcosθ Vix=0.76604*V Xf=Vixt Xf=0.77604V*2 V=Xf/1.55208
6. ### What is the current status of Vogtle Unit 3?

https://www.georgiapower.com/company/news-center/2023-articles/vogtle-unit-3-reaches-initial-criticality.html#:~:text=Vogtle%20Unit%203%20reaches%20initial%20criticality%20March%206%2C,safely%20started%20the%20nuclear%20reaction%20inside%20the%20reactor. "March 6, 2023 Georgia Power today...
7. ### I Understanding Euler Method: Finding Initial Condition of y(0)=1

The Euler method is straightforward to me; i.e ##y_{n+1}=y_n+ hf(t_0, y_0)## where the smaller the steps i.e ##h## size the better the approximation. My question is 'how does one go about in determining the initial condition ##y(0)=1## in this problem? am assuming that this has to be a point...
8. ### Projectile motion problem – determining initial velocity of throw

My reasoning was to use this kinematic equation to first get time of flight of the baseball using horizontal components, and then use this same equation again to find initial velocity.
9. ### Initial Position Discrepancy Involving Fluid Resistance

Good evening, I have a question on the problem I've provided in the homework statement. Essentially, the problem is asking us to compare the maximum height and time to max-height between a simple projectile motion case vs. a case using fluid resistance proportional to v. I've solved everything...
10. ### Salpeter Initial mass function

I calculated the following in the attached file, I hope I did it correctly...
11. ### 1D collision, varying masses but same initial velocity

I know I need to look at the conversation of momentum, as well as the conservation of kinetic energy. However I get stuck with my equations. Any help would be greatly appreciated! I've already got (don't know where I am going wrong): (v)^2 + (1/2)(m)(v)^2 = (vf1)^2 + (1/2)(m)(vf2)^2 (3/2)v^2 =...
12. ### Initial velocity and angle when a ball is kicked over a 3m fence

Hello there, I don't understand what I'm doing wrong I don't get the correct answer, but have done the same analysis 3x already and still get the same... Some input would be appreciated thanks in advance. Note: y-axis is upwards and x-axis is to the right. 3 unkowns i.e. 3eqs. ##x = x_0 +...
13. ### Momentum - Impulse collision to find initial speeds and directions

Hi I've tried solving this question but it seems that I flipped the direction of the impulse, what did I interpret wrong? the question didn't give any clue on their direction before so I couldn't infer the direction of the impulse. It also just gave me the magnitude without the direction. I...
14. ### Why heat PDE solution does not fully satisfy initial conditions?

Hi, I am solving heat equation with internal heat sources both numerically and analytically. My graphs are nearly identical but! analytical one have problem at the beginning and at the end for my domain. Many people have used the same technique to solve it analytically and they got good answers...
15. ### Finding the maximum size of an Initial Value Problem coefficient

The following IVP diff(T(x), x) = v/200*(45 - T(x)) + 0.015*(22 - T(x)) where T(0)=39 Describes the tempetatur T in celcius at the time x of a tub filled with water. A tub which is filled with hot water at rate of v l/min. Lets say I am told that a guy takes a 40 min bath, and during those 40...
16. ### I When are the initial and final momentums the same (conserved)?

In a system with no external force like gravity, the final and initial momentums are conserved. If we have a firework that explodes radially (disregarding gravity), the momentum before the explosion should equal the momentum after explosion. But isn't the explosion caused by an external force?
17. ### I If we throw a ball with initial velocity v0, is there a force?

If we throw a ball with initial velocity v0, and the ball progresses in a projectile motion, ignoring air resistance, will there be a force in the x direction? If so, what is that force in the x direction's value mathematically? I know there is a force in the y direction due to gravity.
18. ### Chemistry Calculating initial concentration

(1)(25)=(x)(5) and x=5 (initial concentration of HOA) (x)(5)=(.200)(5) and x= 0.2 (initial concentration of BCG)
19. ### B Is the final velocity of a Tossed tomato the same as its initial velocity

When a tomato is thrown up with a velocity ##v_0## it’s kinetic energy is 1/2mv_0^2. It will stop at the top and then again comes back to the launch point where it’s kinetic energy will be same as before, 1/2mv_0^2. How is this possible? Also when we throw the tomato up how can you be so sure...
20. ### Kinematics - can't find the initial velocity according to the image

I tried to write the data I understood from the image: y0=160m yf=0 x0=0 x1=192m I tried to express the total change in time using the position over time equation on the Y direction: y(t)=y0+v0y*(t2-t1)-0.5a(t2-t1)^2 but then I stuck with 2 variables and didn't know what to do any help?
21. ### Finding kinetic energy and initial velocity of a cart over time

Here's my list of variables and things to account for: m=100kg Wnc=5000J Wfriction=-500J -Kinetic energy will be doubled (though I don't know how that plays into it exactly) -I don't think there's any PE because it's on level ground My idea of what the equation might be: Wnc +1/2mv^2initial =...
22. ### Max initial angle so that the projectile range keeps increasing

Can I get a hint on how to start with this problem ? Thanks in advance I can't really think of anything...
23. ### I Apparent Initial Acceleration due to Precession of Wheel Gyroscope?

The center of mass of a system is defined as a point that acts as if all the mass is concentrated on that one point whereby all forces may act on it. With a wheel gyroscope as an example where the center of mass is in the middle of the wheel when the wheel is spun and let go, the wheel undergoes...
24. ### I How to change CSpice initial velocity from an Asteroid SPK file?

Hello, I've made a SPK file for asteroid 7482 (1994 PC1) with Horizon. I wan't to change the initial velocity with cspice, because I want to know where it will be in a future time at the speed changed. (now I'm using Newtons calc but is slow an error increases with time). This is for calculating...
25. ### Mathematica Mathematica bug? (Solving PDEs when the initial conditions contain a derivative)

hello I own mathematica 10.02 it is virtually impossible to solve PDE's ,even with NDSolve,if the initial conditions contain a derivative I write Derivative[1,0] [0,x] == f[x] I mean the first t derivative of u[t,x] for x at t=0 is f[x] I own a book based on Mathematica 10.3 Even if a...
26. ### Help Me Solve This Khan Academy Question: Friction and Initial Velocity

Here's a picture of the question: This is a Khan Academy question and although I could just click on hint to find out what the answer is, I think it would be helpful to still ask this here before looking at the answer over there, so that I know what I did wrong. Thank you in advance to anyone...
27. ### Solving for Time Given Acceleration & Initial Velocity

assuming initial velocity is 0 and we have the value for acceleration I'm unsure how to still use any of those equations because you must have a time value at least or a final velocity
28. ### Solving a first order differential equation with initial conditions

Hello! Consider this ODE; $$x' = sin(t) (x+2)$$ with initial conditions x(0) = 1; Now I've solved it and according to wolfram alpha it is correct (I got the homogenous and the particular solution) $$x = c * e^{-cos(t)} -2$$ and now I wanted to plug in the initial conditions and this is...
29. ### Transfer function with initial conditions (DE)

I have a differential equation of the form y''(t)+y'(t)+y(t)+C = 0. I think this implies that there are non-zero initial conditions. Is it possible to write a transfer function for this system? This post...
30. ### Stick leaning on the wall, find the acceleration from the initial position

So the acceleration of point A was given by a force F exerted on cylinder that's along the direction of the stick, decomposed into the horizontal direction. so aA = F cos Θ The same force along the opposite direction is exerted on stick, and if we decompose that in vertical and horizontal...
31. ### Number of moles necessary to get piston back to initial position

a) ##T_A=\frac{p_AV_A}{nR}=300.7K, P_A V_A=kL^2=nRT_A##, ##P_B S=k\frac{L}{2}\Rightarrow P_B V_B=k(\frac{L}{2})^2 \Rightarrow P_B=\frac{kL^2}{2V_A}=\frac{P_AV_A}{2V_A}=\frac{P_A}{2}##, ##W_{spring\to gas}=\int_{L}^{L/2}kxdx=-\frac{3}{8}kL^2=-\frac{3}{8}nRT_A####\Rightarrow Q=L+\Delta...
32. ### B How to make this integral with initial conditions

Hello! The integral in equation (16), at the paper, is: ##I = r \int_{-\pi}^{\pi} e^{-2kr\phi} ~d\phi ## My integration is as the following : ## I = - \frac{1}{2 k} e^{-2kr\phi} ~|_{-\pi}^{\pi} + C ##, so ## I = - \frac{1}{2 k} ( e^{-2kr\pi} -e^{2kr\pi})+ C ## Now how to use the initial...
33. ### A Fidelity between initial and final states

I have a state |0>|alpha>. Now I want to evolve this state at any time t and find the fidelity between the initial and final states. Any ideas how to do that? My main problem is that I don't know how to evolve this state.
34. ### B Why Is Initial Velocity Not Always Zero?

There is something I don't understand. Isn't every object, if thrown, the initial velocity is zero? Please take a look at below example. Why the initial velocity in the below example is 98 ms^-1? Please explain. I also would like to ask what textbook contain a lot of basic physics example for...
35. ### MHB 1.2.1 propelled vertically upward with an initial velocity of 20 meters per second.

$\tiny{1.2.1}$ An object is propelled vertically upward with an initial velocity of 20 meters per second. The distance s (in meters) of the object from the ground after t seconds is $s=-4.9t^2+20t$ (a) When will the object be 15 meters above the ground? $15=-4.9t^2+20 \implies -4.9t^2 =-5$ ok...
36. ### A Initial state of the Universe?

[Moderator's note: Spin off from previous thread due to topic/level change.] Although the initial state of the universe is subject to much speculation, it seems to have started as all (or almost all) energy with particles being created out of photon-photon interactions.
37. ### A steel shuttle is pulled along a rail, what is its initial acceleration?

it sounds like you just need to use F/m = a which gives 25 / .76 = 32.89 = a this didn't work so I tried to get the x component of acceleration so I did 32.89cos(45) = 23.26 and this didn't work. what am I missing, the force is tension right so it should be 25N?
38. ### How to calculate initial pressure and temperature - adiabatic process

Im confused on working backwards so to speak to find adiabatic work. To find work for this adiabatic process, I either need to know the change in temperature OR the initial pressure (I think?). The issue is that I don't know either the initial temperature nor the initial pressure so I am not...
39. ### MHB -1.8.17 initial value then find C

$\tiny{1.8.17}$ \nmh{324] Use direct substitution to verify that y(t) is a solution of the given differential equation in . Then use the initial conditions to determine the constants C or $c_1$ and $c_1$ $y''+4y=0, \quad y(0)=1,\quad y'(0)=0,\quad y(t)=c_1\cos 2t+c_2\sin 2t$
40. ### Why Does Second Collision in Ballistic Pendulum Lead to Initial State?

I was thinking about ballistic pendulums and the symmetry they exhibit. In the simplest case, you have one ball that begins at a certain height and collides with another ball at rest. You can calculate via conservation of momentum and energy the new velocities and max vertical displacements...

42. ### Determine initial velocity of a vertical throw

Hi, I was given this problem saying that a ball is thrown vertically up in the air and returns to its initial position after 4 seconds. The acceleration due to gravity is given to be equal to 10m/s^2. I tried to attempt this problem by using the equation : v^2 - v0^2 = 2ah by considering...
43. ### B When Will Fermilab Release Its Initial Muon g-2 Measurement? [new update on August 10]

Fermilab's E989 experiment is conducting the first precision measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon (muon g-2) since the Brookhaven lab did so fifteen years ago. It is currently collecting Run-3 data for this experiment, and said that it would be releasing preliminary Run-1...
44. ### Runge-Kutta Projectile Approximation From Initial Conditions

Hi everyone. I'm a new member, great to be here:) I have a few questions that I wanted to ask you guys regarding the method by which we implement the Runge-Kutta approximation of Projectile Motion if we should do it using a numerical iterative method with a Spreadsheet like Excel. I have...
45. ### I Laws of physics from initial conditions?

Are there any models, theories or physicists who propose that the fundamental laws of nature come from the initial conditions? Are there any physicists who propose that the most fundamental laws of physics emerged from initial conditions at the origin of the universe? And according to this view...
46. ### Quickest Route Between Horizontal Points using the Initial Velocity & Friction

re: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/is-it-possible-to-solve-for-t.996132/post-6421205 https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/is-it-possible-to-solve-for-t.996132/post-6421230 Would it be possible to find t and r via the exact same equations as found in posts #4 and #10, and then find the...
47. ### Brachistochrone Problem w/ Initial Velocity

Hello, There is a physics problem called the Brachistochrone problem which I know has been solved for 0 initial velocity (assumes 0 friction and only gravity) and I know the answer is a cycloid. My question is: is there is an existing formula for finding the portion of a cycloid which is the...
48. ### I Quasilinear Equation but with non-zero initial condition?

The way I was taught to solve many quasi-linear PDEs was by harnessing the initial condition in the characteristic method at ##u(x,0) = f(x)##. What if however I need use alternative initial conditions such as ##u(x,y=c) = f(x)## for some constant ##c##? Can the solution be propagated the same way?
49. ### I Non-linear ODE: initial conditions

Say you have the set of coupled, non-linear ODEs as derived in this thread, it has two unknowns ##N(t)## and ##\theta(t)##: $$N - mg = - m\frac{L}{2}\left(\dot{\theta}^2\cos(\theta) + \ddot{\theta}\sin(\theta)\right)$$ $$\frac{L}{2}N\sin(\theta) = \frac{1}{12}ml^2\ddot{\theta}$$ What freedom...
50. ### COVID Question on initial viral load and disease progression of Covid-19

What is the rate of Covid-19 infection compared to the rate of immune response? Faster, slower? Consider two scenarios: Scenario 1: Small initial exposure to Covid-19. Person is briefly exposed to Covid. They perhaps touch infected surface and touch inside of their nose. Scenario 2...