What is Nuclear chemistry: Definition and 20 Discussions

Nuclear chemistry is the sub-field of chemistry dealing with radioactivity, nuclear processes, and transformations in the nuclei of atoms, such as nuclear transmutation and nuclear properties.
It is the chemistry of radioactive elements such as the actinides, radium and radon together with the chemistry associated with equipment (such as nuclear reactors) which are designed to perform nuclear processes. This includes the corrosion of surfaces and the behavior under conditions of both normal and abnormal operation (such as during an accident). An important area is the behavior of objects and materials after being placed into a nuclear waste storage or disposal site.
It includes the study of the chemical effects resulting from the absorption of radiation within living animals, plants, and other materials. The radiation chemistry controls much of radiation biology as radiation has an effect on living things at the molecular scale, to explain it another way the radiation alters the biochemicals within an organism, the alteration of the bio-molecules then changes the chemistry which occurs within the organism, this change in chemistry then can lead to a biological outcome. As a result, nuclear chemistry greatly assists the understanding of medical treatments (such as cancer radiotherapy) and has enabled these treatments to improve.
It includes the study of the production and use of radioactive sources for a range of processes. These include radiotherapy in medical applications; the use of radioactive tracers within industry, science and the environment; and the use of radiation to modify materials such as polymers.It also includes the study and use of nuclear processes in non-radioactive areas of human activity. For instance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is commonly used in synthetic organic chemistry and physical chemistry and for structural analysis in macro-molecular chemistry.
Nuclear chemistry concerned with the study of nucleus, changes occurring in the nucleus, properties of the particles present in the nucleus and the emission or absorption of radiation from the nucleus.

View More On Wikipedia.org
  1. H

    I Nuclear spin coupling in molecular (protium) hydrogen

    I'm not sure where this post belongs--here, or nuclear chemistry, quantum mechanics, NMR spectroscopy, etc. Moderator--please feel free to move it to a better location. I'm wondering if a container of liquid hydrogen subjected to a strong magnetic field would have both nuclei of each atom...
  2. HastiM

    Can C14 Atoms Be Detected Using NMR Despite 0% Natural Abundance?

    Homework Statement We want to image carbon C14 atoms using NMR with magnetic field of B=3 T. What frequency do we need to use? Use the following facts: C14 has 0% abundance, nuclear spin of I=3 and g=0.273 Homework Equations The frequency is given by f= (2⋅I) ⋅ (g ⋅B ⋅μ)/(1836 ⋅h), where μ...
  3. A

    Bombardment of Nitrogen-14 with an alpha particle

    Question: When alpha particles, having kinetic energy 3.0000 MeV bombard nitrogen-14 nuclei, oxygen-17 forms and the reaction releases a proton. Calculate the kinetic energy shared by the reaction products. Nitrogen-14 = 14.000307 amu Helium-4 = 4.00260 amu Oxygen-17 = 16.99913 amu Proton =...
  4. S

    Fukushima Is it safe to live 100 km from Fukushima for short time?

    I would like to know if is safe to stay in Sendai (less than 100 km from Fukushima). I have read different information in internet but I think is better to ask a expert, I am not sure about the radiation since it seems is not stable, it could be between 0.4-0.6 msv if I understood, is that ok to...
  5. N

    Shouldn't Carbon-14 concentration be the same everywhere?

    Why is it that newer organic matter has more carbon-14 than older organic matter? Isn't carbon constantly recycled, because of the carbon cycle? So C14-depleted carbon from old matter would enter the atmosphere, then be breathed in by new organic matter. The new matter would start off with...
  6. N

    Energy Change Nuclear Chemistry

    Homework Statement Determine the energy change, delta E, in J when 500 g of 229/90 Th undergoes the following nuclear reaction: 229/90 Th --> 225/88 Ra + 4/2 He The nuclear masses in amu or g/mol are: Th-229: 229.03175; Ra-225: 225.02360; He-4: 4.00260 Homework Equations delta E = deltam(c)^2...
  7. D

    A How to calculate the threshold energy of (n,n') reactions?

    Let us take the example of 89Y(n,n')89mY reaction. In the calculation of Q value we require mass of reactants and products. Both are same here. Then how to calculate the Q value of this reaction or how to calculate the threshold energy of this type of reactions?
  8. J

    Partial Half-Life of 22Na: Ec & β+ Emission

    Homework Statement What are the partial half of 22Na for decay by a)Ec b) β+ emission Homework Equations λ=ln2/T1/2 The Attempt at a Solution this what I do T1/2 =2.602 Yr λ=ln2/2.602 λ=0.266 yr-1what is the difference between a)Ec b) β+ emission there is no Percentage of each decay type.!
  9. J

    What is the mass of the activity?

    Homework Statement what is the mass in g of the activity? (a)1μCi 241Am Homework Equations A = λN λ = ln2 / T1/2 The Attempt at a Solution A = λN 1μCi = λN N=1μCi/λ N = ( x /241 mol) × (6.022 × 1023 nuclei mol-1 ) 1μCi/λ=( x /241 mol) × (6.022 × 1023 nuclei mol-1 ) X=1μCi (241)/λ(6.022×...
  10. J

    What is the weight of a radioactive sample with a given half-life and activity?

    Homework Statement If a radioactive sample of 59Fe (t1/2= 44.496 d) has an activity of 1000 disintegrations per minute, what weight of 59Fe is present? Homework Equations
  11. patrickbotros

    Why doesn't an alpha particle have a +2 charge in alpha decay?

    The following equation is written in my book: 204Pb→4α + 200Hg If an alpha particle is a helium nucleus, why doesn't it have a +2 charge and why doesn't Hg have a -2 charge? Did my text just omit the charge?
  12. Q

    Nuclear Chemistry (determing masses from radioactive decay)

    I have been trying for quite some while but I can't seem to get this problem off the ground.1)Suppose that you hydrolyze 4.644 grams of a protein to form a mixture of different amino acids. To this is added a 2.80 mg sample of 14C-labeled threonine (one of the amino acids present).The activity...
  13. D

    Nuclear Chemistry - Solving U-238 Activity & Decay Energy

    Homework Statement Consider 238U which undergoes natural radioactive decay to form thorium-234 a)What is the activity, in curies, of 1.00 mg of U-238? B)What is the energy in kilojoules associated wuth the decay of 1.00 mg of 238U? The nuvlear mass of throium-235 is 234.0437 Homework...
  14. R

    Nuclear Chemistry: Kinetics of Radioactive Decay and Radioactive Dating

    Homework Statement A laboratory rat is exposed to an alpha-radiation source whose activity is 11.3 mCi. What is the activity of the radiation in disintegrations per second? in becquerels? The rat has a mass of 315 grams and is exposed to the radiation for 12.3 seconds, absorbing 39% of...
  15. B

    Nuclear chemistry reaction question

    Homework Statement Complete and balance the following nuclear equations by supplying the missing particle.^{98}_{42}Mo+^{2}_{1}H\rightarrow^{1}_{0}n+?Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution I would think that the answer would just be ^{99}_{43}Te. It seems correct, since everything adds...
  16. S

    Nuclear Chemistry: Explaining Binding Energy and Mass Defect

    I'm doing a nuclear chemistry project right now, and I am able to solve all of the problems involving binding energy and mass defect, however I have one conceptual question. Why is it that when the nucleons combine with each other they let off energy? At first I thought it was their kinetic...
  17. L

    Nuclear chemistry: BY and FROM

    Is there a difference between: alpha emission from Plutonium-242 to alpha emission by Plutonium-242?
  18. S

    Nuclear Chemistry: Solving Ionizing Intensity

    Homework Statement If X radiation ionizes 26.2 X 1012 atoms per cemtimeter cubed, what is the ionizing intensity of the radiation measured in roentgens ? Homework Equations The Attempt at a Solution Help, I have never seen atoms per centimeter cubed before, I know that 1...
  19. M

    Nuclear Chemistry: Iron Nucleus & Energy Needs

    Is it true an Iron nucleus requires the most amount of energy to hold it together? I would have thought it would be the larger the nucleus the more energy is required to hold it toghether.
  20. Q

    Why is mass not conserved in special relativity?

    Hi everyone, A couple days ago in chemistry we talked about nuclear chemistry. This of course is about halflifes, different types of decay, ect. I was surprised when I learned that an electron and a proton combine to create a neutron (electron capture). Now a couple days ago I was...