# Electromagetism Definition and 261 Discussions

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1. ### Schools What are some good science fair project ideas or resources?

I am currently a sophomore in HS, and I have a science fair project next year. I want to do something interesting- I don't want to put in barely any effort and do something that everyone has done, like 'growing plants in different light levels'. I would ideally like to do something with...
2. ### A Does a linearly accelerated observer inside an inertial spherical charged shell detect an electric field?

The electric field inside a charged spherical shell moving inertially is, per Gauss's law, zero. If the spherical shell is accelerated, the field inside is not zero anymore, but it gains a non-null component along the direction of the acceleration, as mentioned, for example, in this paper. The...
3. ### Chapter 2 Griffiths EM Problem: E-Field from a charged ring

Hi. I have solved the problem below as shown in the attached image. However I'm at a loss to figure out where I am making a mistake, and I know it is indeed a big goof up. Requesting guidance over identification and rectification of this big goof up. (Edit- I can solve this problem in the...
4. ### Self Formulated Question on Bound Charges & Polarisation on a Geometric Shape

This was a trivial question I had (which I posted here on the PF EM Forum: https://www.physicsforums.com/threads/bound-charges-polarisation-of-a-half-cone.1015308/). As I received no response on the above link I decided to post the same as a self formulated HW problem. Below I have attached an...
5. ### I EM equations - am I missing something?

Summary:: There seems to be a mismatch, in the "Maxwell's" equations, between the number of equations and number of variables. I was trying to play around with the equations for Electromagnetism and noticed something unusual. When expanded, there are 8 equations, 6 unknown variables, and 4...
6. ### I Measurement of charge in motion

In Purcell's E&M Section5.3 "Measurement of charge in motion", he said when a charge is in motion, the force on test charges may not be in the direction of radius vector r. And in next paragraph, he defined Q by averaging over all directions. However, he just measured the radial component of...
7. ### I Something about retarded potentials for oscillating electric dipole

In a problem of an oscillating electric dipole, under appropriate conditions, one can find, for the potential vector calculated at the point ##\vec{r}##, the expression ##\vec{A}=\hat{k}\frac{\mu_0I_0d}{4\pi}\frac{cos(\omega(t-r/c))}{r}## where: ##\hat{k}## is the direction of the ##z-axis##...
8. ### B Magnetic pendulum and electric energy....

While reading about electromagnetism from the OpenStax books with my son (and doing some experiments), he asked this question. Suppose I hang a pendulum and make it oscillate inside a coil connected to a Galvanometer as shown in the schematic diagram: Hopefully the image is clear enough. His...
9. ### Where I can find similar examples to this kind of question? "given the electric field. E = (-3 / x*e0)i, find the charge density."

I'm preparing for exam but it seems I can't find problems similar to this on the internet. Here I will apply Gauss's law on the electric field vector to get the charge density. but the problem is that I can't find similar examples on the internet that uses direct vectors on Maxwell's equations...
10. ### I Electrical disturbances

The electromagnetic field can carry waves, some of them are light, others are used in radio broadcast. These oscillatory waves are distinguished by their frequency. The usual pickup that we get from electric currents in the circuits in the walls of the building has a frequency of about 100...
11. ### Force on a charge centered around a rotating magnet

Charge will experience a rotating magnetic field around it. What will be electric field ( If any ) at the centre, generated by rotation of magnet ?
12. ### Proving modified Maxwell action is gauge invariant

I want to show that the action staying the same action after taking ##A^\mu \to A^\mu + \partial ^\mu \chi##, for the first term I suceeded in showing the invariance using the fact ##[\partial ^ \mu , \partial ^\nu]=0## but for the second term I'm getting: ##\epsilon^{\alpha\mu\nu}A_\alpha...
13. ### B Are silicon iron sheets really necessary for a commercial transformer?

Hi, everyone. I just finished studying the principle on which a transformer works. It relies on Faraday's law of induction. And my high school physics book uses the following picture for illustration: Roughly speaking, the...
14. ### Electric field acting on the source charge

I am reading Griffith's textbook on EM. There is a problem asking to find the force acting on the northern hemisphere by the southern hemisphere of a uniformly charged sphere. The solution idea is to find the expression of the E field by Gauss's law and integrate the force over the northern...
15. ### Electromagnetism - movement of a coil in a magnetic field

So my idea was that to reach the equilibrium position, the final moment of force has to be 0 (so in the end the forces will “eliminate” each other). And I found the equation Fm=B*I*l*sinα, which should characterize the force, which affects wire with the current in a magnetic field, and Fleming’s...
16. ### Find maximum current in a coil using oscilloscopes and Faraday's Law?

The experiment consists of a large field coil (connected to a current source) surrounding a coplanar and coaxial small detector coil in the center of the field coil connected to the oscilloscope. 1. Matching Current v. Time Graphs to Oscilloscope Graphs Example of one pair of graphs (I'll...

35. ### Antisymmetry of the electromagnetic field tensor

I am trying to answer exercise 5 but I am not sure I understand what the hint is implying, differentiate with respect to ##p_\alpha## and ##p_\beta##, I have done this but nothing is clicking. Also, what is the relevance of the hint "the constraint ##p^\alpha p_\alpha = m^2c^2## can be ignored...
36. ### The difficulty of learning Electromagnetism vs Classical Mechanics

There was an old thread comparing the difficulty of classical mechanics and electromagnetism. The consensus was that electromagnetism is more difficult, and substantially so according to some. The thread was no longer open for replies, but it got me suspecting that we're comparing apples to...
37. ### I Electric Field Directly Ahead of or Behind a Moving Charge

Since it is stated that ##E'_x = E_x##, I am going to set a special case where ##z' = z = 0##, ##E_x## in (5.10) reduces to, ##E_x = \frac{1}{4 \pi \epsilon_0}\frac{Q}{x^2}## However, ##E'_x## in (5.13) reduces to, ##E'_x = \frac{1}{4 \pi \epsilon_0}\frac{Q}{\gamma^2 x'^2}## There is an...
38. ### Vector potential of current flowing to a point from all directions

I am having problem with part (b) finding the vector potential. More specifically when writing out the volume integral, $$A = \frac{\mu_0}{4\pi r}\frac{dq}{dt}\int_{0}^{2\pi}\int_{0}^{\pi}\int_{0}^{?}\frac{1}{4\pi r'^2} r'^2sin\theta dr'd\theta d\phi$$ How do I integrate ##r'##? The solution...
39. ### Electromagnetism EMF induction calculations

A square conducting loop of side length a is in a non-uniform magnetic field. The loop occupies the first quadrant of the xy plane, i.e. the space between the origin (x, y) = (0,0) and the point (x,y) = (a, a). The magnetic field is in the +z direction. Develop an expression for the magnitude of...
40. ### Wick contraction in scalar QED

While writing out the Dyson series due to the time ordering above I encountered the two expressions $$T(\mathcal{L}_{int}(x))\quad \text{and}\quad T(\mathcal{L}_{int}(x)\mathcal{L}_{int}(y))$$ I was able to write out the first term in terms of contractions using Wick's theorem and then finally...
41. ### Rayleigh limit in inverse scattering imaging

I was reading that in inverse scattering approach, we divide the region of interest into discrete grids and size of each grid should be much smaller than the incident wavelength (usually smaller than one-tenth of wavelength). By this logic, theoretically, I can use inverse electromagnetic...
42. ### I Visualization of fields in waveguides

Can someone provide me intuitive visualization of how E or H field can be longitudinal in a waveguide (TM/TE)? TEM is easy to visualize, but how EM wave can behave like sound in a waveguide (constant phase and amplitude plane in the same direction)? [Moderator: large bold font removed. In the...

45. ### A Aharonov - Bohm effect exercise

Does anyone know the answers to this, or can hopefully guide me to a text that will help me solve this aharonov-bohm problem? Here is the given: Particles (of mass m, and charge q), are driven through two slits that have distance d between them, in a screen that is far away (L>>d) from the...

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47. ### How to transmit a signal (530 - 550 Khz) to a point

Hi everyone, I'm pretty new to electromagnetism and have no experiences in this topic. I have a signal generator (Digital Dual Channel Funktion Signal Generator) and want to generate two signals (530 and 550 Khz signal) and want to transmit these generated signals to the points on a table...
48. ### What will the phasor diagram of this LCR circuit looks like?

I know the current of capacitor and inductor must be parallel but pointing in opposite direction due to the fact they are connected in parallel thus having same voltage (please see attached screenshots). The current of resistor will simply be the sum of these two vectors, but what about its...
49. ### I Consistent Treatment of Forces

Under Newton, gravity is what I term an "invisible magic rope" that pulls you down. Enter Einstein. We do away with the invisible magic rope, and say that space (or space-time) is warped by mass. However, we still have other forces, that (as far as I know, anyway) are "invisible magic ropes."...
50. ### Why am I getting Maxwell's second equation wrong?

While going through an article titled "Reflections in Maxwell's treatise" a misunderstanding popped out at page 227 and 228. Consider the following equations ##(23\ a)## and ##(23\ c)## in the article (avoiding the surface integral): ##\displaystyle \psi_m (\mathbf{r})=-\dfrac{1}{4 \pi} \int_V...