What is Tensor product: Definition and 137 Discussions
In mathematics, the tensor product
V
⊗
W
{\displaystyle V\otimes W}
of two vector spaces V and W (over the same field) is a vector space which can be thought of as the space of all tensors that can be built from vectors from its constituent spaces using an additional operation which can be considered as a generalization and abstraction of the outer product. Because of the connection with tensors, which are the elements of a tensor product, tensor products find uses in many areas of application including in physics and engineering, though the full theoretical mechanics of them described below may not be commonly cited there. For example, in general relativity, the gravitational field is described through the metric tensor, which is a field (in the sense of physics) of tensors, one at each point in the space-time manifold, and each of which lives in the tensor self-product of tangent spaces
T
x
M
{\displaystyle T_{x}M}
at its point of residence on the manifold (such a collection of tensor products attached to another space is called a tensor bundle).
Hi,
if I wanted to show ##(Z \otimes Y)^{\dagger} = Z \otimes Y##, then I could simply multiply out the matrices belonging to the operators of quantum gates ##Z## and ##Y##.
But my question is whether this is also solvable via the properties of the tensor product and the properties of the...
How to prove that the tensor product of two same-dimensional Hilbert spaces is also a Hilbert space?
I understand that I need to prove the Cauchy Completeness of the new Hilbert space. I am stuck in the middle.
Hi, I'm struggling with understanding the idea of tensor product and direct sum beyond the very basics. I know that direct sum of 2 vectors basically stacks one on top of another - I don't understand more than this . For tensor product I know that for a product of 2 matrices A and B the tensor...
So, I've been watching eigenchris's video series "Tensors for Beginners" on YouTube. I am currently on video 14. I, in the position of a complete beginner, am taking notes on it, and I just wanted to make sure I wasn't misinterpreting anything.
At about 5:50, he states that "The array for Q is...
So, I've been watching eigenchris's video series "Tensors for Beginners" on YouTube. I am currently on video 14. I am a complete beginner and just want some clarification on if I'm truly understanding the material.
Basically, is everything below this correct?
In summary of the derivation of the...
Hi Pfs
i have 2 matrix representations of SU(2) . each of them uses a up> and down basis (d> and u>
If i take their tensor product i will get 4*4 matrices with this basis:
d>d>,d>u>,u>d>,u>u>
these representation is the sum equal to the sum of the 0-representation , a singlet represertation with...
We mainly have to prove that this quantity## \bra{\varphi} A^{\otimes n } \ket{\varphi} \pm \bra{\varphi} B^{\otimes n } \ket{\varphi} ##
is greater or equal than zero for all ##\ket{\varphi}##.
Being ##\ket{\varphi}## a product state it is straightforward to demonstrate such inequality. I am...
Is tensor product the same as dyadic product of two vectors? And dyadic multiplication is just matrix multiplication? You have a column vector on the left and a row vector on the right and you just multiply them and that's it? We just create a matrix out of two vectors so we encode two...
> **Exercise.** Let T1and T2be tensors of type (r1 s1)and (r2 s2) respectively on a vector space V. Show that T1⊗
T2can be viewed as an (r1+r2 s1+s2)tensor, so that the
> tensor product of two tensors is again a tensor, justifying the
> nomenclature...
What I’m reading：《An introduction to...
I am confused. Why sometimes perturbation ##V'=\alpha xy## we can write as ##V'=\alpha x \otimes y##. I am confused because ##\otimes## is a tensor product and ##x## and ##y## are not matrices in coordinate representation. Can someone explain this?
Hello,
Throughout my undergrad I have gotten maybe too comfortable with using Dirac notation without much second thought, and I am feeling that now in grad school I am seeing some holes in my knowledge. The specific context where I am encountering this issue currently is in scattering theory...
This proof was in my book.
Tensor product definition according to my book: $$V⊗W=\{f: V^*\times W^*\rightarrow k | \textrm {f is bilinear}\}$$ wher ##V^*## and ##W^*## are the dual spaces for V and W respectively.
I don't understand the step where they say ##(e_i⊗f_j)(φ,ψ) = φ(e_i)ψ(f_j)##...
I know that a tensor can be seen as a linear function.
I know that the tensor product of three spaces can be seen as a multilinear map satisfying distributivity by addition and associativity in multiplication by a scalar.
Where do I start. I want to write the matrix form of a single or two qubit gate in the tensor product vector space of a many qubit system. Ill outline a simple example:
Both qubits, ##q_0## and ##q_1## start in the ground state, ##|0 \rangle =\begin{pmatrix}1 \\ 0 \end{pmatrix}##. Then we...
I'm following this video on how to establish an equivalence relation to define the tensor product space of Hilbert spaces:
##\mathcal{H1} \otimes\mathcal{H2}={T}\big/{\sim}##
The definition for the equivalence relation is given in the lecture vidoe as
##(\sum_{j=1}^{J}c_j\psi_j...
Suppose I have a system of two (possibly interacting) spins of 1/2. Then the state of each separate spin can be written as a ##\mathbb{C}^2## vector, and the spin operators are made from Pauli matrices, for instance the matrices
##\sigma_z \otimes \hat{1}## and ##\hat{1} \otimes \sigma_z##...
##U_1 \otimes U_2 = (1- i H_1 \ dt) \otimes (1- i H_2 \ dt)##
We can write ## | \phi_i(t) > \ = U_i(t) | \phi_i(0)>## where i can be 1 or 2 depending on the subsystem. The ## U ##'s are unitary time evolution operators.
Writing as tensor product we get
## |\phi_1 \phi_2> = (1- i H_1 \ dt) |...
Hi,
I'm currently working through a tensor product example for a two qubit system.
For the expression:
$$
\rho_A = \sum_{J=0}^{1}\langle J | \Psi \rangle \langle \Psi | J \rangle
$$
Which has been defined as from going to a global state to a local state.
Here
$$ |\Psi \rangle = |\Psi^+...
Does anyone know where I can find the definition of ##\nabla \otimes \nabla f##? I tried googling this but nothing comes up. I know it will change depending on the coordinate system, so does anyone know the general definition OR a table for rectangular, spherical, cylindrical coordinates...
I am reading I am reading Spacetime and Geometry : An Introduction to General Relativity -- by Sean M Carroll and have arrived at chapter 3 where he introduces the covariant derivative ##{\mathrm{\nabla }}_{\mu }##. He makes demands on this which are \begin{align}
\mathrm{1.\...
Why are there (at least) two definitions of a tensor? For some people a tensor is a product of vectors and covectors, but for others it's a functional. While it's true that the two points of view are equivalent (there's an isomorphism) I find having to switch between them confusing, as a...
Given two probability distributions ##p \in R^{m}_{+}## and ##q \in R^{n}_{+}## (the "+" subscript simply indicates non-negative elements), this paper (page 4) writes down the tensor product as
$$p \otimes q := \begin{pmatrix}
p(1)q(1) \\
p(1)q(2) \\
\vdots \\
p(1)q(n) \\
\vdots \\...
I am trying to figure how to get 1. from 2. and vice versa where the e's are bases for the vector space and θ's are bases for the dual vector space.
1. T = Tμνσρ(eμ ⊗ eν ⊗ θσ ⊗ θρ)
2. Tμνσρ = T(θμ,θν,eσ,eρ)
My attempt is as follows:
2. into 1. gives T = T(θμ,θν,eσ,eρ)(eμ ⊗ eν ⊗ θσ ⊗ θρ)...
Hello! Kunneth fromula states that for 3 manifolds such that ##M=M_1 \times M_2## we have ##H^r(M)=\oplus_{p+q=r}[H^p(M_1)\otimes H^q(M_2)]##. Can someone explain to me how does the tensor product acts here? I am a bit confused of the fact that we work with r-forms, which are by construction...
Homework Statement
Consider a system formed by particles (1) and (2) of same mass which do not interact among themselves and that are placed in a potential of infinite well type with width a. Let H(1) and H(2) be the individual hamiltonians and denote |\varphi_n(1)\rangle and...
Suppose a second rank tensor ##T_{ij}## is given. Can we always express it as the tensor product of two vectors, i.e., ##T_{ij}=A_{i}B_{j}## ? If so, then I have a few more questions:
1. Are those two vectors ##A_i## and ##B_j## unique?
2. How to find out ##A_i## and ##B_j##
3. As ##A_i## and...
Say, we have two Hilbert spaces ##U## and ##V## and their duals ##U^*, V^*##.
Then, we say, ##u\otimes v~ \epsilon~ U\otimes V##, where ##'\otimes'## is defined as the tensor product of the two spaces, ##U\times V \rightarrow U\otimes V##.
In Dirac's Bra-Ket notation, this is written as...
I am given a hamiltonian for a two electron system $$\hat H_2 = \hat H_1 \otimes \mathbb {I} + \mathbb {I} \otimes \hat H_1$$
and I already know ##\hat H_1## which is my single electron Hamiltonian. Now I am applying this to my two electron system. I know very little about the tensor product...
Hello,
I have encountered the concept of tensor product between two or more different vector spaces. I would like to get a more intuitive sense of what the final product is.
Say we have two vector spaces ##V_1## of dimension 2 and ##V_2## of dimension 3. Each vector space has a basis that we...
Hi. I'm trying to understand tensors and I've come across this problem:
"Show that, in general, a (2, 0) tensor can't be written as a tensor product of two vectors".
Well, prior to that sentence, I would have thought it could... Why not?
I do not know if this is the proper rubric to ask this question, but I picked the one that seemed the most relevant.
I have noticed some superficial resemblance between the tensor product and the ultraproduct definitions. Does this resemblance go any further?
While I am on the subject of...
Hi.
Why did the founding fathers of QM know that the Hilbert space of a composite system is the tensor product of the component Hilbert spaces and not a direct product, where no entanglement would emerge? I mean today we can verify entanglement experimentally, but this became technologically...
They are being 2 by 2 matrices and I being the identity. Physically they are Pauli matrices.
1. Is $$((A\otimes I\otimes I) + (I\otimes A\otimes I) + (I\otimes I\otimes A))\otimes B$$
= $$(A\otimes I\otimes I)\otimes B + (I\otimes A\otimes I)\otimes B + (I\otimes I\otimes A)\otimes B$$? I...
What is meant by taking the tensor product of vectors? Taking the tensor product of two tensors is straightforward, but I am currently reading a book where the author is talking about tensor product on tensors then in the next paragraph declares that tensors can then be constructed by taking...
If one has two single-particle Hilbert spaces ##\mathcal{H}_{1}## and ##\mathcal{H}_{2}##, such that their tensor product ##\mathcal{H}_{1}\otimes\mathcal{H}_{2}## yields a two-particle Hilbert space in which the state vectors are defined as $$\lvert\psi ,\phi\rangle...
A particle in a 1-D Hilbert space would have position basis states ## |x \rangle ## where ## \langle x' | x \rangle = \delta(x'-x) ## A 3-D Hilbert space for one particle might have a basis ## | x,y,z \rangle ## where ##\langle x', y', z' | x,y,z \rangle = \delta(x'-x) \delta (y-y') \delta(z-z')...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with another aspect of the proof of Theorem 10.2 regarding the basis of a tensor product ... ...Theorem 10.2 reads as...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with an aspect of Theorem 10.2 regarding the basis of a tensor product ... ...Theorem 10.2 reads as follows:
I do not...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with another aspect of the proof of Theorem 10.2 regarding the basis of a tensor product ... ... Theorem 10.2 reads as...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with an aspect of Theorem 10.2 regarding the basis of a tensor product ... ... Theorem 10.2 reads as follows:I do not...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with another aspect of the proof of Theorem 10.1 regarding the existence of a tensor product ... ...The relevant part of...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with another aspect of the proof of Theorem 10.1 regarding the existence of a tensor product ... ... The relevant part of...
I am reading Anthony W. Knapp's book: Basic Algebra in order to understand tensor products ... ...
I need some help with a further aspect of the proof of Theorem 6.10 in Section 6 of Chapter VI: Multilinear Algebra ...
The text of Theorem 6.10 reads as follows:
The above proof mentions Figure...
I am reading Anthony W. Knapp's book: Basic Algebra in order to understand tensor products ... ...
I need some help with an aspect of Theorem 6.10 in Section 6 of Chapter VI: Multilinear Algebra ...
The text of Theorem 6.10 reads as follows:
The above proof mentions Figure 6.1 which is...
I am reading Anthony W. Knapp's book: Basic Algebra in order to understand tensor products ... ...
I need some help with an aspect of Theorem 6.10 in Section 6 of Chapter VI: Multilinear Algebra ...
The text of Theorem 6.10 reads as follows:
About midway in the above text, just at the start...
I am reading Anthony W. Knapp's book: Basic Algebra in order to understand tensor products ... ...
I need some help with an aspect of Theorem 6.10 in Section 6 of Chapter VI: Multilinear Algebra ...
The text of Theorem 6.10 reads as follows:https://www.physicsforums.com/attachments/5391...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with the proof of Theorem 10.1 on the existence of a tensor product ... ...Theorem 10.1 reads as follows:
In the above text...
I am reading Bruce N. Coopersteins book: Advanced Linear Algebra (Second Edition) ... ...
I am focused on Section 10.1 Introduction to Tensor Products ... ...
I need help with the proof of Theorem 10.1 on the existence of a tensor product ... ... Theorem 10.1 reads as follows:In the above...