What is Film: Definition and 345 Discussions

A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images. These images are generally accompanied by sound, and more rarely, other sensory stimulations. The word "cinema", short for cinematography, is often used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, and to the art form that is the result of it.
The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.
Traditionally, films were recorded onto celluloid film stock through a photochemical process and then shown through a movie projector onto a large screen. Contemporary films are often fully digital through the entire process of production, distribution, and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack (a graphic recording of the spoken words, music and other sounds that accompany the images which runs along a portion of the film exclusively reserved for it, and is not projected).
Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. They reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, and a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens. The visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages.
The individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears. The perception of motion is partly due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon.
The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture, photoplay, and flick. The most common term in the United States is movie, while in Europe film is preferred. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, and cinema; the last of these is commonly used, as an overarching term, in scholarly texts and critical essays. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. 'Film' in general is not a good term to refer to a long standard commercial video production since it’s ambiguous in general and therefore requires context for correct interpretation.

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  1. BillTre

    Art O Brother, Where Art Thou? film analysis

    O Brother, Where Art Thou is one of my favorite movies. I always knew it was loosely based on the Odessey because it says so at the beginning, but the guy in this reaction video makes way more connections between the two then I would have ever thought of. I was amazed. Some comments on...
  2. S

    Has anyone on PF seen the film "Oppenheimer"?

    Hi everyone! As I'm sure many of you here on PF know, the latest Christopher Nolan film, "Oppenheimer" -- about the life of physicist J. Robert Oppenheimer, focusing on his role on the Manhattan Project, and based on the Pulitzer Prize-winning book "American Prometheus" by Kai Bird and Martin J...
  3. DaveC426913

    Music Identify this old film sampling in this song

    I really like this song by Hudson and Troop called Against the Grain, but it's driving me crazy. Here it is on Spotify. It seems to sample what sounds a whole lot to me like a Sci-fi Disney show from the 70s - you know, like The Computer Wore Tennis Shoes kind of thing. But try as I might, I...
  4. C

    Engineering Thin Film Interfaces Textbook Needed

    Summary: TL;DNR Looking for a recently published comprehensive textbook on thin film interfaces I am in the market for a comprehensive textbook on thin film interfaces that is available for a cheap price. I found Interfaces in Crystalline Materials by A.P. Sutton and R.W. Balluffi but the most...
  5. Andy1011

    Nonreflective Film: Solving the Ref. Index Problem

    I thought of sandwiching the coating between lens sufaces and then applied the condition of minimum which gave a thickness of lambda/2*ref. Index and I got totally stuck at the ref. Index.
  6. L

    A problem involving thin film interference

    I know that every time that light goes from traveling through a medium with lower refractive index to one with a higher refractive index the reflected light undergoes a ##\frac{\lambda}{2}## phase change. Since this happens both at the air-plate and plate-glass interfaces we have that the phase...
  7. Isopod

    What are the Best Animated Videos on YouTube?

    I really like watching peoples animation and movie short videos on Youtube, so I thought I'd create a thread here where people can share animated videos that they've seen recently which they thought were good. Here's a 1st one: "Happiness"
  8. E

    Which is your favourite Star Wars film? [3 votes]

    Bit of fun. Vote for your top three!
  9. Citronnier

    Film Advance system research for DIY Camera

    Dear All, I'm a french professional photographer working on Still Life and Architecture. As a long time and personnal project I'm working on a 3D printed/Laser cut analog camera that will shoot 6x4.5 frames. In the end it will be some kind of rangefinder with integrated electronic light...
  10. S

    Formula for maximum interference for reflected light (thin - film)

    The light comes from glass to boundary of glass and soap film, then there will be light which is reflected and transmitted. The reflected light has no phase shift and the transmitted light will hit the boundary of soap film and vacuum and the reflected light from this boundary will also has no...
  11. E

    New Star Wars film "announced"....

    https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-52535428 Pretty exciting news, I thought Taika's episode of the Mandalorian was the best of the bunch and the other films of his that I've seen (Thor Ragnarok/Jojo Rabbit) are pretty solid. Any ideas as to when it might be set? There was talk of...
  12. BillTre

    Art Artemis Fowl film about to stream

    Artemis Fowl may not be familiar to many, but I like because I read these with my kids when they were young. Artemis Fowl is a kid genius in a criminal family, becomes aware of the well hidden work of faeries and leprechauns and wants to take it over for criminal purposes. It has similarities to...
  13. S

    Calculate the Pressure that Shrink film exerts on a cylinder

    First off I am not sure if the equation is even suitable for solving this problem. Secondly, I have no idea how to determine the tension the shrink film can provide. Furthermore, I also think the radius of the film tube has a influence on the pressure, I guess in this problem the tube is...
  14. Asmaa Mohammad

    I Scatter radiation and film fogging

    Hello, During the procedure of radiography using x-rays, scatter radiation occurs, due to the difference in densities of the object being radiographed. That scatter radiation causes fogging (noise) of the film, i.e. the contrast of the film is reduced due to extra darkening of some areas of...
  15. E

    Battery to support Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystal (PDLC) Film

    We are incorporating a PDLC layer into a product being developed by us and it requires almost constant activation to remain transparent. The PDLC draws 0.557 Watts of power per hour at 60VAC. The goal is to get a battery/power source (of any type even proprietary) to last the upwards of 26,000...
  16. B

    Does stacking mylar dielectric film reduce it's breakdown voltage?

    According to the attached image, the dielectric strength of Mylar film decreases with increasing film thickness. My question is if this trend is also present for when films are stacked or if the film can be stacked arbitrarily high with the same breakdown voltage as a single layer.
  17. Addez123

    Find Wavelength of Light Wave for Optimal Constructive Interference

    The green ray is moved upwards for clarity, they are all on same x-axis with no y component. Theres a phaseshift at both reflections of the green light because n1 and n3 are > n2. This results in a complete wavelength phaseshift, aka no impact on the wave. That means that only the extra travel...
  18. M

    Calculating Shear Force between a Moving Film and a Cylinder

    If I have a catheter covered in a thin sheathe (think a cylinder, covered by a thin plastic film), how should I go about calculating the shear force it takes to unsheathe the catheter from the sheath (no torque here, just the catheter moving in and out)? I've thought about strain gauges (but...
  19. J

    Cleaning Zn sprayed on PP film

    Motor run capacitors (air conditioning)?How to clean Zn sprayed on PP film? Try to clean mechanically and cut(trim). Do you have any idea? Can’t use any oil and forbidden to damage surface. You can see cutted barrier(between 2 windings) on images. Image M10 is sprayed(not cutted sample)...
  20. D

    How Does Thin Film Interference Affect Light Reflection?

    Homework Statement: Light with wave length 648 nm in air is incident perpendicularly from air on a film 8.76 micrometers think and with refractive index 1.35. par of the light is reflected from the first surface of the film, and part enters the film and is reflected back at the second surface...
  21. O

    I Can I detect electrons using X-ray film?

    I'm conducting a research about making a electron gun. I first tried to detect electron using nuclear emulsion plate. But I couldn't purchase one near my town. So, instead, I'm thinking about using a x-ray film to detect electron. But I'm not sure it'll work. SO, IS IT POSSIBLE TO DETECT...
  22. S

    Is there plastic film on this phone or not?

    I got this phone and it came with this film mask thing that i think your supposed to apply to the screen, then peel it off, which is supposed to removed some film (?) But the phone already has a little tab on top of the covering that's already attached (it says A5L so you know what I am...
  23. C

    How to know what m value to plug into thin film interference equations

    How do I work out what m value (0, 1/2, 1 etc) to put in the thin film interference equations like 2nt = (m + 1/2)*lambda? Does it depend if it's constructive or destructive? Could someone help explain, thanks!
  24. F

    The maximum intensity for light transmitted through a thin film

    Homework Statement A thin (460 nm) film of kerosene (n=1,20) is spread out on water (n = 1,30). Light hits the (horizontal) surface of the film coming (almost) perpendicularly from above. A diver underwater, below the film. a) Find out the visible wavelength reflected into air that has the...
  25. E

    Interference from a thin film

    Hello, I have a question about interference. I have interference from thin film, i.e. fringes of equal inclination. How I can calculate the radius of sample curvature from the interference pattern? How I can to determine the maximum radius of curvature of the surface at which interference will...
  26. M

    PDLC film on low voltage (3-6V)?

    Hello community, I am working on a device project that requires a stripe of roughly 6cm*2cm to hide something beneath programmatically. A PDLC film could do the job, but I need to find a way to power with a series of coin cells battery, something between 3 and 6V. All the PDLC films I found are...
  27. M

    Material Science & Advanced Thin Film Technologies: Postgraduate Research

    Is it advisable to have a Material Science background if I would like to pursue a postgraduate research studies in advanced thin film technologies?
  28. F

    What is the equation for constructive interference in thin film interference?

    Homework Statement Between two pieces of glass (##n_1=1.70##), there is a thin film of water (##n_2=1.33## and width ##d=1 \mu m##). If there is normal-incidence of white light on the water surface, find: (a) which wavelenghts can be seen in the light transmitted (answer: 667 nm,533 nm,444 nm...
  29. Raihan amin

    The shape of the surface of a soap film

    1. Two coaxial rings of radius R=10 cm are placed to a distance L from each other.There is a soap film connecting the two rings(that looks like a cylinder which have different radii with z coordinate. (The rings lie in xy plane)).Derive a differential equation describing the shape r(z) of the...
  30. R

    Thin film interference problem

    Homework Statement You are working with the mineral fluorite (CaF2, n=1.43) and have a sample that is coated with a layer of liquid 158 nm thick. For various wavelengths of visible light incident normal to the surface of the liquid, you observe very strong reflection for green light (λ = 510...
  31. D

    Where can I get some hot mirror (near) infrared mirror) film

    I searched for "hot mirror film" on alibaba and ebay with no luck. Only seller I found was selling such films meant for car windows. For that reason it was too thick and a bit expensive because too big. I got one but yeah, it's too thick. I figured I would find few Alibaba sellers for glasses...
  32. A

    Thin film intereference

    Homework Statement [/B] Scientists are testing a transparent material whose index of refraction for visible light varies with wavelength as n = 30.0 nm^(1/2)/λ^(1/2), where λ is in nm. A 310-nm-thick coating is placed on glass (n = 1.50) what visible wavelengths will the reflected light have...
  33. Paddyster

    How to create diffraction gratings from negative film

    Hi, I recently tried to create diffraction gratings using the negative film of a disposable camera. I designed them so the 'slits' were black and the rest was white so on the negative film the slits would be transparent and the rest would be opaque. It didn't work however. Does anybody have any...
  34. M

    Metal thin film adhesion, Au-Si deposition

    What protocol should I use to get a good stable 100nm Au adhesion onto a Si substrate using electron beam evaporation? I've heard talk of primer layers of either Cr or Ti at around 5nm thickness, as the typical way to do it. Which material should I choose? What the advantages or disadvantages...
  35. K

    Transparent conductor on transparent plastic film?

    Need two transparent conductors in an arrangment like this on a transparent plastic film. Such as ITO on PET. But it doesn't have to be ITO necessarily. There are going to be much more fingers and size of the lanes and their gaps are going to be sub milimeter, so hand drawing is out of the...
  36. K

    PDLC film or glass for optical shutters or shutter glasses

    A PDLC film or glass also known as "smart glass" is a transparent film or glass with liquid PDLC crystal inside which, when electrical field is generated, can act as an optical shutter. Unlike the traditional LCD shutter it 1) doesn't block light but scatters it 2) it makes no use of polarizers...
  37. A

    Newton's Rings and Thin Film Interference

    Homework Statement A total of 31 bright and 31 dark Newton's rings (not counting the dark spot at the center) are observed when 550-nm light falls normally on a planoconvex lens resting on a flat glass surface. How much thicker is the center than the edges? Homework Equations 2t = mλ 2t =...
  38. T

    Thin film interference on water

    Homework Statement An oil tanker spills a large amount of oil (n =1.47) into the sea (n = 1.33). a) If you look down onto the oil spill from overhead, what predominant wavelength of light do you see at a point where the oil is 390 nm thick? What color is the light? b) In the water transmitted...
  39. T

    Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy Thin Film Thickness

    I had an experiment involving FTIR (incoherent light source) to measure the thickness of plastic film through making use of interference fringes. I don't understand how the interference fringes can occur over a frequency range (in term of wave number ν for FTIR) and also how it can occur at the...
  40. LippyKa16

    Calculating Minimum Thickness of a Thin Film Using Interference Patterns

    Homework Statement A researcher measures the thickness of a layer of benzene (n = 1.50) floating on water by shining monochromatic light onto the film and varying the wavelength of the light. She finds that light of wavelength 565nm is reflected most strongly from the film. What does she...
  41. M

    Thin film interference—find the height of a wedge

    Homework Statement Two rectangular pieces of plane glass 11.0 cm long are laid upon the other on a table. At one end they are in contact, at the other end they are separated by a piece of paper, which forms a thin wedge of air. The plates are illuminated at normal incidence by 510 nm light...
  42. N

    Searching for Thermally Conductive Fabric / Film

    I'm looking for a fabric or film with thicknesses maybe in the range of 1-10 mil that can withstand a high temperature (ideally up to 450 - 500 F) and has good thermal conductivity characteristics through the thickness of the material.
  43. M

    What is the max magnification of 0.5mm film lens.

    What is the max magnification of 0.5mm film lens. Film is just on the top of flat object(Paper, Display, Picture, etc). If Fresnel lens is made on top of the film, Can I magnify the object? Thank you.
  44. L

    Methods for Damping High Frequencies in FEM Thin Film Model?

    I would like to simulate the vibrations of a thin film polymer in vacuum using nonlinear analysis. For this purpose I am using an FEM program I have written in MATLAB. I do not have any data regarding damping in the structure, so I am estimating the damping using stiffness-proportional-only...
  45. K

    Surface Tension of a soap film

    I don't understand, when calculating the force to change the surface area of the film, how the length obtained in the diagram below is "l" (lowercase L). I understand that there are two surfaces to overcome, hence the factor of 2, but why is the length perpedicular to the force used and not...
  46. C

    What is a good film that has examples of the Bernoulli Principle

    We have to find a movie that has 3 good examples and 3 bad examples of this principle. We were thinking about doing Finding Nemo however we can't think of 3 bad ones and we are worried that our physics teacher might reject it since it is not a "serious" movie. Any ideas?
  47. ikihi

    Thin film constructive interference

    Homework Statement Three experiments involving a thin film (in air) sandwiched between two layers of air are shown with nair < nfilm. If t denotes the film thickness and λ denotes the wavelength of the light in the film, which experiments will produce constrictive interference as seen by the...
  48. W

    Understanding Fluid Flow and Stress in Two Dimensions with LaTex Tutorial

    Homework Statement Homework Equations 0=viscous+gravitational+pressure I saw in the solutions that pressure=0 in this case, but why? I also knew that : accumulation= flow in - flow out+generation, why not use this one? The Attempt at a Solution (their solution) We are interested in...
  49. P

    Reflexes like in the film wanted?

    Is it possible to have reaction time like Weasley in the film Wanted? They state that people like him have quick reaction time because they can handle huge amount of adrenaline... so with a strong heart, is it possible to react that fast using the adrenaline? (Video reference removed by mentor)