Tensor product Definition and 15 Discussions

In mathematics, the tensor product



{\displaystyle V\otimes W}
of two vector spaces V and W (over the same field) is a vector space which can be thought of as the space of all tensors that can be built from vectors from its constituent spaces using an additional operation which can be considered as a generalization and abstraction of the outer product. Because of the connection with tensors, which are the elements of a tensor product, tensor products find uses in many areas of application including in physics and engineering, though the full theoretical mechanics of them described below may not be commonly cited there. For example, in general relativity, the gravitational field is described through the metric tensor, which is a field (in the sense of physics) of tensors, one at each point in the space-time manifold, and each of which lives in the tensor self-product of tangent spaces




{\displaystyle T_{x}M}
at its point of residence on the manifold (such a collection of tensor products attached to another space is called a tensor bundle).

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  1. D

    I Understanding tensor product and direct sum

    Hi, I'm struggling with understanding the idea of tensor product and direct sum beyond the very basics. I know that direct sum of 2 vectors basically stacks one on top of another - I don't understand more than this . For tensor product I know that for a product of 2 matrices A and B the tensor...
  2. Vanilla Gorilla

    B Array Representation Of A General Tensor Question

    So, I've been watching eigenchris's video series "Tensors for Beginners" on YouTube. I am currently on video 14. I, in the position of a complete beginner, am taking notes on it, and I just wanted to make sure I wasn't misinterpreting anything. At about 5:50, he states that "The array for Q is...
  3. Vanilla Gorilla

    B Transformation Rules For A General Tensor M

    So, I've been watching eigenchris's video series "Tensors for Beginners" on YouTube. I am currently on video 14. I am a complete beginner and just want some clarification on if I'm truly understanding the material. Basically, is everything below this correct? In summary of the derivation of the...
  4. K

    I Prove that dim(V⊗W)=(dim V)(dim W)

    This proof was in my book. Tensor product definition according to my book: $$V⊗W=\{f: V^*\times W^*\rightarrow k | \textrm {f is bilinear}\}$$ wher ##V^*## and ##W^*## are the dual spaces for V and W respectively. I don't understand the step where they say ##(e_i⊗f_j)(φ,ψ) = φ(e_i)ψ(f_j)##...
  5. K

    Show that a (1,2)-tensor is a linear function

    I know that a tensor can be seen as a linear function. I know that the tensor product of three spaces can be seen as a multilinear map satisfying distributivity by addition and associativity in multiplication by a scalar.
  6. V

    A Equivalence Relation to define the tensor product of Hilbert spaces

    I'm following this video on how to establish an equivalence relation to define the tensor product space of Hilbert spaces: ##\mathcal{H1} \otimes\mathcal{H2}={T}\big/{\sim}## The definition for the equivalence relation is given in the lecture vidoe as ##(\sum_{j=1}^{J}c_j\psi_j...
  7. hilbert2

    I Notation for vectors in tensor product space

    Suppose I have a system of two (possibly interacting) spins of 1/2. Then the state of each separate spin can be written as a ##\mathbb{C}^2## vector, and the spin operators are made from Pauli matrices, for instance the matrices ##\sigma_z \otimes \hat{1}## and ##\hat{1} \otimes \sigma_z##...
  8. George Keeling

    A Question about covariant derivatives

    I am reading I am reading Spacetime and Geometry : An Introduction to General Relativity -- by Sean M Carroll and have arrived at chapter 3 where he introduces the covariant derivative ##{\mathrm{\nabla }}_{\mu }##. He makes demands on this which are \begin{align} \mathrm{1.\...
  9. K

    A Definition of Tensor and.... Cotensor?

    Why are there (at least) two definitions of a tensor? For some people a tensor is a product of vectors and covectors, but for others it's a functional. While it's true that the two points of view are equivalent (there's an isomorphism) I find having to switch between them confusing, as a...
  10. Prez Cannady

    I Confused by this result for the tensor product of two vectors

    Given two probability distributions ##p \in R^{m}_{+}## and ##q \in R^{n}_{+}## (the "+" subscript simply indicates non-negative elements), this paper (page 4) writes down the tensor product as $$p \otimes q := \begin{pmatrix} p(1)q(1) \\ p(1)q(2) \\ \vdots \\ p(1)q(n) \\ \vdots \\...
  11. fresh_42

    Insights What Is a Tensor? - Comments

    fresh_42 submitted a new PF Insights post What Is a Tensor? Continue reading the Original PF Insights Post.
  12. L

    Partial traces of density operators in the tensor product

    Homework Statement Consider a system formed by particles (1) and (2) of same mass which do not interact among themselves and that are placed in a potential of infinite well type with width a. Let H(1) and H(2) be the individual hamiltonians and denote |\varphi_n(1)\rangle and...
  13. D

    A Difference Between Outer and Tensor

    Say, we have two Hilbert spaces ##U## and ##V## and their duals ##U^*, V^*##. Then, we say, ##u\otimes v~ \epsilon~ U\otimes V##, where ##'\otimes'## is defined as the tensor product of the two spaces, ##U\times V \rightarrow U\otimes V##. In Dirac's Bra-Ket notation, this is written as...
  14. V

    I (2,0) tensor is not a tensor product of two vectors?

    Hi. I'm trying to understand tensors and I've come across this problem: "Show that, in general, a (2, 0) tensor can't be written as a tensor product of two vectors". Well, prior to that sentence, I would have thought it could... Why not?
  15. G

    I Why the tensor product (historical question)?

    Hi. Why did the founding fathers of QM know that the Hilbert space of a composite system is the tensor product of the component Hilbert spaces and not a direct product, where no entanglement would emerge? I mean today we can verify entanglement experimentally, but this became technologically...