# What is Thermal expansion: Definition and 276 Discussions

Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change its shape, area, volume, and density in response to a change in temperature, usually not including phase transitions.Temperature is a monotonic function of the average molecular kinetic energy of a substance. When a substance is heated, molecules begin to vibrate and move more, usually creating more distance between themselves. Substances which contract with increasing temperature are unusual, and only occur within limited temperature ranges (see examples below). The relative expansion (also called strain) divided by the change in temperature is called the material's coefficient of linear thermal expansion and generally varies with temperature. As energy in particles increases, they start moving faster and faster weakening the intermolecular forces between them, therefore expanding the substance.

View More On Wikipedia.org
1. ### Can you explain this video? (An I-beam cut in half, springs apart, curved)

reddit link A gas cutting-torch was used to split an I-beam lengthwise. When the last inch was cut, the two halves flew apart, with a great energy release. The halves are then seen to be curved where they were straight. The workman was unsurprised but the cameraman was thankful for a warning...
2. ### JEE solution wrong? (tempco of a clock)

I have a problem with the method that they solved. This is what I mean ##\delta t= \frac{\pi L\alpha \delta T}{\sqrt{gL}}##. You can derive this equation by using errors and approximations here delta t is a tiny(not infinitesimal) change in time period, delta T is a tiny change in temperature...

4. ### Thermal expansion fatigue

Hello, assuming to keep an aluminum alloy motorcycle frame not in use, still, will the daily temperature variations cause thermal fatigue due to the continuous expansions and retractions or is the force developed by a few degrees of variations not sufficient to create microstructural dislocations?
5. ### Thermal expansion of square from temperature increase of 50K

For this problem, The solution is, I understand their logic for their equation, but when I was trying to solve this problem, I came up with a different expression: ##\Delta A = \Delta L_x\Delta L_y## ##\Delta L_x =\Delta L_y = \Delta L## since this is a square. ##\Delta A = \Delta L^2##...
6. ### B The collision of molecules during thermal expansion

Greetings everyone. I learned that the distance between molecules in liquid increases while the temperature increases. Hence, its density is decreased. The process is thermal expansion. At the same time, the collision between molecules would be more frequent when the temperature increases...
7. ### Thermal expansion of air bubbles in plastic

I am interested in the potential for air bubbles in a plastic structure to expand with heat, and put pressure on the plastic surrounding the air bubble. In this case the plastic structure is formed by melting a thermoplastic powder. In between the grains of powder are voids with air in them. As...
8. ### I Thermodynamic constant -- misunderstanding

I was reading about thermodynamics in my textbook wheni came across the following thermodynamics constants: However, i don't understand why did we define 1/V inthe constants. What is the point in doing this?
9. ### Question about these thermal expansion coefficient units (m/mK)

so I have never seen this unit before. 10^-6m/mK for the thermal expansion (linear expansion). I believe this unit is micrometers divided by mili kelvins?
10. ### I Thermal Expansion of A Square Shaped Object

Suppose a square shaped object has an initial length of L1 and final length (after thermal expansion) of L2. Initial temperature is T1 and final temperature is T2. Suppose it has an area of A. So initial area is A1 and final area is A2 (after thermal expansion). Here A1 = (L1)^2 and A2 = (L2)^2...
11. ### Thermal Expansion of a Triangular Frame

Suppose each side has initial length ##l##. The solution taught to me is as follows. Considering the lengths of the rods after expansion, we write $$\dfrac{3l^2}{4}\left(1+\mu\theta\right)^2+\dfrac{l^2}{4}\left(1+\alpha\theta\right)^2=l^2\left(1+\lambda\theta\right)^2$$ according to the...
12. ### Relationship of Modulus to thermal expansion

I'm trying to figure out how to relate expected thermal expansion of a uv cured polymer within a rigid cylinder to a modulus specification. The issue is the expected change in refractive index due to thermal expansion. The expansion coefficients are not available. Anybody have an idea. Do...
13. ### Tracking thermal expansion of an aluminium load cell

Hi all, I am having trouble getting repeatable results from a linear regression formula that simply uses temperature vs load cell output especially with rapidly increasing/decreasing temperatures. This appears to be a result of the thermal co-efficient of our temperature sensor being almost...
14. ### Engineering Thermal expansion coefficient calculation — where is my mistake?

Hello everyone, Once I got through the VDW state equation I came to the expression of the thermal expansion coefficient. When I place the values I get an illogical answer. Is there a problem with the units? (Please ignore the values) Thanks. This is the unit equation I get to and get stuck:

thanks!
16. ### A How are the thermal expansion of a solid and the stress tensor related?

My idea is this: tensor stress is directly related to the internal pressure of a solid. That is to the force that the neighboring atoms exert each other in relation to a unit of surface. When I heat a solid we can have the phenomenon of thermal expansion: this is connected to the fact that a...
17. ### What does the thermal expansion lab data reveal?

So guys I had physics lab where we used Steam Generator, Pasco interface and Capstone. In a nutshell there is graph attached below and formula, please write the solution with this formula.
18. ### Thermal expansion (surface area)

Hi all, For area expansion, I know the equation goes like: Hence, my answer to part i is ##\begin{aligned}A=A_{0}\left( 1+2\alpha \Delta T\right) \\ = 52\left( 1+2*24\times 10^{-6}\right) \left( 100\right) \\ =52.2496cm^{2}\end{aligned} ## Now I am unsure how to proceed with part 2 in this...
19. ### Linear Thermal Expansion with respect to time

ΔL= αLoΔT ΔL = (23*10^-6)(0.2480 m)(28.30°C) ΔL = 1.61 * 10^-4 Period is 1s, so each second the pendulum moves 1.61 * 10^-4 m 1.61 * 10^-4 m/s *(60s/1min)*(60min/1hr)*(24hr/1day) = 13.95 m/day T = s (1:1 ratio) 13.95 seconds. But the answer is actually 69.3 s. Is the equation T = 2π√L/g...
20. ### Thermal Expansion of a Liquid

##\Delta V = \beta V \Delta T####\rho _2 = \frac m {V + \Delta V} = \frac { \rho V} {V(1+\beta \Delta T)} = \frac \rho {1+\beta \Delta T}## ##\Delta \rho = \rho _2 - \rho = \frac \rho {1+\beta \Delta T} - \rho = \rho (\frac 1 {1+\beta \Delta T} - 1) = \rho \frac {-\beta \Delta T} {1+\beta \Delta...
21. ### Help with this formula for the Thermal Expansion of a pipe please

I do not understand how this formula is derived: Can somebody help me? Source: https://www.corzan.com/en-us/piping-systems/specification/thermal-expansion
22. ### Thermal Expansion in Liquids and Steel

This is a repost as I didn't read the community guidelines the first time. Hopefully this is better! First thing I did was write down both the linear and volume expansion formulas. I then multiplied my alpha by 3 and used the volume expansion equation for both materials. ∆V oil > ∆V pot, at the...
23. ### Thermal Expansion (liquid and solid) Question Help

Summary: Help with volume and length expansion question Hi, I am struggling with this question. I understand that beta = 3 alpha so you use this to sub into the volume expansion equation. Is this correct? Can someone please provide a step by step instruction on how to do this question? Thank you !

38. T

### Maxwell Relation, Gibbs Free Energy, Thermal expansion

By means of a Maxwell relation derived from the Gibbs free energy and making use of the third law of thermodynamics, prove that the thermal expansion coefficient β must be zero at T = 0. I tried but I got something funny. My working:
39. ### Can I use thermal expansion to hold together materials?

Okay, I will give a quick run down of what I am trying to do here. What I want to do is build a tesla turbine from old hard drive disks. Being that they're already rated for high RPM, it seems like a viable option. Now these disks are probably going to be aluminum and I am probably going to buy...
40. ### Thermal Expansion: Volume vs. Linear - 0.11L Spilled

Homework Statement A one-liter pot is completely filled with oil. Heat is applied to the pot&oil and the temperature rises from 15°C to 190°C. How much oil is spilled over? The linear coefficient of thermal expansion for oil is 0.68*10-3; the one for the pot is 2.4*10-5 Homework Equations...
41. ### Thermal expansion of each dimension of a solid

Hi, I am trying to work out how much each dimension of a solid (for instance an annular disc) made out of steel changes assuming that the solid is heated uniformly and is not constrained at any of its boundaries. Am I right in saying that, the linear expansion equation L = L_0 (1+ α ΔT) can be...
42. ### Thermal Expansion of A-36 Steel Rails: -20F to 90F

Homework Statement The 40 ft long A-36 steel rails on a train track are laid with a small gap between them to allow for thermal expansion. Determine the required gap in inches so that the rails just touch one another when the temperature is increased from -20 F to 90 F. The cross sectional...
43. ### Find the change in height of a bridge

Homework Statement A bridge with a steel framework is 500.000m long on a winter day at 5.0 C. For steel use 11.0x10^-6/ dC a) Find the length of the bridge on a summer day when the bridge temperature is 55.0 C. Keep 6 significant figures in this part and in part b). The bridge is built in the...
44. ### Relation between Young's modulus and the coefficient of thermal expansion

Is it true for all material that if young's modulus is high then melting point will be high and coeff of thermal expansion will be lower? Any example that doesn't follow the above statement. Many Thanks
45. ### Thermal expansion of liquid into gas void

I have a question about thermal expansion of liquid into a gas void. Imagine a closed upright cylinder filled mostly with water – say 99%, and the remaining 1% is gas. Now imagine that you heat the cylinder and its contents. The water will expand by ΔV owing to thermal expansion. The gas...
46. ### Thermal Expansion: Finding common temperature (Ring/Sphere)

Homework Statement Find the common temperature at which the inner diameter of the ring is 0.05% larger than the diameter of the sphere. Given: Lead sphere d = 5cm To = 70°C ∝ = 29x10-6/C° Steel ring d = 4.9975cm (the sphere is 0.05% larger than the inner diameter of the ring, hence this value)...
47. ### Thermal Expansion: Glass rectangle

Homework Statement A rectangular windshield is to be assembled by installing a glass plate on a 3 ft by 1 ft frame at 60°C. The glass plate is cut at 68°F in such a way that its length is three times its width. The linear expansivity of glass is 5 x 10-6 /C°. (a) What area of the glass plate at...
48. ### Finding thermal expansion problems for measurement technique

I am trying to find examples problems on thermal expasions related to the subject of measurement technique Google but I can't find them.. I don't know exactly what could be asked but the problem will be related to: "expansion of measurement device" is given, and "expansion of measured...
49. ### Thermal Expansion Problem Involving a Brass Ring

Homework Statement Homework Equations ΔL = LαΔT The Attempt at a Solution What I did was to set the diameter of the inside of the brass ring + the change in diameter of the brass ring equal to the diameter of the steel rod + change in the diameter of the steel rod. So, Lbrass + ΔLbrass =...
50. ### Thermal expansion of a pipe with wall temperature gradient

I have a pipe holding liquid at 80°C. The outside atmosphere is -2°C. The pipe gets a temperature gradient over the wall thickness. The outside fibers will thus restrain the inner fibers from expanding. I would like to know the increase in the inner dia of the pipe. I have found temperature...