What is Baseball: Definition and 264 Discussions

Baseball is a bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on the fielding team, called the pitcher, throws a ball which a player on the batting team tries to hit with a bat. The objective of the offensive team (batting team) is to hit the ball into the field of play, allowing its players to run the bases, having them advance counter-clockwise around four bases to score what are called "runs". The objective of the defensive team (fielding team) is to prevent batters from becoming runners, and to prevent runners' advance around the bases. A run is scored when a runner legally advances around the bases in order and touches home plate (the place where the player started as a batter). The team that scores the most runs by the end of the game is the winner.
The first objective of the batting team is to have a player reach first base safely. A player on the batting team who reaches first base without being called "out" can attempt to advance to subsequent bases as a runner, either immediately or during teammates' turns batting. The fielding team tries to prevent runs by getting batters or runners "out", which forces them out of the field of play. Both the pitcher and fielders have methods of getting the batting team's players out. The opposing teams switch back and forth between batting and fielding; the batting team's turn to bat is over once the fielding team records three outs. One turn batting for each team constitutes an inning. A game is usually composed of nine innings, and the team with the greater number of runs at the end of the game wins. If scores are tied at the end of nine innings, extra innings are usually played. Baseball has no game clock, although most games end in the ninth inning.
Baseball evolved from older bat-and-ball games already being played in England by the mid-18th century. This game was brought by immigrants to North America, where the modern version developed. By the late 19th century, baseball was widely recognized as the national sport of the United States. Baseball is popular in North America and parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and East Asia, particularly in Japan, South Korea and Taiwan.
In the United States and Canada, professional Major League Baseball (MLB) teams are divided into the National League (NL) and American League (AL), each with three divisions: East, West, and Central. The MLB champion is determined by playoffs that culminate in the World Series. The top level of play is similarly split in Japan between the Central and Pacific Leagues and in Cuba between the West League and East League. The World Baseball Classic, organized by the World Baseball Softball Confederation, is the major international competition of the sport and attracts the top national teams from around the world.

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  1. Username34

    Is it possible to break this baseball bat with the heel of the foot?

    The thai does it with the shinbone which is much harder material than that piece of wood. So I'm not chocked at all. Can you however break that thing which the much softer heel, covered in so much skin padding? Say with back kick (donkey/horse kick). No matter how much you crank up the speed...
  2. BillTre

    R.I.P. Brooks Robinson: Baseball's Greatest Third Baseman

    CNN story wikipedia Brooks Robinson, probably baseball's greatest third baseman, died at the age of 86. He played for the Baltimore Orioles ofr26 seasons. He won 16 consecutive Gold Glove awards and got 18 All-Star Game selections. When I was a kid I had a Brooks Robinson baseball glove. I...
  3. lavendersmell

    I [Questions] Modeling a Baseball Pitch Trajectory in 3D Space

    I am currently taking some time off of college (I am a sophomore), and I'm trying to continue coding and experimenting with Calculus-y math as I'll be going into Calculus II and then III when I go back. I am currently trying to develop a 3D baseball pitch visualizer for my own purposes. I am not...
  4. C

    Courses What should be my ESL syllabus for teaching physics for baseball?

    My student is very basic in physics in first grade of a Japanese junior high school and the physics is so basic such as they were teaching about forces and not yet gravity. He is pretty good at reading English and formulating a speech but the lessons are not very responsive. I worked on...
  5. jtbell

    Cleveland's baseball team changes its name

    Cleveland Indians changing name to Cleveland Guardians (cnn.com) Why the "Guardians"? You all saw them here a few years ago, on one of my road trips: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/rust-belt-road-trip.914311/#post-5767530 Scroll down to the fourth picture. Behind the statue, you can...
  6. G

    Baseball Dad -- setting the speed of a pitching machine

    Homework Statement:: I'm trying to figure out what miles per hour setting I need to use to simulate a pitched baseball traveling 50 miles per hour from a distance of 46 feet. I need to know the equivalent speed setting on a pitching machine to simulate the same speed at a distance of 36 feet...
  7. B

    University Physics: Force Problem (Baseball and Pitcher)

    I've gone about getting the arclength S = 1.103m The formula for average force is F = m * (Vf – Vi) / t I know the mass and the initial velocity, but I don't know where arclength comes into play. I'm assuming Vf and T is referring to the moment that the ball leaves the pitchers hand, but I...
  8. C

    Sweet Spot on a baseball bat

    Hitting a baseball in the sweet spot on a baseball bat gives the best rebound and does not twist the handle of the bat in the hitter's hand. How is this spot and its behavior described in Mechanics? A similar question: The bumper on a pool table is at a height so that the pool ball does not...
  9. H

    Question about the Kinetic Energy of a baseball in flight

    A baseball is thrown and lands 120 m away. While the ball is in flight, assuming the effect of air friction is negligible, which of the following is true? a. At maximum height the ball has its greatest kinetic energy. b. The horizontal component of the baseball’s kinetic energy is constant. c...
  10. M

    Drag on a Supersonic Baseball (from SmarterEveryDay)

    In a recent video from SmarterEveryDay, a baseball is launched from an air cannon faster than the speed of sound. I used the video with my 2nd year HS physics class, and we put the high speed segment of the moving ball into Tracker (video analysis and modeling tool). We found that the drag...
  11. T

    Throwing a baseball while standing on an Asteroid

    Summary:: Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, several thousand small objects called asteroids move in nearly circular orbits around the Sun. Consider an asteroid that is spherically shaped with radius r and density 2100 kg/m^3. a. You find yourself on the surface of this asteroid and throw...
  12. CrosisBH

    [Computational Physics] Modeling the path of a Baseball with drag

    import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import numpy as np #constants and conditions initial_velocity = 49.1744 #m/s, book has 110mph velocity_angle = 35 * np.pi / 180 #coverted to radians because numpy only likes radians gravity = 9.8 #m/s^2 dt=0.1 windspeed = 4.4704 #m/s book has 10mph #calculating...
  13. chuckspnz

    Deliberate riseball (dimple) from a baseball pitch

    Is it possible to pitch a ball as a fastball (e.g. like in baseball) and have the ball rise to a near vertical and then fall back down to the ground. The ball would obviously have an altered design/features to cause it to lift/rise, but just wondering whether that sounds like something that...
  14. A

    Angular momentum of a baseball

    k̂ direction = 0 kg*m^2/s ĵ direction = 0 kg*m^2/s î direction = (0.145kg) (20m/s) (6m) = 17.4 kg*m^2/s
  15. M

    Α baseball player throws the ball....

    Hi all ! I wonder if I'm right. (From : Fundamental University Physics, Volume 1 (Mechanics) - (Marcelo Alonso, Edward J.finn) Addison Wesley 1967) This is my try: * I have the Greek version of the book and there is no answer.Thanks.
  16. V

    Pitcher throwing a baseball

    Hello. I have just started studying physics. Can someone explain to me how can I type in formulas here using Tex for nicer formatting? I suppose the force is F = ma. Question is: what is a? The starting throw angle is not mentioned, I suppose this task has to be related to gravity. All I know...
  17. P

    The average force needed to throw a baseball 90mph?

    Homework Statement The average force needed to throw a baseball 90mph. I tried to find the force at 90mph on release and 90mph at the plate and got two wildly different answers and it seems off that they vary soo much. Homework Equations · Velocity- 90 mph or 40.23 m/s measured at...
  18. K

    Baseball in the air 2D motion question

    Homework Statement A baseball is hit into the air, nearly vertically, with a speed of 27 m/s. When it comes down, the ballplayer catches it in his glove. Air resistance (drag) is actually fairly important for a baseball in flight, but for now let’s assume it is negligible. (a) How high does...
  19. BillTre

    Stathead Proposed for Baseball Hall of Fame

    Tired of sports not being intellectual enough for your taste? Bill James, a early leader in the baseball analytics (think Moneyball) movement has been proposed as a candidate for the Baseball Hall of Fame, in this NY Times article. Coming from humble beginnings James had These changes have...
  20. M

    Kinematics: baseball toss with an angle provided

    Homework Statement An outfielder throws a baseball to his catcher in an attempt to throw out a runner at home plate. The ball bounces once before reaching the catcher. Assume the angle at which the bounced ball leaves the ground is the same as the angle at which the outfielder threw it as shown...
  21. Clara Chung

    Question about centre of percussion of a baseball bat

    Homework Statement Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution I don't know how to do the last part. How can there be no change in velocity of there is a change in angular velocity of the bat? Is the grip point acting as another axis?
  22. Apple

    A baseball is thrown from the outfield toward the home plate

    1. The problem statement, all variables, and given/known data A baseball is thrown from the outfield toward the home plate. a) Neglecting air resistance, is the momentum of the ball conserved during its flight? explain b) Neglecting the air resistance, is the momentum of the earth-ball system...
  23. grandpa2390

    MatLab Code for Baseball Not Working

    Homework Statement I am trying to create this plot in MatLab I'm starting out doing the simplest one, no drag, no wind. simple kinematics, right? but I can not get my code to run. Homework Equations Kinematic Equations The Attempt at a Solution close all clear all clc %%defining variables...
  24. S

    Ball hitting baseball bat (with no impulse)

    Homework Statement Given the setup above, what distance x should the ball be away so that there is no impulse reaction at A? Homework Equations Conservation of Linear and Angular momentum. The Attempt at a Solution Conservation of linear momentum (←+) (considering the bat alone) M(vg1) + ∑...
  25. J

    Effect of Player Size in Distance Hitting Baseball

    An argument arose in our office today concerning the effect that player size has on the distance that a batted ball travels before hitting the ground. Assuming all factors being equal (humidity, altitude, launch angle, ratio of player muscle/fat/bone/etc, player coordination, etc.), my...
  26. C

    Projectile motion with baseball

    Homework Statement You throw a baseball at a 45 degree angle to the horizontal, aiming at a friend who's sitting in a tree a distance h above level ground At the instant you throw your ball, your friend drops another ball. (a) Show that the two balls will collide, no matter what your ball's...
  27. Jesse_1

    Orbital velocity of a baseball

    Homework Statement If you stand on the surface of a spherical asteroid of mass 1.12*10^17 kg and radius 20km, how fast must you throw a baseball to put it into orbit at 1.0 m above the surface? Homework Equations PE=KE GMm/r^2 = 1/2mv^2 G = 6,67*10^-11 The Attempt at a Solution I rearranged...
  28. M

    MHB Number of Baseball Cards

    On a Saturday, a minor league baseball team gave away baseball cards to each person entering the stadium. One group received 28 baseball cards. A second group received 68 baseball cards. If each person entering the stadium received the same number of cards. What was the greatest possible number...
  29. I

    Constant acceleration of baseball problem

    Homework Statement "The fastest measured pitched baseball left the pitcher's hand at the speed of 45 m/s. If the pitcher was in contact with the ball over a distance of 1.50m and produced constant acceleration, (a) what acceleration did he give the ball, and (b) how much time did it take him to...
  30. CricK0es

    Center of percussion of a baseball bat

    Homework Statement A baseball rests on a frictionless, horizontal surface. The bat has a length of 0.900m, a mas of 0.800kg, and its center of mass is 0.600m from the handle end of the bat (see figure below). The moment of inertia of the bat about its center of mass is 0.0530 kg.m^2. The bat is...
  31. Buzz Bloom

    Question about science being applied to a baseball check-swing

    I have noticed that baseball players trying to check a swing fail to do so a significant fraction of the time. It has occurred to me that there might be a better technique than just using the muscles that control the wrist to try to stop the angular momentum of the a swing. I would much...
  32. W

    A Classification/Valuation Problem: Baseball

    Hi All, I am doing a small data project that consists of classifying Baseball players as being either overvalued or undervalued. I have two valuations V1, V2 for each of the players, though in different "currencies" and I am trying to see how to express both in the same currency. I have been...
  33. jtbell

    News Baseball: The most unlikely World Series ever?

    The Chicago Cubs have just won the National League championship, and will play in the World Series for the first time since 1945. They last won the Series in 1908. http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/22/us/chicago-cubs-world-series-bid/index.html Normally, I would be delighted to cheer them on, but...
  34. V

    Baseball Player hits Ball

    Homework Statement A baseball player throws a ball straight up and then catches ot 2.4 s later at the same heiggt from which he threw it. Determine the initial velocity and maximum height of ball? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a Solution Im confused about how to find inital velocity. I know...
  35. S

    Center of percussion - baseball bat theorem

    look figure (b) suppose that baseball deliver F through horizontal motion. imagine that the O point of the system is same line of F (+x is F direction) then before percussion, the angular momentum of the system is "0" because r and v of baseball are same direction (L = r x mv = 0) so after...
  36. Zack K

    Finding time for a particular position of vertically thrown baseball

    Homework Statement A baseball pitcher makes a big mistake and throws the ball straight up. If it reaches a maximum height of 15 m. Find the times when the ball was 8.0 m above the ground. I already solved the variables needed Vi= 17 m/s Time the ball spent in the air= 3.5 s average velocity=...
  37. S

    Build a Baseball Batting Cage: Weight Requirements for Posts

    Hi all, Not sure if I'm in the right section, but here is my problem: I would like to build a batting cage that is easy to take apart. I would use 4 * 10 foot steel post of 1 inch diameter. The netting weight about 50 lb and would be held with cables . The posts form a rectangle of 12 feets...
  38. manuel60

    Rotational Motion of a baseball

    Homework Statement A major-League pitcher throws a baseball towards home plate. the ball rotates at 1560 rpms,and it travels 18.5 meters to the plate at an average translational speed of 40.2m/s.how many revolutions does the ball make during this trip? Homework EquationsThe Attempt at a...
  39. T

    Calculate speed without distance

    During the world series a ball is hit straight up from the batter's box and reaches a height of 295 ft. Neglecting air friction, what speed (mph) will the baseball attain if it is caught by the catcher at the same height it was hit?
  40. V

    Average force exerted on a baseball

    1. Question A 0.145kg baseball moving horizontally at 35.0m/s strikes a bat and is popped straight up to a height of 55.6m before turning around. If the contact time is 0.50ms, calculate the average force on the ball during the contact. Homework Equations p=mv Δp=mΔv=fΔt Ek=0.5mv^2 (?) Ep=mgh...
  41. J

    Quadratic drag — a baseball is thrown upwards

    Homework Statement [/B] A baseball of mass m is thrown straight up with an initial velocity v0. Assuming that the air drag on the ball varies quadratically with speed (f = cv^2), show that the speed varies with height according to the equations. Where x_{0} is the highest point and k = c/m...
  42. J

    Does a Buckyball spin like an electron or like a baseball?

    Does a Buckyball spin like an electron or like a baseball? We are often told that an electron does not really spin like a baseball. Only one (or two, if you count up and down) spin states, for example. How about a Buckyball? Does it spin more like an electron, or more like a baseball? Where...
  43. A

    Baseball Research Paper

    Hello everyone, It's my first time posting, so I hope everyone is doing well. I am looking for some help for a high school research paper/lab I'm currently working on. Basically, I am investigating how the varying air pressures of different baseball parks have an effect on the distance traveled...
  44. K

    Making Momentum Chart and Finding Force for Baseball and Bat

    < Mentor Note -- thread moved to HH from the technical physics forums, so no HH Template is shown > A 1 kg bat hits a 150 g baseball traveling at 40 m/s opposite to the bat’s direction. This collision lasts 1/1000 of a second. Immediately after it is hit the baseball has a velocity of 50 m/s...
  45. kostoglotov

    Impulse problem: how can these two angles be different?

    Homework Statement A baseball weighing 140g is traveling to the right at 35 m/s, makes contact with a baseball bat, and then leaves the bat at 55 m/s to the left at an angle 25 degrees from the horizontal. I got the right answer, I how how the solution works mathematically. The answer is...
  46. J-dizzal

    Projectile Motion baseball Problem

    Homework Statement In the figure, a baseball is hit at a height h = 1.30 m and then caught at the same height. It travels alongside a wall, moving up past the top of the wall 1.1 s after it is hit and then down past the top of the wall 3.9 s later, at distance D = 42 m farther along the wall...
  47. M

    How to solve the Momentum of a baseball?

    Question is: A .145kg baseball is thrown at 40 m/s (~89.5mph). What is the momentum of the baseball? Enter units of momentum as kg m/s I have used the following solutions for the question, but the answer I'm submitting is coming back wrong. I have entered: 116 J 5.8 kgm/s The formula I used...
  48. Glenboro

    Baseball Kinetic energy

    Homework Statement After being hit, a 0.145 kg baseball has a speed of 45.6 m/s. 1. What is the kinetic energy of the baseball after it has been hit? 2. How much work is done on the baseball by the baseball bat? 3. In moving through the air, the baseball slows down to a speed of 30.0 m/s...
  49. B

    Calculating baseball pitch speed

    My brothers and I want to calculate our pitch speed. We have a simplified formula: M = (D/T) x (3,600/5,280). This will obviously have a large margin of error, but we'll try our best to accommodate. I need to know how to calculate air resistance into the equation. Thanks!
  50. M

    Physics of Glove side movements in Baseball Pitching

    I had a question that I think relates to conservation of angular momentum. What are the physics behind a pitcher using his glove side in these gifs? Could it help accelerate his arm by pulling his glove side shoulder/arm in (or out of the rotational plane)? I guess also need to take into...